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Sir John Burgoyne
Lieutenant General Sir John Fox Burgoyne, GCB, photo by Roger Fenton, 1855
Born (1782-07-24)July 24, 1782
Died October 7, 1871(1871-10-07) (aged 89)
Allegiance United Kingdom United Kingdom
Service/branch Flag of the British Army.svg British Army
Rank Field Marshal
Battles/wars Peninsular War
Crimean War
Awards Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath

Field Marshal Sir John Fox Burgoyne, 1st Baronet GCB (24 July 1782 – 7 October 1871) was a British Army officer.

Military career

Funerary monument, Brompton Cemetery, London

Burgoyne was the son of General John Burgoyne and opera singer Susan Caulfield.[1] In 1798, he was commissioned into the Royal Engineers as a Second Lieutenant.[1] He fought against the army of Napoleon I and campaigned in the Pyrenees under the Duke of Wellington. Wellington transferred him to Burgos and later to San Sebastián to participate in the Siege of Rosetta in 1807.[1] For his services during the Peninsular War, Burgoyne received the Army Gold Cross, with one clasp, for Badajoz, Salamanca, Vitoria, San Sebastian, and the Nive, and the Military General Service Medal with three clasps for Busaco, Ciudad Rodrigo, and Nivelle.

In the War of 1812, he fought under General Pakenham as a Lieutenant Colonel and participated in the Battle of New Orleans.

In 1826, Burgoyne accompanied General Clinton to Portugal.[1] He was appointed as Colonel in 1830.[1] In 1838, he became a Major General and in 1845 was named Inspector-General of Fortifications, the executive head of the Royal Engineers.[1] His memoirs prompted the fortification of the English coast. Burgoyne was heavily involved in civil administration in Ireland, serving as Chairman of the Board of Works (1831–45).[1] During the Irish Potato Famine, he led the efforts to provide relief from mass starvation.

In 1845 he became Inspector-General of Fortifications and as part of this he advised on the fortifications in Gibraltar in 1848 making the wise recommendation that the guns on the Devil's Tongue Battery be directed into Gibraltar Harbour.[2] In 1851, he was promoted to Lieutenant General. Before the outbreak of the Crimean War, he went to Constantinople to assist in its fortification and that of the Dardanelles.[1] During the siege of Sevastopol, he arranged for the bombardment of Malakoff. Upon his return to England in 1856, he received a baronetcy.[1] In 1865, he was made the Commander of the Tower of London and retired in 1868 as a Field Marshal.[1]

John Fox Burgoyne died on 7 October 1871 in Kensington, and is buried in the nearby Brompton Cemetery, London. Castle Hill Fort in Dover was renamed Fort Burgoyne in his honour, which in turn has given its name to a residential development called Burgoyne Heights.

He was the father of Hugh Talbot Burgoyne, and the first President of the Institution of Civil Engineers of Ireland.

Bibliography

  • Treatise on the Blasting and Quarrying of Stone, London: 1852.
  • Military Opinions of Sir John Fox Burgoyne, London: 1859.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 T.A. Heathcote, The British Field Marshals 1736 - 1997, Page 60, 1999, ISBN 0-85052-696-5
  2. Finlayson, Darren Fa & Clive (2006). The fortifications of Gibraltar : 1068-1945 (1. publ. in Great Britain. ed.). Oxford [u.a.]: Osprey. p. 34. ISBN 9781846030161. 
  • This article is based on a translation of the corresponding article from the German Wikipedia, retrieved on 13 April 2005.

External links

Military offices
Preceded by
Sir Frederick Mulcaster
Inspector-General of Fortifications
1845–1862
Succeeded by
Himself
Preceded by
Himself
Inspector-General of Engineers
and Director of Work

1862–1868
Succeeded by
Edward Frome
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Viscount Combermere
Constable of the Tower
Lord Lieutenant of the Tower Hamlets

1865 – 1871
Succeeded by
Sir George Pollock
Baronetage of the United Kingdom
New creation Baronet
(of the Army)
1856–1871
Extinct

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