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Hunter Biden
File:File:R. Hunter Biden at Center for Strategic & International Studies (Speaking).png
Biden speaking in a panel discussion at the Center for Strategic & International Studies in 2013
Vice Chairman of Amtrak

In office
July 26, 2006 – January 29, 2009
President George W. Bush
Barack Obama
Succeeded by Donna McLean
Personal details
Born Robert Hunter Biden
February 4, 1970(1970-02-04) (age 52)
Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Kathleen Buhle (m. 1993–2017)
Melissa Cohen
(m. 2019)
Children 5
Parents Joe Biden (father)
Neilia Hunter Biden (mother)
Military service
Allegiance  United States
Service/branch United States Navy
Years of service 2013–2014
Rank US Navy O1 infobox.svg Ensign
Unit United States Navy Reserve

Robert Hunter Biden (born February 4, 1970) is an American lawyer and investment advisor who is the second son of United States president-elect Joe Biden. He is a founding partner of investment and advisory firm Rosemont Seneca Partners. Biden was recruited to the board of Burisma Holdings, one of the largest private natural gas producers in Ukraine, in 2014 and served until his term expired in April 2019.

Since the early months of 2019, Hunter Biden and his father have been the subjects of debunked conspiracy theories pushed by U.S. president Donald Trump and his allies concerning Hunter Biden's business dealings and Joe Biden's anti-corruption efforts in Ukraine on behalf of the United States during the time he was vice president.[1]

Early life

Biden was born on February 4, 1970[2] in Wilmington, Delaware. He is the second son of Neilia Biden (née Hunter) and Joe Biden, who served in the United States Senate from 1973 to 2009 and as Vice President of the United States from 2009 to 2017.[3] Hunter Biden's mother and younger sister Naomi were killed in an automobile crash on December 18, 1972.[4][5] Biden and his older brother Beau were also seriously injured.[3] Hunter and Beau later encouraged their father to marry again[6] and Jill Jacobs became their stepmother in 1977.[3] Biden's half-sister Ashley was born in 1981.[7]

Like his father and brother, Biden attended Catholic high school Archmere Academy in Claymont, Delaware.[3] He graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in History from Georgetown University in 1992.[3] During the year after he graduated from college, he served as a Jesuit volunteer at a church in Portland, Oregon and met Kathleen Buhle, whom he married in 1993.[3] After attending Georgetown University Law Center for one year, he transferred to Yale Law School and graduated in 1996.[3]

Early career

After law school, Biden accepted a position at bank holding company MBNA America, a major contributor to his father's political campaigns.[3] By 1998, Biden had risen to the rank of executive vice president[3][8] and left to serve at the United States Department of Commerce until 2001, focusing on ecommerce policy.[9] Biden became a lobbyist in 2001, co-founding the firm of Oldaker, Biden & Belair.[10] According to Adam Entous of The New Yorker, Biden and his father established a relationship in which "Biden wouldn't ask Hunter about his lobbying clients, and Hunter wouldn't tell his father about them."[3]

Hunter Biden was appointed to a five-year term on the board of directors of Amtrak by President George W. Bush in 2006.[11] Biden was the board's vice chairman from July 2006 until 2009; he resigned in February 2009,[12][13] resigning shortly after his father became vice president. Biden said during his father's vice presidential campaign that it was time for his lobbying activities to end.[3]

Investor and lobbyist

Biden is a capital investments professional with an interest in funding early-stage natural resource extraction and technology companies. In 2006, Biden and his uncle James Biden purchased international hedge fund Paradigm Global Advisors; Hunter was interim CEO of the fund[14] for five years, until 2011.[15] In September 2008, Biden launched a consultancy company named Seneca Global Advisors that offered to help companies expand into foreign markets.[16] Biden, Devon Archer, and Christopher Heinz founded the investment and advisory firm Rosemont Seneca Partners in 2009.[10] He also co-founded venture capital firm Eudora Global.[7] He held the position of counsel in the law firm Boies Schiller Flexner LLP in 2014.[3] Biden was on the board of directors of World Food Program USA, a 501(c)(3) charity based in Washington, D.C. that supports the work of the UN World Food Programme from 2011 to 2017; he served as board chairman from 2011 to 2015.[17]

