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Kaplan MT / Harimau
Harimau-hitam-medium-tank.jpg
Harimau prototype during parade of 72nd Anniversary of Indonesian National Armed Forces
Type Medium Tank / Light Tank
Place of origin  Turkey
 Indonesia
Production history
Designer FNSS
PT Pindad
Designed 2015
Produced 2017–present
Number built 2 (prototype) + 1 test hull
Specifications
Weight 30–35 tonnes
Length 6.952 m (22.8 ft) hull, 9.105 m (29.9 ft) including the gun
Width 3.360 m (11 ft)
Height 2.456 m (8.06 ft) turret top
Crew 3 (commander, gunner, driver)

Armor STANAG 4569 level 4[1] Ballistic Hull[2]

STANAG 4569 Level 5 Modular Add-on Armour[1] V-hull underbelly[3]

Primary
armament
Cockerill 105 mm high-pressure rifled gun[4][5]
Secondary
armament
7.62 mm coaxial machine gun
Engine Caterpillar C13 diesel engine
711 hp
Power/weight 22.2 hp/t
Transmission Allison/Caterpillar X300 full automatic[3]
Suspension Torsion bar suspension
Speed 70 km/h (governed), 78 km/h (tested road speed)[6]

Kaplan MT / Harimau is a lightweight tank jointly developed by Turkish manufacturer FNSS and Indonesian manufacturer PT Pindad. The development program name for the tank is Modern Medium Weight Tank (MMWT). The tank itself is called Kaplan MT by Turkey and Harimau by Indonesia. The meaning of both Kaplan and Harimau is Tiger.

History

The governments of Indonesia and Turkey first agreed in May 2015 to jointly develop the MMWT for the Indonesian Army at a reported cost of 30 million US dollars.[7] The development phase of the program was expected to take up to 37 months, with the first prototype being built in Turkey, and the second in Indonesia.[8] The intellectual property of the design was agreed upon to be shared between the two governments.

On 1 November 2016, during the 2016 Indo Defence expo, the first model of the tank was unveiled, along with some technical specifications.[9] Most notably, the vehicles overall weight was reported to be around 35 tonnes, and the main armament would be provided by a Belgian-made turret developed by CMI Defence featuring a 105 mm rifled barrel, capable of firing a wide range of projectiles.

On 9 May 2017 at the IDEF 2017 expo, the first prototype of the tank was revealed. The tank can be fitted with either a Cockerill XC-8 105mm concept turret or Cockerill 3105 modular turret. Additionally, the tank utilizes modular armor, allowing for quick replacement upon damage.[10]

On 5 September 2018, the general manager of FNSS told Turkey's Anadolu Agency that the tank had passed months of required qualification tests for the Indonesian Army, and was ready for mass production. He stated that the first batch of 20 to 25 tanks could be ordered as early as late 2018, and that the full number of tanks to be produced would likely fall between 200 and 400.[11]

On 7 February 2020, it was announced that mass production of the MMWT has started.[12]

In IDEF 2021 (17-20 August 2021), the production model of Harimau / Kaplan MT is revealed. Many improvements were made to the tank during the transition from prototype to mass production. In this context, driver visibility and handling ergonomics have been improved. The body design was perfected in line with the feedback from the end user. Based on the experience gained from the tests, improvements were made in the tower system, power transmission group, cooling system and suspension system.[13]

Design

Armament

The MMWT is equipped with a Cockerill CT-CV 105HP (High Pressure) 105 mm rifled gun manufactured by CMI (Cockerill Maintenance & Ingenierie SA Defense), with the barrel mounting a bore evacuator and thermal jacket. The turret is equipped with an autoloader and can be rotated 360 degrees both electronically and mechanically, with a maximum elevation/depression of 42 up to -10 degrees, and it's equipped with Gyro Stabilizer and Firing Control System. It's also equipped with an IFF system, Hunter Killer System for target selection, and Auto Target Locking System to assist the Gunner.

The Gun has been test fired with TPCSDS-T, HEP-T, HE4 TP2 shells, and can also fire NATO standard 105 mm shells such as:

  • M1060CV APFSDS | Velocity 1620 m/s with RHA Penetration 560 mm from 2000 m at 60 degrees
  • M1061 HEAT | Velocity 1173 m/s RHA Penetration >400mm from 1500 m at 60 degrees
  • M393 A3 HESH | Velocity 732 m/s
  • M416 Smoke | Velocity 731 m/s
  • M1204 Canister | Velocity 1173 m/s

Armor

The hull armor of MMWT is using modular armor. It is categorized as STANAG 4569 level 4 protection, which means the tank can withstand 14.5×114mm AP rounds at 200 meters with 911 m/s velocity. The underbelly of the tank uses V-hull, able to withstand 10 kg AT mine under the tracks and under the center. Due to modularity, the armor can be augmented to level 5 protection (withstand 25 mm APDS-T at 500 m with 1258 m/s velocity) without increasing the volume of the tank, with the frontal arc able to withstand 30 mm rounds.

Mobility

Dynamic and mobility test taken in 7–16 August 2018 to prove the specification design. The tank uses a Caterpillar C13 diesel engine generating 711 hp, coupled with Allison/Caterpillar X300 transmission. During the test the tank is able to reach 78 km/h in road speed. The prototype is able to cross 2 m trench and 0.9 m vertical obstacle.

