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This article is about Latvian military formations in World War I and Russian Civil War. For Red Army military formations in World War II see Latvian Riflemen Soviet Divisions.

Latviešu strēlnieku bataljoni/pulki/divīzija
Latvian Riflemen Battalions/Regiments/Division
Latvian Riflemen uniform in Riga.JPG
1916 Uniform of Latvian Riflemen
Active July 1915 - 1917
Country  Russian Empire
Branch Imperial Russian Army
Type Infantry
Size ~ 40 000
Part of Russian 12th Army
Engagements Defence of Nāves sala (Death island) (1916)
Christmas Battles (1916-1917)
Battle of Jugla (1917)
Augusts Ernests Misiņš
Andrejs Auzāns
Jānis Francis
Frīdrihs Briedis
Jukums Vācietis
Mārtiņš Peniķis
Latviešu strēlnieku padomju divīzija
Latvian Riflemen Soviet Division
Active 13 April 1918 - 1920
Country  Latvian SSR
 Russian SFSR
Branch Red Army
Motto(s) Visu zemju proletārieši, savienojieties!
("Proletarians of all countries, unite!")
March The Internationale
Engagements Latvia, Estonia, Daugavpils, Oryol, Yevpatoria
Battle honours Honorable Red Flag of VTsIK
Jukums Vācietis

Latvian riflemen (Latvian language: Latviešu strēlnieki , Russian: Латышские стрелки) were originally a military formation of the Imperial Russian Army assembled starting 1915 in Latvia in order to defend Baltic territories against Germans in World War I. Initially the battalions were formed by volunteers, and from 1916 by conscription among the Latvian population. A total of about 40,000 troops were drafted into the Latvian Riflemen Division.


Towards the end of the 19th century, Riga, the capital of Latvia, became one of the most industrialised cities in the Russian Empire. Around 800,000 industrial workers, half of all those in the Baltic provinces, worked there. The Latvian Social Democratic Workers' Party (LSDRP) was well organised and its leading elements were increasingly sympathetic to the Bolsheviks by the time of the 1905 Revolution. When punitive expeditions were mounted by the state following this, armed resistance groups - often affiliated to the LSDRP - were set up to conduct guerilla warfare against the Tsarist regime. Many of these seasoned fighters were subsequently recruited into the Latvian Rifles. At the outbreak of war Indriķis Lediņš, the Latvian chief of police in Vladivostok, had called for the establishment of Latvian Cavalry units.


By April 1915, when the German Army was advancing into Latvian territory, some prominent Latvians, led by Jānis Goldmanis used their position in the Duma to call on the Tsar to establish all-Latvian battalions. As Germany was advancing into Latvia, they argued, such units would be particularly effective. Latvians knew the area and had high morale because despite the policy of Russification, Latvian nationalist sentiments were more anti-German.[1] At Jelgava two battalions of the Latvian Home Guard had already held back the German advance guard.

Following increasing German advances, the Russian Stavka approved the measure and on 19 July 1915 the Tsar approved the formation of the Latvian Rifles. On the same day Latvian deputies Jānis Goldmanis and Jānis Zālītis published a patriotic appeal Pulcējaties zem latvju karogiem ("Gather under Latvian flags") in Riga. First volunteers started to apply on August 12 at Riga. It was planned to form two battalions but volunteers were so many that actually three battalions were formed.

Departure of the first Latvian volunteers from Riga to training camp transformed to a wide national demonstration, because those were the first Latvian military units with Latvian commanders ever formed. The first battalions consisted mainly from volunteers, especially refugees from Courland and workers from the factories evacuated to inner Russia from Riga. Later a number of Latvians from other Russian units joined or were transferred to the Latvian Rifles.

World War I

From 1915 to 1917, the Latvian Riflemen fought in the Russian army against the Germans in positions along the Daugava river. In 1916 Latvian battalions were transformed to regiments as conscription started among the local population. Also many new riflemen units were formed. In total eight combat an one reserve regiment were formed. In December 1916 and January 1917, the Latvian riflemen suffered heavy casualties in the month-long Christmas Battles, which began with a surprise attack on German positions during Christmas. Suffering heavy casualties, Latvian riflemen managed to break the German line of defence but the effort was wasted as the attack was not followed through. The Russian Army lost over 26,000 soldiers in the failed attack. The casualties included 9,000 Latvian riflemen, about a third of the total number at that time. The heavy casualties resulted in a strong resentment against the Russian generals and the Tsar among the riflemen. This resentment led to an increased support for the Bolsheviks, who were advocating an end to the war.

Latvian volunteers from 3rd. Kurzeme rifleman battalion (1915)

Latvian Rifleman in the trenches during Christmas Battles

Structure of the United Latvian Riflemen division. Formed in 1917.