In December 2020, Biden made a public announcement via his attorney that his tax affairs are under federal criminal investigation.[18][19] Both the New York Times and CNN citing sources familiar with the investigation described the investigation as having started in late 2018 and being related to potential violations of tax and money laundering laws and his business dealings in foreign countries, principally China.[18][19] The New York Times reported that FBI investigators had been unable to establish sufficient evidence to support earlier suspicions of money laundering, including after the seizure of a laptop purportedly belonging to Biden, and so the investigation progressed onto tax issues.[19][20][21]

BHR Partners

From 2013 to 2020, Biden served as a member of the board of the China-based private equity fund BHR Partners, of which he acquired a 10% stake in 2017.[22] The founders of BHR Partners included Biden's Rosemont Seneca Partners investment firm (20% equity), along with US-based Thornton Group LLC (10% equity) and two asset managers registered in China.[16][23][24] The Chinese-registered asset managers are the Bank of China (via BOC International Holdings-backed Bohai Industrial Investment Fund Management) and Deutsche Bank-backed Harvest Fund Management.[25] The BHR Partners fund invests Chinese venture capital into tech startups like an early-stage investment in Chinese car hailing app DiDi and cross-border acquisitions, in automotive and mining, such as the purchase of a stake in Democratic Republic of Congo copper and cobalt producer Tenke Fungurume Mining.[26][27]

In September 2019, while President Trump was accusing Hunter Biden of malfeasance in Ukraine, he also falsely claimed that Biden "walk[ed] out of China with $1.5 billion in a fund" and earned "millions" of dollars from the BHR deal.[28][29] Trump publicly called upon China to investigate Hunter Biden's business activities there while his father was vice president.[30][31] Hunter Biden announced on October 13, 2019 his resignation from the Board of Directors for BHR Partners, effective at the end of the month, citing "the barrage of false charges" by the President.[32][33] According to his lawyer, Biden had "not received any compensation for being on BHR's board of directors" nor had he received any return on his equity share in BHR.[34] Biden's lawyer George Mesires told The Washington Post that BHR Partners had been "capitalized from various sources with a total of 30 million RMB [Chinese Renminbi], or about $4.2 million, not $1.5 billion."[28]

Burisma Holdings

Biden joined the board of Burisma Holdings owned by Ukrainian oligarch and former politician Mykola Zlochevsky, who was facing a money laundering investigation just after the Ukrainian revolution, in April 2014.[3][35][36][37] Biden was hired to help Burisma with corporate governance best practices, while still an attorney with Boies Schiller Flexner, and a consulting firm in which Biden is a partner was also retained by Burisma.[38][39][40] Christopher Heinz, John Kerry's stepson, opposed his partners Devon Archer and Hunter Biden joining the board in 2014 due to the reputational risk.[36] Biden served on the board of Burisma until his term expired in April 2019,[39] receiving compensation of up to $50,000 per month in some months.[38][39] Because Joe Biden played a major role in U.S. policy towards Ukraine, some Ukrainian anti-corruption advocates[41][42] and Obama administration officials expressed concern that Hunter Biden having joined the board could create the appearance of a conflict of interest and undermine Joe Biden's anti-corruption work in Ukraine.[3][36] While serving as vice president, Joe Biden joined other Western leaders in encouraging the government of Ukraine to fire the country's top prosecutor Viktor Shokin,[43][44] who was widely criticized for blocking corruption investigations.[45][46] The Ukrainian parliament voted to remove Shokin in March 2016.[47][48]

President Donald Trump and his personal lawyer Rudy Giuliani claimed in 2019, without evidence, that Joe Biden had actually sought the dismissal of Shokin in order to protect his son and Burisma Holdings; in actuality, it was the official policy of the United States and the European Union to seek Shokin's removal.[41][43][49][50][51] There has also been no evidence produced of wrongdoing by Hunter Biden in Ukraine.[52] The Ukrainian anti-corruption investigation agency stated in September 2019 that its current investigation of Burisma was restricted solely to investigating the period from 2010 to 2012, before Hunter Biden joined Burisma in 2014.[53] Shokin in May 2019 claimed that he was fired because he had been actively investigating Burisma,[54] but U.S. and Ukrainian officials have stated that the investigation into Burisma was dormant at the time of Shokin's dismissal.[36][54][55] Ukrainian and United States State Department sources note that Shokin was fired for failing to address corruption, including within his office.[42][50][56]

