Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Laut
Indonesian Navy insignia
74,000 active duty personnel|
2 Submarines (3 on order)
6 Amphibious Transport Dock
3 Fast Missile Boat
31 Patrol Craft
(Sanskrit, lit:"Victorious on the Sea")
|Anniversaries||10 September 1945 (founded)|
Pertempuran Laut Aru|
Incorporation of West Papua into Indonesia
Indonesian Invasion of East Timor
Insurgency in Aceh
|Navy Chief of Staff||Admiral Marsetio|
|Naval Aviation Roundel|
The Indonesian Navy (Indonesian language: Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Laut, TNI–AL) was founded on September 10, 1945. Its role is to patrol Indonesia's immense coastline, to ensure safeguard the territorial waters and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Indonesia, to protect Indonesia's maritime strategic interests, to protect the islands surrounded Indonesia and to defend against seaborne threats.
The Indonesian Navy is the largest navy in South East Asia based on the number of active personnel and ships. As of 2009, the Indonesian Navy had about 74.963 active personnel and more than 150 ships in active service. The Indonesian Navy is also one of only few navies in the region which are substantially supported by domestic military industries as well as armed with marine corps, supersonic missiles and attack submarines. All commissioned ships of the TNI-AL have the prefix KRI (Kapal Perang Republik Indonesia), which means Republic of Indonesia warship.
According to Undang-Undang Nomor 34/2004 about TNI Article 9, the Navy has a following task:
- Naval military duty in defense;
- enforce the law and maintain security in the sea area of national jurisdiction in accordance with national laws and ratified international laws;
- Navy diplomatic duties in support of foreign policy set by the government;
- carry out military tasks in the construction and development of naval power;
- implement empowerment sea defense area.
The Indonesian Navy history began on 10 September 1945, after the initial proclamation of Indonesia's independence, the administration of early Indonesian government established the People's Marine Security Agency (BKR Laut). BKR Laut spearheaded by Indonesian sailors who had served in the ranks of the Koninklijke Marine (Royal Netherlands Navy) in the Dutch colonial period and during the Japanese occupation Kaigun.
The formation of the Indonesian military organization known as the People's Security Army (TKR) helped spur the further existence of TKR Sea known as the Navy of the Republic of Indonesia (ALRI), with all its power and capabilities. A number of naval base is formed, heritage vessels Sailing Bureau Japan deceived, and pengawaknya personnel were recruited to meet the demands of the task as a marine guard the newly formed Republic. Simple power not dampen the Navy to conduct operations in order to spread the news of the proclamation and preparing armed forces in various places in Indonesia. Besides, they also did breach the sea blockade of the Netherlands in order to get help from abroad.
During 1949-1959 the Navy had perfected strength and enhance its capabilities. ALRI forming Fleet, Marine Corps, who was known as the Marine Corps Forces Command (KKO-AL), Naval Aviation and Maritime Area Command as a command of the defense of the territorial sea aspect.
In the 1990s the Navy got a major boost warships kind Parchim Class Corvette, landing ship tank (LST) class 'Frosch', and Kondor class Mine Sweepers. The addition of this power still considered far from the needs and demands of the task, especially in this multidimensional crisis that demands an increase in the acquisition of operations but very limited support. Internal reforms within the TNI have a major impact on the demands of the task of sharpening the Navy in the defense and security at sea such as reorganization and validation Fleet arrayed in flotila warships in accordance with the similarity function and development of the Marine Corps with the formation of the division-level unit-I at the Marine Corps Brigade level in Surabaya and Jakarta.
The navy comprises the following:
- Headquarters Staff (HQ, Jakarta) under the overall command of the Navy Chief of Staff,
- Two Fleet Commands :
- Eastern Fleet Command, in Surabaya, conterminous with Army's KODAM V and KODAMs VII through IX and Air Force's Operation Command II.
- Western Fleet Command, in Jakarta, conterminous with Army's KODAMs I through IV and VI and Air Force's Operation Command I.
- Several Naval Main Bases and Naval Bases throughout Indonesia. Apart from the major bases at Surabaya and Jakarta, forward operating bases exist at Kupang, West Timor and Tahuna, Sulawesi.
