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Landwehr Corps
Landwehrkorps
Stab eines Generalkommandos.svg
Flag of the Staff of a Generalkommando (1871–1918)
Active 2 August 1914 - post November 1918
Country  German Empire
Type Corps
Size Approximately 38,000 (on formation)
Engagements World War I

The Landwehr Corps (German language: Landwehrkorps) was a corps level command of the German Army in World War I.

Formation

The Landwehr Corps was formed on the outbreak of the war in August 1914[1] as part of the mobilisation of the Army. It was initially commanded by General der Infanterie Remus von Woyrsch, recalled from retirement.[2] It was still in existence at the end of the war.

Structure on formation

On formation in August 1914, Landwehr Corps consisted of two divisions, made up of 3rd line units. Senior Landwehr Commander 3 was formed of units drawn from V Corps District (Province of Posen and Lower Silesia) and Senior Landwehr Commander 4 was formed of units drawn from VI Corps District (Province of Silesia, particularly Upper Silesia). It mobilised with 34 infantry battalions (considerably above the norm), just 4 machine gun platoons (8 machine guns), 9 cavalry squadrons, 4 field artillery batteries (24 guns) and 2 pioneer companies.

Corps Division Brigade Units
Landwehr Corps[3] Senior Landwehr Commander 3
(3rd Landwehr Division)
17th Landwehr Infantry Brigade 6th Landwehr Infantry Regiment
7th Landwehr Infantry Regiment
18th Landwehr Infantry Brigade 37th Landwehr Infantry Regiment
46th Landwehr Infantry Regiment
17th Ersatz Infantry Brigade[4] 17th Brigade Ersatz Battalion[5]
18th Brigade Ersatz Battalion[6]
19th Brigade Ersatz Battalion[7]
20th Brigade Ersatz Battalion[8]
77th Brigade Ersatz Battalion[9]
1st Landwehr Cavalry Regiment[10]
1st Landwehr Battery of V Corps
2nd Landwehr Battery of V Corps
Reserve Company, 5th Pioneer Battalion
1st Landwehr Divisional Pontoon Train
Reserve Telephone Section
Senior Landwehr Commander 4
(4th Landwehr Division)
22nd Landwehr Infantry Brigade 11th Landwehr Infantry Regiment
51st Landwehr Infantry Regiment
23rd Landwehr Infantry Brigade 22nd Landwehr Infantry Regiment
23rd Landwehr Infantry Regiment
21st Ersatz Infantry Brigade[11] 21st Brigade Ersatz Battalion[12]
22nd Brigade Ersatz Battalion[13]
23rd Brigade Ersatz Battalion[14]
24th Brigade Ersatz Battalion[15]
78th Brigade Ersatz Battalion[16]
2nd Landwehr Cavalry Regiment[17]
Ersatz Cavalry Regiment[18]
1st Landwehr Battery of VI Corps
2nd Landwehr Battery of VI Corps
Reserve Company, 6th Pioneer Battalion
2nd Landwehr Divisional Pontoon Train
Reserve Telephone Section
Corps Troops Landwehr Munitions Column Section[19]
4 Landwehr Telephone Columns
2 LoC[20] Motor Vehicle Columns
2 Landwehr Bakery Columns
2 Magazine Supply Parks[21]

Combat chronicle

On mobilisation, the Landwehr Corps was assigned to the 8th Army on the Eastern Front. Whilst the 8th Army was concentrated in East Prussia, the Landwehr Corps was detached in Upper Silesia. On 4 September 1914 it came under the command of 1st Austro-Hungarian Army.[22] Due to losses suffered by the 4th Landwehr Division in the Battle of Tarnawka (7–9 September 1914), the 11th and 51st Landwehr Infantry Regiments were reduced to a single battalion each; the 22nd and 23rd Landwehr Infantry Regiments were reduced to two battalions each.

On 14 September 1914, the Brigade Ersatz Battalions of the 21st Ersatz Infantry Brigade were dissolved

21st Brigade Ersatz Battalion absorbed into II Battalion, 51st Landwehr Infantry Regiment
22nd Brigade Ersatz Battalion absorbed into II Battalion, 11th Landwehr Infantry Regiment
23rd Brigade Ersatz Battalion absorbed into II Battalion, 51st Landwehr Infantry Regiment
24th Brigade Ersatz Battalion absorbed into II Battalion, 11th Landwehr Infantry Regiment
78th Brigade Ersatz Battalion absorbed into II Battalion, 78th Landwehr Infantry Regiment

On 25 September 1914, the Brigade Ersatz Battalions of the 17th Ersatz Infantry Brigade were likewise dissolved

17th Brigade Ersatz Battalion absorbed into III Battalion, 23rd Landwehr Infantry Regiment
18th Brigade Ersatz Battalion absorbed into III Battalion, 51st Landwehr Infantry Regiment
19th Brigade Ersatz Battalion absorbed into III Battalion, 22nd Landwehr Infantry Regiment
20th Brigade Ersatz Battalion absorbed into III Battalion, 22nd Landwehr Infantry Regiment
77th Brigade Ersatz Battalion absorbed into III Battalion, 11th Landwehr Infantry Regiment[23]