In July 2019, Trump ordered the freezing of $391 million in military aid[57] shortly before a telephone conversation with Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky in which Trump asked Zelensky to initiate an investigation of the Bidens.[58][59] Trump falsely told Zelensky that "[Joe] Biden went around bragging that he stopped the prosecution" of his son; Joe Biden did not stop any prosecution, did not brag about doing so, and there is no evidence his son was ever under investigation.[60] The United States House of Representatives initiated a formal impeachment inquiry on September 24, 2019 against Trump on the grounds that he may have sought to use U.S. foreign aid and the Ukrainian government to damage Joe Biden's 2020 presidential campaign.[61][62] Ukrainian prosecutor general Yuriy Lutsenko said in May 2019 that Hunter Biden had not violated Ukrainian law. After Lutsenko was replaced by Ruslan Riaboshapka as prosecutor general, Lutsenko and Riaboshapka said in September and October 2019 respectively that they had seen no evidence of wrongdoing by Hunter Biden.[43][63][64]

During 2019 and into 2020, Republican senators Ron Johnson and Chuck Grassley investigated Hunter Biden's involvement with Burisma, as well as allegations that Democrats colluded with the Ukrainian government to interfere in the 2016 election. The chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee Republican senator Richard Burr privately expressed concerns to the senators that their inquiries could assist efforts by Russian intelligence to spread disinformation to disrupt American domestic affairs.[65] American intelligence officials briefed senators in late 2019 about Russian efforts to frame Ukraine for 2016 election interference.[66] Johnson said he would release findings in spring 2020, as Democrats would be selecting their 2020 presidential nominee, but instead ramped up the investigation at Trump's urging in May 2020, after it became clear that Joe Biden would be the nominee.[67][68] Trump tweeted a press report about the investigations, later stating that he would make allegations of corruption by the Bidens a central theme of his re-election campaign.[66] Johnson decided in March 2020 against issuing a subpoena for former Ukrainian official Andrii Telizhenko, a Giuliani associate who had made appearances on the pro-Trump cable channel One America News, after the FBI briefed him about concerns Telizhenko could be spreading Russian disinformation.[69] The State Department revoked Telizhenko's visa in October 2020, and CNN reported the American government was considering sanctioning him as a Russian agent.[70] CNN reported that Vladislav Davidzon, the editor of Ukrainian magazine The Odessa Review, told CNN that in 2018 Telizhenko offered him money to lobby Republican senators in support of pro-Russian television stations in Ukraine.[71] When Johnson released the final report on the investigation, it contained no evidence that Joe Biden had pushed for Shokin's removal in order to benefit Hunter or Burisma.[72][73]

In June 2020, former Ukrainian prosecutor general Ruslan Riaboshapka stated that an audit of thousands of old case files he had ordered in October 2019 had found no wrongdoing by Hunter Biden. Riaboshapka was described by Zelensky as "100 percent my person" during the July 2019 call in which Trump asked him to investigate Biden.[74]

Ukrainian lawmaker Andrii Derkach, an associate of Rudy Giuliani with links to Russian intelligence, released in May 2020 alleged snippets of recordings of Joe Biden speaking with Ukrainian president Petro Poroshenko during the years Hunter Biden worked for Burisma.[75] The recordings, which were not verified as authentic and appeared heavily edited, depicted Biden linking loan guarantees for Ukraine to the ouster of the country's prosecutor general. The recordings did not provide evidence to support the ongoing conspiracy theory that Biden wanted the prosecutor fired to protect his son.[76] Poroshenko denied in June 2020 that Joe Biden ever approached him about Burisma.[77][78] The United States Department of the Treasury sanctioned Derkach in September 2020, stating he "has been an active Russian agent for over a decade, maintaining close connections with the Russian Intelligence Services." The Treasury Department added Derkach "waged a covert influence campaign centered on cultivating false and unsubstantiated narratives concerning U.S. officials in the upcoming 2020 Presidential Election" including by the release of "edited audio tapes and other unsupported information with the intent to discredit U.S. officials."[79][80]

Two Republicans on a Senate investigation committee in 2020 claimed that Russian businessperson Yelena Baturina, the wife of former Moscow mayor Yury Luzhkov, wire-transferred $3.5 million in 2014 to an investment firm linked to Hunter Biden. The report cited unspecified confidential documents. The report gives no indication that Hunter Biden personally accepted the funds.[81] Biden's attorney denied the report, saying Biden had no financial relationship with the woman and no stake in the partnership that received the money, nor did he co-found the partnership.[82][83] However, a White House spokeswoman repeated the claim, and in a press conference President Trump repeatedly claimed that Biden received millions of dollars from the former mayor's wife.[81]