- Marine Corps, with two Marine Forces
- Naval Aviation Center,
- Military Sealift Command - coordinates the navy's logistical support systems.
Plans exist to have a single HQ at Surabaya, with commands at Riau (West), Papua (East), and Makassar (Central). JDW reported on 12 November 2003 that Admiral Bernard Kent Sondakh, the Chief of Naval Staff, was advocating a plan to merge the two fleets to form a single Main Operations and Administration Defence Command, to be headed by a three-star officer and headquartered at Surabaya.
Naval Base is converted into sequential numbering from I to XI by location from west to east on August 1, 2006 along with the inauguration of the Naval Base Bayur Bay, Padang, West Sumatra became naval Main Base (Lantamal) II.
Navy force spread across several Main Base who were under the command of two major fleet:
- Main Naval Base I Belawan.
- Naval Base Sabang
- Naval Base Dumai
- Naval Base Lhokseumawe
- Naval Base Tanjung Balai Asahan
- Naval Base Simeulue
- Naval Air Station Sabang
- Main Naval Base II Padang.
- Naval Base Sibolga
- Naval Base Bengkulu
- Main Naval Base III Jakarta.
- Naval Base Palembang
- Naval Base Cirebon
- Naval Base Panjang
- Naval Base Banten
- Naval Base Bandung
- Naval Base Bangka Belitung
- Naval Air Station Pondok Cabe
- Main Naval Base IV Tanjung Pinang.
- Naval Base Batam
- Naval Base Pontianak
- Naval Base Tarempa
- Naval Base Ranai
- Naval Base Tanjung Balai Karimun
- Naval Base Dabo Singkep
- Naval Air Station Matak (Natuna Islands)
- Naval Air Station Tanjungpinang/Kijang
- Main Naval Base V Surabaya.
- Naval Base Tegal
- Naval Base Cilacap
- Naval Base Semarang
- Naval Base Malang
- Naval Base Banyuwangi
- Naval Base Denpasar
- Naval Base Batuporon
- Naval Air Station Juanda
- Main Naval Base VI Makassar.
- Naval Base Kendari
- Naval Base Palu
- Naval Base Balikpapan
- Naval Base Kotabaru
- Naval Base Banjarmasin
- Main Naval Base VII Kupang.
- Naval Base Mataram
- Naval Base Maumere
- Naval Base Kupang
- Naval Base Tual
- Naval Air Station Kupang
- Main Naval Base VIII Manado.
- Naval Base Tarakan
- Naval Base Nunukan
- Naval Base Tahuna
- Naval Base Toli-Toli
- Naval Base Gorontalo
- Naval Air Manado
- Main Naval Base IX Ambon.
- Naval Base Ternate
- Naval Base Saumlaki
- Naval Base Morotai
- Main Naval Base X Jayapura.
- Naval Base Sorong
- Naval Base Biak
- Naval Air Station Biak
- Main Naval Base XI Merauke
- Naval Base Timika
- Naval Base Aru
- Naval Air Station Aru
The majority of the vessels in the Indonesian navy are from the Netherlands and Britain. However, since 2003, Indonesian shipyards have produced many of their own small vessels, in particular those of smaller displacement like patrol boats and fast attack crafts. Recently, two Makassar class LPDs have been launched by PT. PAL, with assistance from Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering Co.(DSME) of South Korea, and there are a plans to build indigenous missile-armed corvettes (Kornas).
In the 1960s, the Indonesian Navy Naval Aviation had a long-range strike capability with Indonesian Navy had Il-28 medium bombers. In 1975-79, the Dinas Penerbangan Angkatan Laut (Naval Aviation Service) received 12 GAF Nomad Searchmaster B's and six Searchmaster L twin-turboprops to form a maritime patrol Squadron (800 Skwadron). In mid 1996 six NC.212-MPAs also join the squadron. All aircraft fly from the Naval headquarters base of Surabaya, but detachments are at times sent to Tanjung pinang and Manado.