The Landwehr Corps joined 9th Army on 24 September 1914.[24]

Commanders

Landwehr Corps had the following commanders during its existence:[25]

From Rank Name
2 August 1914 General der Infanterie Remus von Woyrsch[26]
23 September 1916 General der Infanterie Günther Graf von Kirchbach[27]
23 April 1917 General der Infanterie Artur von Brietzke

von Woyrsch was assigned to concurrently command Armee-Abteilung Woyrsch from 3 November 1914. A deputy, Generalleutnant Götz Freiherr von König,[28] took command of Landwehr Corps on 3 December 1914.[29]

See also

References

  1. Cron 2002, p. 88
  2. The Prussian Machine Accessed: 23 March 2012
  3. Cron 2002, p. 325
  4. Cron 2002, p. 328 With 2 machine gun platoons (4 machine guns)
  5. Busche 1998, p. 76 Formed with 2 companies of 19th Infantry Regiment and 2 companies of 58th Infantry Regiment (17th Infantry Brigade, 9th Division, V Corps).
  6. Busche 1998, p. 76 Formed with 2 companies of 7th Grenadier Regiment and 2 companies of 154th Infantry Regiment (18th Infantry Brigade, 9th Division, V Corps).
  7. Busche 1998, p. 76 Formed with 2 companies of 6th Grenadier Regiment and 2 companies of 46th Infantry Regiment (19th Infantry Brigade, 10th Division, V Corps).
  8. Busche 1998, p. 76 Formed with 2 companies of 47th Infantry Regiment and 2 companies of 50th Infantry Regiment (20th Infantry Brigade, 10th Division, V Corps).
  9. Busche 1998, p. 78 Formed with 2 companies of 37th Fusilier Regiment and 2 companies of 155th Infantry Regiment (77th Infantry Brigade, 10th Division, V Corps).
  10. 1st, 2nd and 3rd Landwehr Cavalry squadrons of V Corps
  11. Cron 2002, p. 329 With 2 machine gun platoons (4 machine guns)
  12. Busche 1998, p. 77 Formed with 2 companies of 10th Grenadier Regiment and 2 companies of 38th Fusilier Regiment (21st Infantry Brigade, 11th Division, VI Corps).
  13. Busche 1998, p. 77 Formed with 2 companies of 11th Grenadier Regiment and 2 companies of 51st Infantry Regiment (22nd Infantry Brigade, 11th Division, VI Corps).
  14. Busche 1998, p. 77 Formed with 2 companies of 22nd Infantry Regiment and 2 companies of 156th Infantry Regiment (23rd Infantry Brigade, 12th Division, VI Corps).
  15. Busche 1998, p. 77 Formed with 2 companies of 23rd Infantry Regiment and 2 companies of 62nd Infantry Regiment (24th Infantry Brigade, 12th Division, VI Corps).
  16. Busche 1998, p. 78 Formed with 2 companies of 63rd Infantry Regiment and 2 companies of 157th Infantry Regiment (78th Infantry Brigade, 12th Division, VI Corps).
  17. 1st, 2nd and 3rd Landwehr Cavalry squadrons of VI Corps
  18. 3 squadrons
  19. 2 Infantry and 2 Artillery Munition Columns
  20. Lines of Communication
  21. supplied through 4 Lines of Communication Train Squadrons
  22. Cron 2002, p. 52
  23. Busche 1998, p. 131
  24. Cron 2002, p. 52
  25. German War History Accessed: 13 April 2012
  26. The Prussian Machine Accessed: 13 April 2012
  27. The Prussian Machine Accessed: 13 April 2012 Subsequently commander of Armee-Abteilung D
  28. The Prussian Machine Accessed: 13 April 2012
  29. Cron 2002, p. 400

Bibliography

  • Cron, Hermann (2002). Imperial German Army 1914-18: Organisation, Structure, Orders-of-Battle [first published: 1937]. Helion & Co. ISBN 1-874622-70-1. 
  • Ellis, John; Cox, Michael (1993). The World War I Databook. Aurum Press Ltd. ISBN 1-85410-766-6. 
  • Busche, Hartwig (1998) (in German). Formationsgeschichte der Deutschen Infanterie im Ersten Weltkrieg (1914 bis 1918). Institut für Preußische Historiographie. 
  • Histories of Two Hundred and Fifty-One Divisions of the German Army which Participated in the War (1914-1918), compiled from records of Intelligence section of the General Staff, American Expeditionary Forces, at General Headquarters, Chaumont, France 1919. The London Stamp Exchange Ltd (1989). 1920. ISBN 0-948130-87-3. 
  • The German Forces in the Field; 7th Revision, 11th November 1918; Compiled by the General Staff, War Office. Imperial War Museum, London and The Battery Press, Inc (1995). 1918. ISBN 1-870423-95-X. 


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