Naval career

Biden's application for a position in the U.S. Navy Reserve was approved in May 2013.[84] At age 43, Biden was accepted as part of a program that allows a limited number of applicants with desirable skills to receive commissions and serve in staff positions.[85] Biden received an age-related waiver and a waiver due to a past drug-related incident; he was sworn in as a direct commission officer.[84] Joe Biden administered his commissioning oath in a White House ceremony.[3]

The following month, Biden tested positive for cocaine during a urinalysis test and was subsequently discharged administratively.[86][87] Biden attributed the result to smoking cigarettes he had accepted from other smokers, claiming the cigarettes were laced with cocaine.[3] He chose not to appeal the matter as it was unlikely that the panel would believe his explanation given his history with drugs[88][89] and also due to the likelihood of news leaking to the press; it was ultimately revealed to The Wall Street Journal by a Navy official who provided the information.[3][84]

Personal life

Biden (center) with family at his brother Beau's funeral

Biden married Kathleen Buhle in 1993[3] and they have three children Naomi, Finnegan, and Maisy.[7] The couple separated in 2015 and divorced in 2017.[90] Biden began dating Hallie Biden, widow of brother Beau, in 2016.[91][92][93]

Biden is also the father of a child born to Lunden Alexis Roberts in Arkansas in August 2018.[94][95]

Biden married South African filmmaker Melissa Cohen in May 2019.[88][96] Their son was born in March 2020 in Los Angeles.[97]

Biden spent decades struggling with alcohol and drug addiction. He said, "There's addiction in every family. I was in that darkness. I was in that tunnel—it's a never-ending tunnel. You don't get rid of it. You figure out how to deal with it".[88][89][98]

