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The Citadelle of Quebec is a National Historic Site of Canada,[1] and also forms part of the Fortifications of Québec National Historic Site of Canada.[1] The fortress is located within the "Historic District of Old Québec", which was designated a World Heritage Site in 1985.[2]

This is a list of all forts in New France built by the French government or French Chartered companies in what later became Canada, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, and the United States. They range from large European-type citadels like at Quebec City to tiny fur-trade posts.[3]


The French forts in Canada were located west from Alberta to the Atlantic Ocean and as far north as James Bay. Built between the 1640s and the 1750s, a few were captured from rival British fur trading companies like Hudson's Bay Company. The forts were located on waterways to provide transport of fur back east to Montreal or Quebec City. A few have survived or been re-built, but most are ruins or simply disappeared after abandonment.

Name[4][5] Date constructed ca. Location Province Image
Fort Anne 1636 Annapolis Royal  Nova Scotia FortAnne ViewOfBasin 2009.jpg
Fort Bas de la Rivière 1750 Fort Alexander  Manitoba
Fort Boishébert 1749 Grand Bay  New Brunswick Nerepis Fort Plaque.jpg
Fort Beauséjour 1751 Aulac  New Brunswick FortBeausejour1750McCordMuseum.jpg
Fort Bourbon (West) 1741 Grand Rapids  Manitoba
Fort Bourbon (North) 1697 York Factory  Manitoba HS34 1.jpg
Fort Charlesbourg Royal 1541-1543 Cap-Rouge  Quebec Charlesbourg-Royal.JPG
Fort Chambly 1665 Chambly  Quebec Fort Chambly 2.jpg
Citadelle of Quebec 1693 Quebec City  Quebec Citadelle Quebec.jpg
Citadelle of Montreal 1690-1821 Montreal  Quebec Musee Stewart 08.jpg
Fort Dauphin 1741 Winnipegosis  Manitoba
Fort de la Corne 1753 Fort à la Corne Provincial Forest  Saskatchewan Fort de La Corne.jpg
Fort de la Montagne 1685 Montreal  Quebec Fort de la Montagne2.JPG
Fort du Moulin 1749 Trois-Rivière  Quebec 100px
Fort du Sault Saint-Louis 1725 Kahnawake  Quebec
Fort Espérance 1787 near Rocanville  Saskatchewan Fort Esperance.jpg
Fort Frontenac 1673 Kingston  Ontario Fort Frontenac.JPG
Fort Gaspareaux 1751 Port Elgin  New Brunswick
Fort Kaministiquia 1717 Thunder Bay  Ontario
Fort Lachine 1669-1695 Lachine  Quebec Fort Lachine.jpg
Fort Laprairie 1687 Laprairie  Quebec
Fort La Reine 1738 Portage la Prairie  Manitoba 100px
Fort Le Jonquiere 1751 Saskatchewan River Forks (near Prince Albert)  Saskatchewan 100px
Fortress of Louisbourg 1719 Louisbourg  Nova Scotia Louisbourg.jpg
Fort Maurepas 1733 Selkirk  Manitoba
Fort Menagoueche 1751 Saint John  New Brunswick
Fort Paskoya 1741 The Pas (on Cedar Lake)  Manitoba
Fort Pointe-aux-Trembles 1670 Pointe-aux-Trembles  Quebec Fort de Pointe-aux-Trembles.jpg
Fort Richelieu 1641 near Sorel-Tracy  Quebec Fort Richelieu 1695.jpg
Fort Rouge 1738 Winnipeg  Manitoba 100px
Fort Rouillé 1750 Toronto  Ontario Fort Rouille Monument - CNE Grounds, Toronto (September 1 2005).jpg
Fort Royal (Plaisance) 1687 Placentia  Newfoundland and Labrador
Fort Sainte Anne (Hudson Bay) 1670 (1686) Fort Albany  Ontario Fort Albany, Ontario, 1886.jpg
Fort Sainte Anne 1629-1641 Englishtown  Nova Scotia
Fort Saint Jacques 1686-1693 and 1697-1713 Waskaganish, Quebec (Fort Rupert)  Quebec
Fort Saint-Jean 1746 Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu  Quebec Fort Saint-Jean on Richelieu River 1750s.png
Fort St. Louis 1620-1834 Quebec  Quebec 100px
Fort St. Louis 1670s (1686) Moose Factory  Ontario
Fort St. Pierre 1731 Fort Frances (near mouth of the Rainy River meets with Rainy Lake)  Ontario Fort St Pierre.jpg
Fort Sainte Thérèse 1665 Carignan  Quebec Fort Sainte-Thérèse.JPG
Fort Senneville 1671 Montreal  Quebec
Fort Témiscamingue 1679 Ville Marie  Quebec Fort Temiscamingue 1.jpg
Fort Ville-Marie 1642-1688 Montreal  Quebec Fort Montreal 1645.jpg
Port-la-Joye 1720 Charlottetown  Prince Edward Island Fort Amherst photograph.jpg

Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Name Date constructed ca. Location Commune
Pointe aux Cannon Battery[6] 1690 Saint Pierre Island Saint-Pierre

United States

The French forts built in what is now the United States, were part of a series of forts built from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi delta; as far West as the Dakotas, and as far East as Maine.

Name[4][5] Date constructed ca. Location State Image
Fort des Alibamons 1717 Wetumpka Alabama Fort Toulouse.jpg
Fort Assumption 1739 Memphis Tennessee
Fort Beauharnois 1727 Goodhue County Minnesota Fort Beauharnois.JPG
Fort de Buade 1683 St. Ignace Michigan
Fort Carillon 1754-57 Ticonderoga New York Fort Carillon 1.jpg
Fort Caroline 1564 Jacksonville Florida
Fort de Cavagnal 1744 Missouri River between Kansas City and Fort Leavenworth Kansas Fort de Cavagnial.jpg
Fort Charles 1562 Beaufort South Carolina
Fort de Chartres 1720 Randolph County Illinois
Fort Condé 1723 Mobile Alabama Mobile-Alabama-Fort-Conde-fortress-replica-art.jpg
Fort Conti 1679 Youngstown New York
Fort Crèvecoeur 1680 Creve Coeur Illinois
Fort Denonville 1687 Youngstown New York Fort Denonville.JPG
Fort Ponchartrain du Détroit 1701 Detroit Michigan Siege of Fort Detroit.jpg
Fort Duquesne 1754 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania Fortduquesne.jpg
Fort de La Présentation 1671 Ogdensburg New York Fort de La Présentation.jpg
Fort de la Rivière au Bœuf 1753 Waterford Pennsylvania
Fort Lévis 1759 Ogdensburg New York Fort Lévis.jpg
Fort Louis de la Louisiane 1702 Le Moyne Alabama Fort Louis de la Mobile.jpg
Fort Machault 1754 Franklin Pennsylvania
Fort Massac 1757 Massac County Illinois
Fort Maurepas 1699 Ocean Springs Mississippi Fort Maurepas.jpg
Fort Miami (Indiana) 1715 Fort Wayne Indiana
Fort Miami (Michigan) 1679 St. Joseph Michigan 100px
Fort Michilimackinac 1715 Mackinaw City Michigan
Fort des Natchitoches 1714 Natchitoches Louisiana
Fort Niagara 1678 Youngstown New York French castle at Fort Niagara 2.JPG
Fort Orleans 1723 Brunswick Missouri 100px
Fort Ouiatenon 1717 West Lafayette Indiana
Fort Pentagouet 1638 Castine Maine Fort de Pentagouet en 1670.jpg
Fort Pimiteoui 1691 Peoria Illinois
Fort Presque Isle 1753 Erie Pennsylvania
Fort Prudhomme 1682 Memphis Tennessee 100px
Fort Rosalie 1716 Natchez Mississippi
Fort Ste. Anne 1666 Isle La Motte Vermont
Fort St. Charles 1732 Lake of the Woods County Minnesota
Fort St. Frédéric 1729-1757 Crown Point New York Fort Saint-Frédéric 1.jpg
Fort St. Joseph 1691 Niles Michigan
Fort Saint Louis 1685 Inez Texas Fort Saint Louis by Alonso DeLeon.JPG
Fort St. Louis-Le Rocher 1682 North Utica Illinois
Fort Sandoské 1745 Sandusky Bay Ohio Fort Sanduské.JPG
Fort de Tombecbé 1735-37 Epes Alabama
Fort Toulouse 1717 Wetumpka Alabama Fort Toulouse.jpg
Fort Vincennes 1731-32 Vincennes Indiana Fort Vincennes.jpg

See also

  • Military of New France
  • List of Hudson's Bay Company trading posts
  • List of North American cities by year of foundation
Canada related
United States related


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