Defensive Systems

Later model of the Harimau Medium Tank in February 2022 undergoing Factory Acceptance Test (FAT)

The MMWT's survivability has been further strengthened. A modular PULAT Active Protection System joint-developed by ASELSAN and TÜBİTAK SAGE can be integrated. This ensures the tank's defensive capabilities against projectiles at all-angles.[14]

Operators

Future operators

  •  Indonesia: 18 units ordered in 2019 and will be delivered within 2022.[15][16][17][needs update]

Potential operators

  •  Brunei: Expressed interest in November 2018.[18]
  •  Ghana: Expressed interest in November 2019.[19]

Failed bids

See also

Contemporary competitor

Tanks with similar firepower

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Kable Intelligence Limited (2018). "Kaplan MT Modern Medium-Weight Tank". www.army-technology.com. https://www.army-technology.com/projects/kaplan-mt-modern-medium-weight-tank/. 
  2. "Technical Specifications - FNSS Savunma Sistemleri A.Ş.". http://www.fnss.com.tr/en/product/kaplan-mt/technical-specifications. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 antaranews.com. "Medium Tank Buatan Anak Negeri - ANTARA News" (in id-ID). Antara News. https://www.antaranews.com/infografis/743964/743964. 
  4. "KAPLAN MT - FNSS Savunma Sistemleri A.Ş.". http://www.fnss.com.tr/en/product/kaplan-mt. 
  5. "John Cockerill Defense's C3105 turret". https://www.janes.com/article/95593/boxer-to-be-demonstrated-with-john-cockerill-defense-s-c3105-turret. 
  6. Indomiliter.com Official Channel (2018-08-10). "Hadapi Medan Berat, Medium Tank Pindad Jalani Uji Dinamis". https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zigDAm7Z1KM. 
  7. Gumilang, Prima (2 November 2016). "Industri Pertahanan Akan Teken Kerja Sama di Indo Defence" (in id). http://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/20161101144434-20-169386/industri-pertahanan-akan-teken-kerja-sama-di-indo-defence/. 
  8. "Turkey, Indonesia agree to develop medium-weight tank". Ankara. 7 May 2016. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkey-indonesia-agree-to-develop-medium-weight-tank-----.aspx?pageID=238&nid=82091. 
  9. "Light weight, low profile [INDODEF16-D1"]. 1 November 2016. http://www.janes.com/article/65134/. 
  10. "FNSS Resmi Perlihatkan Kaplan MT, Prototipe Medium Tank Garapan Bersama PT Pindad – Indomiliter.com" (in en-US). 9 May 2017. http://www.indomiliter.com/fnss-resmi-perlihatkan-kaplan-mt-prototipe-medium-tank-garapan-bersama-pt-pindad/. 
  11. Dominguez, Gabriel (6 September 2018). "Kaplan MT ready for mass production, says report". London. https://www.janes.com/article/82823/kaplan-mt-ready-for-mass-production-says-report. 
  12. "Tukish-Indonesian Kaplan-Harimau medium tank now in mass production | February 2020 Global Defense Security army news industry | Defense Security global news industry army 2020 | Archive News year". https://www.armyrecognition.com/february_2020_global_defense_security_army_news_industry/tukish-indonesian_kaplan-harimau_medium_tank_now_in_mass_production.html. 
  13. "Seri üretimdeki Kaplan tankı IDEF'te boy gösterecek". https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/bilim-teknoloji/seri-uretimdeki-kaplan-tanki-idefte-boy-gosterecek/2335202. 
  14. "FNSS Displays PULAT APS for the Kaplan Tank". 2 May 2019. https://armyrecognition.com/idef_2019_news_online_show_daily_defense_exhibition_turkey/idef_2019_fnss_displays_for_the_first_time_kaplan_medium_tank_fitted_with_pulat_aps.html. 
  15. https://bisnis.tempo.co/read/1195158/kemenhan-pesan-tank-dan-panser-cobra-ke-pt-pindad
  16. "Archived copy". http://www.pikiran-rakyat.com/nasional/2018/08/28/kemenhan-berencana-beli-44-unit-tank-baru-pt-pindad-429318. 
  17. "'Türk Kaplanı'nın taliplileri artıyor". https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/ekonomi/turk-kaplaninin-taliplileri-artiyor/1726200. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 Grevatt, Jon (8 November 2018). "Indo Defence 2018: PT Pindad pursues medium tank exports". Jakarta. https://www.janes.com/article/84430/indo-defence-2018-pt-pindad-pursues-medium-tank-exports. 
  19. "Ghanaian military interested in equipment from Indonesia's PT Pindad". 2 December 2019. https://www.defenceweb.co.za/featured/ghanaian-military-interested-in-equipment-from-indonesias-pt-pindad/. 
  20. Dominguez, Gabriel (10 September 2018). "Philippines, Bangladesh interested in Kaplan MT". London. https://www.janes.com/article/82871/philippines-bangladesh-interested-in-kaplan-mt. 
  21. "Janes | Latest defence and security news" (in en). https://www.janes.com/defence-news. 
  22. "Sabrah Light Tank". Elbit Systems. https://elbitsystems.com/pdf/sabrah-light-tank/. 
  23. "Elbit to supply Sabrah light tanks to Philippine Army | Israel Defense" (in en). 8 October 2020. https://www.israeldefense.co.il/en/node/45747. 
  24. "PREMIUM: Philippines selects new tracked and wheeled armour - Land Warfare - Shephard Media" (in en). https://www.shephardmedia.com/news/landwarfareintl/premium-philippines-selects-new-tracked-and-wheele/?utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=auto_post&utm_campaign=news_promo&fbclid=IwAR0R7oFGdel61DHenjTcY75ALcQ9JEOMIF5NWXp3bDje2l3R9wg34D87Yo4. 

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