References

  1. Multiple sources:
  2. Phelps, Jordyn; Saenz, Arlette (August 25, 2015). "Hunter Biden Denies Ashley Madison Account Is His". ABC News. https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/hunter-biden-denies-ashley-madison-account-belongs/story?id=33301506. 
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 Entous, Adam (July 1, 2019). "Will Hunter Biden Jeopardize His Father's Campaign?". The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2019/07/08/will-hunter-biden-jeopardize-his-fathers-campaign. 
  4. Connelly, Kevin (August 28, 2008). "Biden shows more bark than bite". BBC News. London, England. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7585384.stm. 
  5. Broder, John M. (August 28, 2008). "Biden Opens New Phase With Attack on McCain". https://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/28/us/politics/28biden.html. 
  6. Seelye, Katharine Q. (August 24, 2008). "Jill Biden Heads Toward Life in the Spotlight". https://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/25/us/politics/25wife.html. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Newman, Meredith; Jagtiani, Sarika; Sharp, Andrew (September 26, 2019). "Hunter Biden: Who is former Vice President Joe Biden's son mentioned in Ukraine-Trump call?". USA Today. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2019/09/26/who-hunter-biden-joe-biden-son-ukraine-call/3773527002/. 
  8. Yglesias, Matthew (October 1, 2019). "Hunter Biden, the black sheep who might accidentally bring down Trump, explained". Vox. https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2019/10/1/20891510/hunter-biden-burisma-ukraine-shokin. "There's no reason to think that Biden backed MBNA's position because his son worked there—senators normally line up with their home state's major employers' policy priorities—it's more like Hunter got the job due to his dad's overall cozy relationship with the company." 
  9. Peligri, Justin (October 18, 2014). "Who is Hunter Biden?". CNN. https://edition.cnn.com/2014/10/17/politics/who-is-hunter-biden/index.html. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Schrekinger, Ben (August 2, 2019). "Biden Inc.". Politico Magazine. https://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2019/08/02/joe-biden-investigation-hunter-brother-hedge-fund-money-2020-campaign-227407. 
  11. Glass, Andrew (February 7, 2007). "A Younger Biden Goes the Extra Miles for Amtrak". Politico. Washington, D.C.. https://www.politico.com/story/2007/02/a-younger-biden-goes-the-extra-miles-for-amtrak-002672. 
  12. Seitz, Amanda (October 21, 2019). "Hunter Biden didn't make millions off Amtrak". Associated Press. https://apnews.com/afs:Content:8002831726. 
  13. "Amtrak Board Names Thomas Carper of Illinois as Chairman: Former Chairman Donna McLean Becomes Vice Chairman". Washington, D.C.: National Railroad Passenger Corporation. January 30, 2009. p. 1. http://www.pennfedbmwe.org/Docs/amtrak/Amtrak_Board/McLean/20090130_Amtrak_Advisory_McLean.pdf. 
  14. "NOMINATIONS TO THE AMTRAK REFORM BOARD". 8 June 2006. pp. 7–8. https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CHRG-109shrg65181/html/CHRG-109shrg65181.htm. 
  15. Schreckinger, Ben (2 August 2019). "Biden, Inc.: How 'Middle Class' Joe's family cashed in on the family name" (in en). https://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2019/08/02/joe-biden-investigation-hunter-brother-hedge-fund-money-2020-campaign-227407. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 Yu, Sun; Williams, Aime; Olearchyk, Roman (2019-10-09). "Hunter Biden's web of interests" (in en-GB). https://www.ft.com/content/3904f888-e8ef-11e9-a240-3b065ef5fc55. 
  17. Funke, Daniel; Dc 20036. "Fact-checking claims about charities linked to Hunter Biden and the Trump children" (in en-US). https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/oct/21/left-action/fact-checking-claims-about-charities-linked-hunter/. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 Evan Perez and Pamela Brown. "Federal criminal investigation into Hunter Biden focuses on his business dealings in China". https://www.cnn.com/2020/12/09/politics/hunter-biden-tax-investigtation/index.html. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Goldman, Adam; Benner, Katie; Vogel, Kenneth P. (December 10, 2020). "Hunter Biden Discloses He Is Focus of Federal Tax Inquiry". https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/09/us/politics/hunter-biden-tax-investigation.html. 
  20. Mangan, Dan (December 9, 2020). "Joe Biden's son Hunter Biden under federal investigation for tax case". https://www.cnbc.com/2020/12/09/hunter-biden-under-federal-investigation-over-taxes.html. 
  21. Wise, Alana (December 9, 2020). "Hunter Biden Says He Is Under Federal Investigation For Tax Matter: Report". https://www.npr.org/sections/biden-transition-updates/2020/12/09/944751413/bidens-son-under-federal-investigation-for-tax-matter/. 
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  25. Deng, Chao (July 10, 2014). "Bohai, Harvest and U.S. Investment Firms Expand Target for Outbound Fund". Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com/articles/bohai-harvest-and-u-s-investment-firms-expand-target-for-outbound-fund-1404956572. 
  26. "Funds" Archived September 29, 2018, at the Wayback Machine., company webpage. Retrieved November 16, 2016.
  27. McKinnon, Judy (November 15, 2016). "Lundin Mining to Sell Stake in African Mine for $1.14 Billion". Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com/articles/lundin-mining-to-sell-stake-in-african-mine-for-1-14-billion-1479215364. 
  28. 28.0 28.1 Kessler, Glenn (September 26, 2019). "Trump's false claims about Hunter Biden's China dealings". https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2019/09/26/trumps-false-claims-about-hunter-bidens-china-dealings/. 
  29. Subramaniam, Tara (October 4, 2019). "Fact-checking Trump's claims about the Bidens in China". CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/09/27/politics/fact-check-trump-bidens-china/index.html. 