1. Latvian Riflemen brigade

  • 1. Daugavgrīva Latvian Riflemen Regiment
  • 2. Riga Latvian Riflemen Regiment
  • 3. Kurzeme Latvian Riflemen Regiment
  • 4. Vidzeme Latvian Riflemen Regiment

2. Latvian Riflemen brigade'

  • 5. Zemgale Latvian Riflemen Regiment
  • 6. Tukums Latvian Riflemen Regiment
  • 7. Bauska Latvian Riflemen Regiment
  • 8. Valmiera Latvian Riflemen Regiment

Red Latvian Riflemen

Soviet era monument for the Latvian Riflemen in Riga, Latvia.

In May 1917 the Latvian Regiments transferred their loyalty to the Bolsheviks. They became known as Red Latvian Riflemen (Latvian language: Latviešu sarkanie strēlnieki , Russian: красные латышские стрелки) and actively participated in the Russian Civil War. The Riflemen took an active part in the suppression of anti-Bolshevik uprisings in Moscow and Yaroslavl in 1918. They fought against Estonia, Denikin, Yudenich, and Wrangel. After victory in Oryol-Kromy operation (ru:Орловско-Кромское сражение) against Denikin in October 1919 division of Latvian Riflemen received the highest military recognition of that time: the Honorable Red Flag of VTsIK. Jukums Vācietis, formerly a colonel in the Latvian Rifles became the first commander-in-chief of the Red Army.

The Latvian Red Riflemen were instrumental in the attempt to establish Soviet rule in Latvia in 1919. They suffered great losses of personnel due to the decreasing popularity of Bolshevik ideas among the Latvian Riflemen and Latvians generally, and the majority were re-deployed to other fronts of the Russian Civil War. The remaining forces of the Red Army in Latvia were defeated by Baltic German volunteers and newly formed Latvian units initially under Colonel Kalpaks and later under Colonel Jānis Balodis, who were loyal to the Latvian Republic in western Latvia; by the Estonian Army including the North Latvian Brigade, and finally by a joint campaign of the Polish and new Latvian army in Latgale, south-eastern Latvia.

Following the 1920 peace treaty between Latvia and Bolshevist Russia, 11,395 former Red Riflemen returned to Latvia.[citation needed]

Other former Riflemen remained in Soviet Russia and rose to leadership positions in the Red Army, Bolshevik party, and Cheka. Many, however, were later executed or imprisoned (often dying in GULag camps) during the Great Purges, when most "old guard" Bolsheviks and high-ranking military and intelligence officers (as well as many intellectuals) were persecuted by Stalin as potential rivals or traitors. When the USSR occupied Latvia in 1940, many of the surviving Red Riflemen returned to Latvia.

It should be noted that the most famous pre-World War II Soviet Communist leaders from Latvia were not from the Red Riflemen: Martin Latsis, Yakov Peters, Arvīds Pelše, Jānis Bērziņš, Yan Rudzutak, Pēteris Stučka, Robert Eikhe. All of them, except for Stučka (who died in 1932) and Pelše, perished in the Great Purges of 1937–1940.

White Latvian Riflemen

In 1917, a smaller number of Latvian Riflemen (mainly officers) did not side with the Bolsheviks. Some were very active (Kārlis Goppers, Frīdrichs Briedis, etc.) in trying to prevent Bolshevik ideas from spreading among the Latvian soldiers, but the physical and moral exhaustion after the bloody Christmas and January battles which were fruitful ground for bolshevik ideology. Opponents left, or were forced to leave, military service or joined the White forces. During the last phase of the Civil War, two Latvian units were created in the Urals and Far East of Russia (Troitsk Battalion and Imanta Regiment), but they did not take part in significant military action, and were sent to Latvia, by then already an independent nation.

Latvian Rifleman in art and popular culture

White Crosses (1916) by Jāzeps Grosvalds

Latvian Riflemen has been long lasting source of inspiration in Latvian art. Many writers, poets and painters has inspired from Latvian rifles and their battles. Most notable works are:

  • Collection of epic poetry about Latvian Riflemen and their battles in Latvia and Russia Mūžības skartie (Affected by eternity) by poet Aleksandrs Čaks.
  • Historical novel Dvēseļu putenis (Blizzard of Souls) by writer Aleksandrs Grīns, himself a former riflemen. Main pratagonist of the novel is young Latvian schoolboy who enlists in Latvian rifle units.
  • Series of paintings (Latvian Riflemen 1916-1917 and Refugees 1915-1917) by Latvian painter Jāzeps Grosvalds who also has served in Latvian Riflemen units.

Latvian pagan metal band Skyforger has the album Latviešu strēlnieki (Latvian Riflemen). It is dedicated to Latvian Riflemen and their battles in the First World War.

See also

External Sources



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