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A wall of Smolensk Kremlin in 1912.

Remains of the Kolomna Kremlin.

Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin.

The Izmaylovo Kremlin in eastern Moscow

A kremlin (Russian: кремль, romanized: kreml, lit.'ˈkrʲemlʲ', fortress; same root as in kremen (Russian: кремень, romanized: kremen, lit.'krʲɪˈmenʲ', flint)) is a major fortified central complex found in historic Russian cities. This word is often used to refer to the most famous one, the Moscow Kremlin, or metonymically to the government that is based there.

The short list of Russian cities with kremlins

Kremlins outside borders of modern Russia

After the disintegrations of the Kievan Rus, the Russian Empire and the USSR, some fortresses considered Kremlin-type, remained beyond the borders of modern Russia. Some are listed below:

  • Belz, Ukraine (only traces)
  • Kiev, Ukraine (reconstructed tower of the Golden Gate)
  • Putyvl, Ukraine
  • Novhorod-Siverskyi, Ukraine
  • Chernihiv, Ukraine (only traces)
  • Kamyanyets, Belarus (shafts and Belaya Vezha tower)
  • Belgorod Kievsky, Ukraine (now village Belgorodka)

Many Russian monasteries have been built in a fortress-like style similar to that of a kremlin. For a partial list, see Monasteries in Russia.

Further reading

  • Воронин Н. Н. Владимир, Боголюбово, Суздаль, Юрьев-Польской. М.: Искусство, 1967.
  • Кирьянов И. А. Старинные крепости Нижегородского Поволжья. Горький: Горьк. книжн. изд., 1961.
  • Косточкин В. В. Русское оборонное зодчество конца XIII — начала XVI веков. М.: Издательство Академии наук, 1962.
  • Крадин Н. П. Русское деревянное оборонное зодчество". М.: Искусство, 1988.
  • Раппопорт П. А. Древние русские крепости. М.: Наука, 1965.
  • Раппопорт П. А. Зодчество Древней Руси. Л.: Наука, 1986.
  • Раппопорт П. А. Строительное производство Древней Руси (X—XIII вв.). СПб: Наука, СПб, 1994.
  • Сурмина И. О. Самые знаменитые крепости России. М.: Вече, 2002.
  • Тихомиров М. Н. Древнерусские города. М.: Гос. изд. полит. лит-ры, 1956.
  • Яковлев В. В. Эволюция долговременной фортификации. М.: Воениздат, 1931.

See also

External links

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