  30. "Explainer: Trump's claims and Hunter Biden's dealings in China". Reuters. October 4, 2019. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-trump-whistleblower-hunterbiden-c/explainer-trumps-claims-and-hunter-bidens-dealings-in-china-idUSKBN1WI2HK. 
  31. LaFraniere, Sharon; Forsythe, Michael (October 3, 2019). "What We Know About Hunter Biden's Business in China". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/03/us/politics/hunter-biden-china.html. 
  32. Cohen, David. "Hunter Biden to step down from board of Chinese company". Politico. https://www.politico.com/news/2019/10/13/hunter-biden-resign-china-company-045761. 
  33. Newburger, Emma (October 13, 2019). "Hunter Biden resigns from Chinese firm following Trump attacks". CNBC. https://www.cnbc.com/2019/10/13/hunter-biden-resigns-from-chinese-firm-following-trump-attacks.html. 
  34. Mesires, George (October 13, 2019). "A Statement on behalf of Hunter Biden, dated October 13, 2019". https://medium.com/@george.mesires/a-statement-on-behalf-of-hunter-biden-dated-october-13-2019-d80bc11087ab. 
  35. Bullough, Oliver (April 12, 2017). "The money machine: how a high-profile corruption investigation fell apart". The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/apr/12/the-money-machine-how-a-high-profile-corruption-investigation-fell-apart. 
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3 Sonne, Paul; Kranish, Michael; Viser, Matt (September 28, 2019). "The gas tycoon and the vice president's son: The story of Hunter Biden's foray into Ukraine". https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/the-gas-tycoon-and-the-vice-presidents-son-the-story-of-hunter-bidens-foray-in-ukraine/2019/09/28/1aadff70-dfd9-11e9-8fd3-d943b4ed57e0_story.html. 
  37. Risen, James (December 8, 2015). "Joe Biden, His Son and the Case Against a Ukrainian Oligarch". https://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/09/world/europe/corruption-ukraine-joe-biden-son-hunter-biden-ties.html. 
  38. 38.0 38.1 Vogel, Kenneth P. (September 22, 2019). "Trump, Biden and Ukraine: Sorting Out the Accusations". https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/22/us/politics/biden-ukraine-trump.html. 
  39. 39.0 39.1 39.2 Vogel, Kenneth P.; Mendel, Iuliia (May 1, 2019). "Biden Faces Conflict of Interest Questions That Are Being Promoted by Trump and Allies". ISSN 0362-4331. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/01/us/politics/biden-son-ukraine.html. 
  40. Jacobson, Louis; Kruzel, John (September 23, 2019). "Trump's Ukraine call, a whistleblower and the Bidens: What we know, what we don't". PolitiFact. https://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/article/2019/sep/23/president-donald-trump-ukraine-biden-whistleblower/. 
  41. 41.0 41.1 Braun, Stephen; Berry, Lynn (September 23, 2019). "The story behind Biden's son, Ukraine and Trump's claims". Associated Press. https://www.apnews.com/9d4595ba4f3140c6bb6a3473a91f4a4c. 
  42. 42.0 42.1 Cullison, Alan (September 22, 2019). "Biden's Anticorruption Effort in Ukraine Overlapped With Son's Work in Country". https://www.wsj.com/articles/bidens-anticorruption-effort-in-ukraine-overlapped-with-sons-work-in-country-11569189782. "Messrs. Trump and Giuliani have suggested that Joe Biden pushed for the firing of Ukraine's general prosecutor, Viktor Shokin, in March 2016 to stop an investigation into Burisma. In Ukraine, government officials and anticorruption advocates say that is a misrepresentation ... Mr. Shokin had dragged his feet into those investigations, Western diplomats said, and effectively squashed one in London by failing to cooperate with U.K. authorities ... In a speech in 2015, the U.S. ambassador to Ukraine, Otto Pyatt, called the Ukrainian prosecutor "an obstacle" to anticorruption efforts" 
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 Kiely, Eugene (September 24, 2019). "Trump Twists Facts on Biden and Ukraine". FactCheck.org. Annenberg Public Policy Center. https://www.factcheck.org/2019/09/trump-twists-facts-on-biden-and-ukraine/. 
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  46. Baker, Peter (September 23, 2019). "Instead of 'No Collusion!' Trump Now Seems to Be Saying, So What if I Did?". https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/23/us/politics/trump-ukraine-collusion.html. 
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  49. Raymond, Adam K. (May 7, 2019). "Everything We Know About the Joe Biden–Ukraine Controversy". New York. https://nymag.com/intelligencer/2019/05/joe-biden-ukraine-controversy.html. 
  50. 50.0 50.1 Thrush, Glenn; Vogel, Kenneth P. (November 10, 2019). "What Joe Biden Actually Did in Ukraine". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/10/us/politics/joe-biden-ukraine.html. 
  51. In March 2016, testimony to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, former ambassador to Ukraine John E. Herbst stated, "By late fall of 2015, the EU and the United States joined the chorus of those seeking Mr. Shokin’s removal" and that Joe Biden "spoke publicly about this before and during his December visit to Kyiv." During the same hearing, assistant secretary of state Victoria Nuland stated, "we have pegged our next $1 billion loan guarantee, first and foremost, to having a rebooting of the reform coalition so that we know who we are working with, but secondarily, to ensuring that the prosecutor general’s office gets cleaned up." Ukrainian Reforms Two Years After the Maidan Revolution and the Russian Invasion Hearing Archived November 19, 2019, at the Wayback Machine.. United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. March 15, 2016. Retrieved April 30, 2020.
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  53. Ivanova, Polina; Polityuk, Pavel (September 27, 2019). "Ukraine agency says allegations against Burisma cover period before Biden joined". Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-trump-whistleblower-ukraine-buris/ukraine-agency-says-allegations-against-burisma-cover-period-before-biden-joined-idUSKBN1WC1LV. 
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