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Julang-1 (JL-1), NATO : CSS-N-3
JL-1 and JL-2.PNG
JL-1 and JL-2.
Service history
Used by China
Production history
Designer Huang Weilu
Designed 1970s
Manufacturer Factory 307 (Nanjing Dawn Group)
Produced 1980s
Length 10.7 metres (35 ft)
Width 1.4 metres (4.6 ft)

Warhead nuclear
Blast yield 200-300 kt?

Propellant solid fuel
1,700 km (JL-1), 2,500 km (JL-1A)
Xia class submarine

The Julang-1 (Chinese: 巨浪-1; literally: "Huge Wave-1"),, also known as the JL-1 and in US nomenclature as the CSS-N-3, is China's first submarine-launched nuclear ballistic missile.


Research and development began in 1967 and detailed design in the early 1970s, with a first land launch 30 April 1982 and a sea launch from a Project 629A (Golf) class submarine on 12 October 1982. The general designer of the missile is Huang Weilu (Chinese: 黄纬禄) 1916-2011;[1] academician Chen Deren (Chinese: 陈德仁, 1922 - December 21, 2007) served as deputy chief designer. The missile was assembled at Factory 307 (Nanjing Dawn Group Limited Liability Company [南京晨光集团有限责任公司]).

The JL-1 was deployed on Xia class submarine in 1986. The Type 092 Xia class nuclear submarines have 12 launch tubes.

The JL-1 was initially tested and deployed on the PLAN's modified Golf class SSB. The Golf has since been modified again for further testing of other missiles, such as the JL-2, which has test-launched multiple times with varying levels of success.

The DF-21 appears to be a land-based version of the JL-1.

See also


  • Norris, Robert, Burrows, Andrew, Fieldhouse, Richard "Nuclear Weapons Databook, Volume V, British, French and Chinese Nuclear Weapons, San Francisco, Westview Press, 1994, ISBN 0-8133-1612-X
  • Lewis, John Wilson and Xue Litai, "China's Strategic Seapower: The Politics of Force Modernization in the Nuclear Age," Stanford, 1994.

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