|First Admiral TNI||Sugianto, S.E, M.A.P.||-||23 February 2013|
|First Admiral TNI||I Nyoman Nesa||23 February 2013||Present|
|Beech Bonanza||United States||Light Transport||G-33 Bonanza||5|
|de Havilland Canada DHC-5 Buffalo||Canada||VIP Transport||DHC-5D Buffalo||6|
|GAF Nomad||Australia||Light Transport||N.24 Nomad||24|
|CASA C-212 Aviocar||Spain||Maritime Patrol & Tactical Transport||NC-212 MPA||12|
|CASA CN-235|| European Union
|Maritime Patrol & Tactical Transport||CN-235 MPA||3||2 ordered|
|MBB BO 105||European Union||Utility||NBO-105||10|
|Eurocopter EC-120 Colibri||European Union||Utility||EC-120B Colibri||20|
|Mil Mi-2 Hoplite||Poland||Utility||Mi-2A||5|
|Bell 412||CanadaUnited States||Utility||Bell 412EP||20||Licensed production by Indonesian Aerospace|
|Eurocopter AS565 Panther / AgustaWestland AW159 Wildcat||European Union||Anti-submarine helicopter||AS565 / AW159 Wildcat||0||11 ordered .|
The Korps Marinir are the Indonesian Navy's ground troops. It was created on November 15, 1945 and has the duties of being the main amphibious warfare force and quick reaction force of defence against enemy invasion.
- Komando Pasukan Katak - the primary special operations force of the Indonesian Navy. They are recruited from navy sailors, and they are commonly called as "FROG MAN".
- Batalion Intai Amfibi - the Marine Corps' Amphibious Reconnaissance Battalion, which also has capability as para-commando. They are recruited from marines corps.
- Detasemen Jala Mangkara - special operations and counter-terrorism forces of the Indonesian Navy. It is a combined detachment formed from selected personnel of the Navy's Underwater Special Unit (Kopaska) and the Marine Corps' Amphibious Reconnaissance Battalion (KIPAM aka Yontaifib).
Ideally, the Navy should have 250 ships, and it has a blueprint up to 2024.
In April 2011, PT PAL, in cooperation with Netherlands' Naval Shipbuilding, started designing a new light frigate for ASW purposes. It will be the largest warship built by PT PAL.
At the same time, Indonesian Navy has accepted a grant of 2 used patrol boats equipped with guided missiles made in Britain from Brunei after upgrading itself with newer vessels.
December 2011: A contract to build three submarines was signed by Indonesian party and Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering (DSME). 2 submarines will be built in South Korea in cooperation with Indonesian state-owned shipbuilder PT PAL, while the third will be built at PT Pal's facilities. The contract was worth $1.07 billion and construction would start in January 2012 and expected deliveries in 2015 and 2016. The submarines would weigh 1,400 tons and be 61.3 meters long to carry up to 40 crewmembers and have 8 weapons tubes for torpedoes and other weapons. The procurement is an effort to keep pace with other countries in the region and not to match them.
January 2012: The Navy had confirmed the order for the 24 guided-missile fast boats to be deployed in shallow waters in the western part of Indonesia and in North Sulawesi which are geographically dotted by small islands and divided by straits. Indonesia has 2 KCR-40s (Kapal Cepat Rudal 40-meter) and the third has being built. KCR-40s was 45 percent locally sourced and is designed and built solely locally, worth Rp 73 billion ($7.98 million) each and has a top speed of 30 knots. The boats are provided with Chinese C-705 anti-ship missiles with a range up to 120 kilometres (75 mi), a 6-barrel 30-millimeter close-in weapons system and two 20-millimeters guns.
Integrated Maritime Surveillance Systems
With various coast-line radars, Indonesia has one of the world's longest Integrated Maritime Surveillance Systems (IMSS). The network covers more than 1,205 kilometres (749 mi) of coastline in the Straits of Malacca and about 1,285 kilometres (798 mi) of coastline in the Sulawesi Sea.
- "detikNews : KSAL dan KSAU Naik Pangkat". News.detik.com. http://news.detik.com/read/2013/02/19/155300/2174151/10/ksal-dan-ksau-naik-pangkat. Retrieved 2013-09-22.
- IISS Military Balance 2007, p.353
- JDW 19 Nov 2003, p.16-17
- World Aircraft Information Files Brightstar publishing London File 333 Sheet 1
- "Portal Berita Jawa Timur - beritajatim.com". M.beritajatim.com. http://m.beritajatim.com/detailnews.php/6/Politik&Pemerintahan/2013-02-22/162809/Dan_Puspenerbal_Juanda_Ganti_Pimpinan. Retrieved 2013-11-07.
