Military Wiki
Las Cuevas War
Texas Rangers
DateNovember 1875
LocationTamaulipas, Mexico
Texas, United States
Result Draw, cattle returned to Texas.
 United States Mexican militia
Commanders and leaders
United States Leander McNelly Juan Flores Salinas
unknown ~400 irregular militia
Casualties and losses
unknown ~80 killed

The Las Cuevas War[1] was a brief armed conflict fought mainly between a force of Texas Rangers, commanded by Captain Leander McNelly, and an irregular force of Mexican militia. It took place in November 1875, in and around Las Cuevas, Tamaulipas. The Texans crossed the Rio Grande into Mexican territory with the purpose of returning stolen cattle to the American side of the river but they were drawn into a battle with local militia forces. When the fighting was over the Mexicans returned the cattle to the Texans.[2]


Question book-new.svg

This article does not contain any citations or references. Please improve this article by adding a reference. For information about how to add references, see Template:Citation.


Captain Leander McNelly in 1875.

McNelly and his rangers entered Mexico November 20. Under cover of brush and scrub oak, they made their way on foot to General Juan Flores Salinas' stronghold at the Rincon de Cucharras outpost of the Las Cuevas ranch. The ensuing shoot-out pitted rangers against an estimated four hundred of Salinas' men. Totally outnumbered and fearing the mounted Mexicans would surround his men, McNelly ordered his men to pull back to the river to make a stand. At the river, about half the United States Army 24th Infantry and the 8th Cavalry, under Lieutenant Colonel James F. Randlett, had lined up on the Texas side. In the melee that followed, with the aid of the army firing a Gatling gun on the Mexicans, General Juan Salinas, Alcalde of Camargo, and eighty of his "banditos" died on the riverbank. The fighting wasn’t over. It was a Mexican standoff with the militia retreating to regroup after their leader’s death, and McNelly refusing to back down from his demands on the return of the stolen cattle. Later that afternoon, Major A. J. Alexander from Fort Ringgold arrived with a message from Colonel Potter at Fort Brown, located on the Rio Grande at Brownsville:

"Advise Captain McNelly to return at once to this side of the river. Inform him that you are directed not to support him in any way while he remains on Mexican territory. If McNelly is attacked by Mexican forces on Mexican soil, do not render him any assistance. Let me know if McNelly acts on this advice." McNelly carefully read the telegram and then issued four terse words. "The answer is no."

At sundown, another message arrived:

"Major Alexander, commanding: Secretary of War [William W.] Belknap orders you to demand McNelly return at once to Texas. Do not support him in any manner. Inform the Secretary if McNelly acts on these orders and returns to Texas. Signed, Colonel Potter."

In less than a minute, Captain McNelly penned his now famous reply:

"Near Las Cuevas, Mexico, Nov. 20 1875. I shall remain in Mexico with my rangers and cross back at my discretion. Give my compliments to the Secretary of War and tell him and his United States soldiers to go to hell. Signed, Lee H. McNelly, commanding."

After a rested night’s sleep, Captain McNelly moved his men directly opposite Camargo on the Texas side of the river. It was now Sunday, and the stolen cattle had been moved and penned in a corral, but still on the Mexican side of the border and under guard by plenty of armed horsemen riding herd. Diego Garcia, a Camargo official next in charge to the dead alcade, promised to move the cattle across by 3:00 pm. McNelly, however, was too smart to trust the Mexicans. He smelled a trap, and in figuring out how to handle it, he pulled his men to Rio Grande City, where they relaxed while he made his plans. At 3:00 pm, he made his move. Accounts differ but McNelly returned to the ferry landing, took sixteen rangers, not including himself, and crossed the river in a rowboat in another invasion of Mexico. He also took along five horses. The "Death Squad," as they have come to be known, were composed of Captain McNelly, Lieutenant Thomas Robinson, Lieutenant Jesse Lee Hall, alias Frank Bones, Sergeant George A. Hall, Sergeant John Barclay Armstrong, Sergeant R. P. Orrell, Corporal William L. Rudd, and Rangers Lincoln Rogers Dunnison, Randolph D. Scipio, Robert H. Pitts, William Crump Callicott, Thomas McGovern, Horace G. Mabin, Thomas Sullivan acting as interpreter, George Durham, and Jesus Sandoval, also an interpreter. James R. Wofford is listed in one account as also being along. It is known for certain that the five mounted men were Robinson, Sandoval, Hall, Armstrong, and Orrell.

The squad marched up the riverbank to the customs house, demanded the cattle, and when the Mexican captain stalled by politely saying they didn’t do business on Sunday, the Texans promptly took the Mexican captain prisoner. McNelly then hauled the prisoner to the Texas side and told the captured Mexican leader to get the cattle started within the hour or he would die. Instead of 250 head returning to Texas, more than 400 were crossed back. Nearly every brand in the Nueces Strip was in the herd, from the King Ranch’s "Running W" up near Corpus Christi to Hale and Parker’s "Half-moon" brand over near Brownsville.

After the war, at the spot where Juan Salinas died, Mexico erected a stone marker reading:

"To citizen
Who fighting
Died for his country
November 19

See also


This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).