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Ignacio López Rayón

Ignacio López Rayón (July 31, 1773, Tlalpujahua, Michoacán, New Spain—February 2, 1832, Mexico City) led the revolutionary government of his country after Miguel Hidalgo's death, during the first years of the Mexican War of Independence.

First years

López Rayón was born in Michoacán, was the first son of Andrés Mariano López-Rayón Piña (1742-1805) and María Josefa Rafaela López-Aguado y López-Bolaños (1754-1822). He went to the Colegio de San Nicolás in Valladolid today Morelia and in Mexico City's Colegio de San Ildefonso where he became a lawyer in 1796. He was living in Mexico City but when his parent got sick he had to go back to Morelia to take control of the family business (agriculture and mining) and the post office in the town. In August 1810 he got married with María Ana Martínez de Rulfo.

Independence war

During the first months of the Mexican War of Independence he got contact with Antonio Fernández, an independence soldier. Rayón sent him a letter with the idea of create a group of people to represent the power of Fernando VII to try to stop the waste of resources, Miguel Hidalgo was agree with the idea. Spanish tried to capture Rayón but he could scape and joined Miguel Hidalgo's troops in Maravatío, Later on, he became Hidalgo's private secretary

Miguel Hidalgo

In Guadalajara, Miguel Hidalgo named him Secretary of State, as such, signed the emancipation of slaves on December 6, 1810. He organized the provisional government with José María Chico like president, Pascacio Ortiz de Letona like ambassador and Francisco Severo Maldonado like chief editor of the first newspaper of the rebellion: El Despertador Americano (in English: The American Watchclock).

Miguel Hidalgo army was defeated in the battle of Puente de Calderon (Batalla de Puente de Calderón) and Rayón scape to Aguascalientes to join Rafael Iriarte, They went to Zacatecas to join the rest of the army that could scape from the battle of Puente de Calderon.

The army move to Saltillo, the insurgents chiefs tried to travel to the United States while the army remains in Saltillo with Rayón like the army chief and because of this Rayón became general. In this travel Miguel Hidalgo, Ignacio Allende and the others were captured in Acatita del Baján and sentenced to death.

Battles after Hidalgo's death

On March 26, 1811, Rayón move out from Saltillo to Zacatecas in that moment his army was composed by 3500 soldiers and 22 guns. The Spanish army found Rayón army in the way of Agua Nueva, Rayón lost 77 mans (prisoners). In April 1, the battle of los Piñones bagan, after 6 hours of battle Rayón won the battle. On April 13 Rayón sent Anaya and Víctor Rosales to recognize the Zacatecas army, while he was taking position in the "Los Misioneros de Guadalupe college". On April 15, 1811, the battle for Zacatecas began, The amo Torres won "del grillo" hill where all the artillery, ammunition, food and silver was. with this actions The Rayón army won the battle. Once in Zacatecas, Rayón spent the most of the time with his army, training, getting uniforms and improving his war techniques.

Rayón chose to move to Aguascalientes because a big Spanish army was going to Zacatecas. While the Rayón army was traveling, colonel Miguel Emparan intercept them but Rayón won and kept moving to Michoacán. On May 3, close to La Piedad, began the battle of El Maguey, Rayón lost the battle and his resources. In La Piedad he tried to get more resources and move out to Zamora. In Zamora He organized some troops and sent them with Torres to Pátzcuaro, Torres was attacked in the Tinaja Hill, Rayón went to help him and both won the battle against the Spanish army. Rayón tried to attack Valladolid today Morelia but because the Spanish received reinforcements he desisted the attack. He went to Tiripitio to change the war flow, from this very moment he began the group war. He sent Torres to Pátzcuaro and Uruapan, Navarrete to Zacapu, Mariano Caneiga to Panindícuaro and Muñiz to Tacámbaro. Rayón went to Zitacuaro to prepare the defense. Emparan left Maravatío to attack Zitacuaro in juin 22. Rayón had less mans than Emparan but better artillery, Rayón army attracts the attacker to town. close to the artillery range, the battle took the hold day, Spanish could not take the town with heavy losses for both armies.

Supreme National American Meeting or Meeting of Zitácuaro

Rayón was conceiving the idea to create a central government to unify the independence leaders, he wrote a letter to Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon and Morelos agree to become a member of the group and sent José Sixto Verduzco in his representation. From August 19 to 21, Rayón, José María Liceaga, Joaquín López, José Sixto Verduzco and others create the Supreme National American Meeting. Rayón was the president. They create the first revolutionary newspaper, the Ilustrador Nacional edited by Andrés Quintana Roo and José María Cos. Because the importance of Rayón Spanish sent an assassin J. Arnoldo but he fails and was killed. On January 1, 1812, Zitacuaro was attacked by general Calleja, the revolutionary army resisted a long time. Finally Calleja saw that take the city was hard and change the plan to leave it, while Calleja was leaving the revolutionary army also leave Zitacuaro, Calleja was far from Zitacuaro to catch the revolutionary leaders, When Calleja knew that the city was open he took it.

After the Zitacuaro events Rayón took part with José María Morelos in the first National Congress at Chilpancingo. Four years later, he was arrested and sent to prison until 1820. After the war, he became the state treasurer of San Luis Potosí.

López Rayón died on February 2, 1832, in Mexico City.


See also

External links

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