|Fifth Raid on Meccan Caravan: Buwāṭ|
|Muslims of Medina||Quraish of Mecca|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Muḥammad||Umayyah ibn Khalaf|
|Casualties and losses|
The Invasion of Buwāṭ took place in the year 2 A.H of the Islamic calendar, in the month of Rabī‘u’l Awwal.
This was the 5th Caravan Expedition Muḥammad ordered and the 2nd ‘Ghazwah’ (in which Muḥammad himself was the commander).
This was the first expedition where a few of the Anṣār took part.
Buwāṭ (بواط) is located near Mount Juhaynah in the neighborhood of Raḍwā. It was situated on the caravan route of the Quraysh merchants to Syria.
The leaders of Quraysh were seriously worried when they found out that Muḥammad was gaining control over their trade route to Syria by making treaties with the neighboring tribes of Madīnah. So they organized two military attacks defended by ‘Ubaydah ibn al-Ḥārith in Sariyyah Rābigh and Ḥamzah ibn ‘Abdu’l-Muṭṭalib in Sariyyah al-Baḥr respectively. After two offensive attacks on the outskirts of Madīnah, the Prophet decided to make another expedition to ensure the power of authority over the areas. It was also important to strengthen the relationship with the neighboring tribes, to boost their morale and to renew their treaty of neutrality. Therefore, it was basically diplomatic and missionary in nature.
After the safe return of the Muslim force to Madīnah led by Ḥamzah ibn ‘Abdu’l-Muṭṭalib, Muḥammad personally led 200 mounted men including both al-Muhājirūn and al-Anṣār to Buwāṭ. This expedition took place a month after the expedition at al-Abwā’. The Prophet received intelligence that a herd of 2500 camels was proceeding, accompanied by 100 riders headed by Umayyah ibn Khalaf, a Quraysh leader. So Muhammad’s purpose was to intercept this caravan. According to western scholars, the purpose of the raid was to plunder this rich Quraysh caravan
Sa‘d ibn Abī Waqqāṣ held the white banner on behalf of the Muslim force. According to Ibn Hishām, the custody of al-Madīnah was given to as-Sā’ib ibn ‘Uthmān ibn Maẓ‘ūn while the Prophet was away. However, Al-Wāqidi stated, "Before leaving Madīnah, the Prophet mandated Sa'd ibn Mu‘ādh in charge of the city until his return.
No battle took place and the raid resulted in no booty because there was no encounter with the Quraysh caravan since it had already left. The Prophet made a thorough inspection of the site and its surroundings. He also visited the grave of his mother Āminah bint Wahab. Then he returned to Madīnah, and remained there for the rest of Rabī‘u’l Ākhir and part of Jumāda’l Ūlā until he marched out for Dhi’l ‘Ushayrah/’Ashīrah.
Islamic primary sources
The Sahih Muslim hadith collection mentions that Muhammad carried out a military Expedition in Buwat, the hadith states:
|“||It is reported on the same authority: We set out along with Allah's Messenger on an expedition of Batn Buwat. He (the Holy Prophet) was in search of al-Majdi b. 'Amr al-Juhani. (We had so meagre equipment) that five. six or seven of us had one camel to ride and so we mounted it turn by turn. Once there wan. the turn of an Ansari to ride upon the camel. He made it kneel down to ride over it (and after having. mounted it), he tried to raise it up but it hesitated... Sahih Muslim, 42:7149||”|
- Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005). "The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet". Darussalam Publications. p. 244. ISBN 978-9960-899-55-8. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=r_80rJHIaOMC&pg=PA244.
- Haykal, Husayn (1976). "The Life of Muhammad". Islamic Book Trust. pp. 217–218. ISBN 978-983-9154-17-7. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=fOyO-TSo5nEC&pg=PA218&dq=raid+on+quraysh+caravan#v=snippet&q=first%20raids&f=false.
- Al-Sīrah al-Nabawiyyah, Ibn Kathīr, v2, p239
- Saifur Raḥmān al-Mubārakpuri, Ar-Raḥīq al-Makhtūm, free version, p127
- Al-Sīrah al-Nabawiyyah, Ibn Kathīr, Translated by Professor Trevor Le Gassick, v2, p239
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