- "OrBat Indonesia - MilAvia Press.com: Military Aviation Publications". MilAvia Press.com. http://www.milaviapress.com/orbat/indonesia/index.php. Retrieved 2013-09-22.
- Diposkan oleh NurW (2012-04-18). "DEFENSE STUDIES: TNI AL akan Menambah Pesanan 2 CN-235 kepada PT DI". Defense-studies.blogspot.com. http://defense-studies.blogspot.com/2012/04/tni-al-akan-menambah-pesanan-2-cn-235.html. Retrieved 2013-09-22.
- "Indonesian navy to order three CN-235 maritime patrol aircraft ~ ASIAN DEFENCE". Theasiandefence.blogspot.com. 2009-12-03. http://theasiandefence.blogspot.com/2009/12/indonesian-navy-to-order-three-cn-235.html. Retrieved 2013-09-22.
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- "Indonesian Navy Operates Its First CN235 MPA Aircraft". November 12, 2013. http://www.garudamiliter.blogspot.com/2013/11/indonesian-navy-operates-its-first.html.
- Diposkan oleh abarky (2012-06-13). "Garuda Militer: Tiga Heli Bell Perkuat Puspenerbal". Garudamiliter.blogspot.com. http://garudamiliter.blogspot.com/2012/06/tiga-heli-bell-perkuat-puspenerbal.html. Retrieved 2013-09-22.
- "PT DI Serahkan Tiga Heli Pesanan TNI AL". April 26, 2013. http://www.garudamiliter.blogspot.com/2013/04/pt-di-serahkan-tiga-heli-pesanan-tni-al.html.
- "Skuadron 100 Siap Dihidupkan Kembali". June 23, 2013. http://www.garudamiliter.blogspot.com/2013/06/skuadron-100-siap-dihidupkan-kembali.html.
- "Menimbang diantara 2 Kucing Laut". Garudamiliter.blogspot.com. July 6, 2013. http://www.garudamiliter.blogspot.com/2013/07/menimbang-diantara-2-kucing-laut.html.
- [dead link]
- "Indonesia looks to build its own warships". The Jakarta Post. 2011-03-23. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/03/23/indonesia-looks-build-its-own-warships.html. Retrieved 2013-09-22.
- "TNI considering two patrol boats from Brunei". ANTARA News. 2011-04-04. http://www.antaranews.com/en/news/69917/tni-considering-two-patrol-boats-from-brunei. Retrieved 2013-09-22.
- "Navy shopping for new submarines". The Jakarta Post. 2011-06-06. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/06/06/navy-shopping-new-submarines.html. Retrieved 2013-09-22.
- "December 22, 2011 - RI orders 3 submarines worth $1b in regional ‘catch-up’". Thejakartapost.com. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/12/22/ri-orders-3-submarines-worth-1b-regional-catch.html. Retrieved 2013-11-07.
- "Navy Opens New Base Prepared for Submarines". Defense-studies.blogspot.com. April 7, 2013. http://defense-studies.blogspot.com/2013/04/navy-opens-new-base-prepared-for.html.
- "Navy to procure 24 fast boats to patrol shallow waters". Thejakartapost.com. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2012/01/05/navy-procure-24-fast-boats-patrol-shallow-waters0.html. Retrieved January 5, 2012.
- "Indonesia: Defense Minister Launches "KRI Clurit" >>". Naval Today. 2011-04-26. http://navaltoday.com/2011/04/26/indonesia-defense-minister-launches-kri-clurit/. Retrieved 2013-09-22.
- "Bank Mandiri finances missile boats". The Jakarta Post. 2011-04-25. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/04/25/bank-mandiri-finances-missile-boats.html. Retrieved 2013-09-22.
- "News". Embassyofindonesia.org. 2010-07-01. http://www.embassyofindonesia.org/news/2010/07/news003.htm. Retrieved 2013-11-07.
- Official website
- Indonesian Navy ships and equipment (Navy Recognition)
- ALRI - Navy of the Republic of Indonesia @ Globalsecurity.com
- Indonesian Military Blog
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