|Manufacturer||Howard Aircraft Corporation|
|Primary user||US Navy|
|Developed from||Howard DGA-12|
The Howard Aircraft Corporation DGA-15 was a single-engine civil aircraft produced in the USA from 1939 to 1944.
Development and design
The Howard Aircraft Company (later Howard Aircraft Corporation) was formed in 1936 to build commercial derivatives of the Howard DGA-6 (named Mister Mulligan), a successful four seat racing aircraft which had won both the Bendix and the Thompson Trophies in 1935, the only aircraft ever to win both races. These successes did indeed bring the DGA series much attention, and Howard produced a series of closely related differing mainly in the engine type, consisting of the DGA-7, 8, 9, 11 and 12. Offering high performance and comprehensively equipped, despite a high purchase price (with the DGA-11 selling for $17,865, these emerged as coveted aircraft owned by corporations, wealthy individuals, and movie stars, such as Wallace Beery, who was himself a pilot. (In the movie Bugsy, Warren Beatty playing the title role is flown from Los Angeles to Las Vegas in a red Howard DGA-15.) In 1939, the Howard Aircraft Corporation produced a new development of the basic design, the Howard DGA-15. Like its predecessors, the DGA-15 was a single engined high-winged monoplane with a wooden wing and a steel tube truss fuselage, but it was distinguished by a deeper and wider fuselage, allowing five people to be seated in comfort. It was available in several versions, differing in the engine fitted. The DGA-15P was powered by a Pratt & Whitney Wasp Junior radial engine, while the DGA-15J used a Jacobs L6MB and the DGA-15W a Wright R-760-E2 Whirlwind. In an era when airlines were flying DC-3s, the Howards cruising at 160 to 170 mph could match their speed, range and comfort with the rear seat leg room exceeding airline standards with limousine-like capaciousness, and high wing loading allowing the Howards to ride through most turbulence comfortably.
World War II
Prior to Pearl Harbor, about 80 DGA-8 through DGA-15 aircraft had been built at the Howard Aircraft Corporation factory on the south side of Chicago Municipal Airport. With America's entry into World War II, most of the civilian Howards were commandeered by the military. The Army used them as officer transports and as ambulance planes, with the designation UC-70. The Navy, in particular, much liked the plane and contracted Howard Aircraft Corporation to build hundreds of the DGA-15Ps to its own specifications. They were used variously as an officer's utility transport (GH-1, GH-3), aerial ambulance (GH-2), and for instrument training (NH-1). A second factory was opened at Dupage County airport, west of Chicago, and about 520 DGA-15's were eventually completed.
In their vintage years, Howards DGA series are prized more for their utility than for their clean lines. Contemporary cabin aircraft have already become antiques, living pampered lives as show pieces rather than working aircraft. In the 1960s a modification was offered by the Jobmaster company of Renton, Washington, including additional seating, windows, and float installation making Howard DGA-15s attractive to bush operators, and the generous cabin size proved popular with sky-divers as low capital outlay, low operating cost jumping platforms.
With most of the working Howard DGA's retired from active commercial service they have become popular as restoration subjects and as alternatives to more modern equivalents with higher cost of ownership. Almost 100 of the Howard variants are still flying, mostly DGA-15s. A few of the DGA-11s also still fly, including one out of Santa Paula, CA, which is probably the world head-quarters for Howards with at least five flying out of that field. Superb travelling aeroplanes with much better visibility, headroom, and shoulder room than some contemporary cabin aircraft, they have very long "legs" with a fuel capacity of 151 gallons in three belly mounted tanks, giving an endurance of more than 7 hours, for a range, at normal cruise (130kts/150 mph), of over 1,000 statute miles. With modern avionics, the Howard can compete in many respects with many contemporary light aircraft, due to its combination of room, comfort, speed, range and carrying capacity. A DGA-15P competed in the 1971 London England to Victoria British Columbia air race in 1971.
- Variant fitted with a Jacobs L6MB radial engine (330 hp, 246 kW)
- Variant fitted with a Pratt & Whitney R-985 radial engine (450 hp, 336 kW)
- Variant fitted with a Wright Whirlwind J6-7 radial engine (350 hp, 261 kW)
- Communications and liaison version of the DGA-15P built for the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard, 29 built new and four civil aircraft impressed.
- GH-2 Nightingale
- Ambulance version for the US Navy, 131 built.
- A variant of the GH-1 with equipment changes, 115 built.
- Instrument training variant for the United States Navy, 205 built.
- Ten civil DGA-15Ps impressed into service by the United States Army Air Force and one aircraft leased.
- Four civil DGA-15Js impressed into service by the United States Army Air Force.
- Crew: one, pilot
- Capacity: 3-4 passengers (NH-1 trainer has additional blind flight student station behind pilot)
- Length: 25 ft 8 in (7.82 m)
- Wingspan: 38 ft 0 in (11.58 m)
- Height: 8 ft 5 in (2.57 m)
- Wing area: 210 ft² (19.5 m²
(Note: the wing span and chord are the same as the earlier DGA-11, but the DGA-15 area is calculated including the area displaced by the fuselage cabin))
- Airfoil: NACA 2R212 (reflexed)
- Empty weight: 2,700 lb (1,225 kg)
- Loaded weight: 4,350 lb (USN aircraft: 4,500 lb) (1,973 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 4,350 lb (1,973 kg)
- Powerplant: 1 × Pratt & Whitney R-985 radial engine, 450 hp (336 kW)
- Never exceed speed: 235 knots (270 mph, 437 km/h)
- Maximum speed: 175 knots (201 mph, 323 km/h)
- Range: 1,095 nm (1,260 mi, 2,028 km)
- Service ceiling: 21,000 ft (6,555 m)
- Rate of climb: 1,800 ft/min (550 m/min)
- Wing loading: 21.3 lb/ft² (104.7 kg/m²)
- Power/mass: 0.100 hp/lb (0.165 kW/kg)
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- List of aircraft of World War II
- Bushell 1987, p.42.
- "DGA" stands for "Damn Good Airplane" in designer/pilot Benny Howard's nomenclature.
- Bushell 1987, pp.40-41.
- Bushell 1987, p.43.
- Bushell, Sue J. "Some Damn Good Airplanes". Air Enthusiast, Thirty-two, December 1986-April 1987. Bromley, UK:Pilot Press. pp. 32–44.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Howard DGA-15.|
- Photos and Factory Sales Literature for Howard DGA-15
- Taxi, takeoff and flyby of a DGA-15P
- List of books and magazine articles referencing Howard DGA aircraft; Most are written from first-hand experience
- Aerofiles catalog of Howard aircraft
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