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Heather Wilson
24th United States Secretary of the Air Force
Assumed office
May 16, 2017
President Donald Trump
Preceded by Deborah Lee James
President of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology

In office
June 17, 2013 – May 10, 2017
Preceded by Robert Wharton
Succeeded by Jan Puszynski (Acting)
Member of the United States House of Representatives
In office
June 25, 1998 – January 3, 2009
Preceded by Steven Schiff
Succeeded by Martin Heinrich
Personal details
Born Heather Ann Wilson
December 30, 1960(1960-12-30) (age 62)
Keene, New Hampshire, U.S.
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Jay Hone
Children 3
Military service
Allegiance United States
Service/branch  United States Air Force
Years of service 1982–1989
Rank US-O3 insignia.svg Captain

Heather Ann Wilson (born December 30, 1960) is the United States Secretary of the Air Force. She is a former Republican member of the United States House of Representatives representing New Mexico's 1st congressional district from 1998 to 2009, and the president of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology in Rapid City, South Dakota. She was the first female military veteran elected to a full term in Congress.[1]

While in Congress, Wilson focused on national security issues, serving on the United States House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence and the United States House Committee on Armed Services.[1] She also focused on health care, energy, manufacturing and trade, and telecommunications, serving on the United States House Committee on Energy and Commerce.[1] She opted not to run for re-election to the House in 2008 and sought the U.S. Senate seat of retiring Senator Pete Domenici but finished second in the Republican primary to Congressman Steve Pearce, who then lost the general election to Democrat Tom Udall.[2] On March 7, 2011, she announced another run for Senate in 2012 to replace retiring Senator Jeff Bingaman,[3] but lost the general election to Martin Heinrich, her successor in the House of Representatives.[4]

In April 2013 she was selected to be President of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology by the South Dakota Board of Regents.[5] She is the eighteenth president, and first female president, of SD Mines.[6] On January 23, 2017, President Donald Trump announced that he would nominate Wilson as Secretary of the Air Force.[7] The US Senate confirmed her nomination on May 8, 2017.[8]

Early life

Wilson was born on December 30, 1960, in Keene, New Hampshire, the daughter of Martha Lou, nurse, and George Douglas "Doug" Wilson, a commercial pilot and member of the Experimental Aircraft Association.[1][9][10] Wilson grew up around aviation and hoped to become a pilot like her father and grandfather before her.[1] Her paternal grandparents were born in Scotland.[11] Her grandfather, George Gordon "Scotty" Wilson, flew for the Royal Flying Corps in World War I and emigrated to America in 1922 where he was a barnstormer and airport operator in the 1920s and 1930s. He served as a courier pilot during World War II and started the New Hampshire Civil Air Patrol where he was a Wing Commander.[12] Her father started flying at age 13 and enlisted in the United States Air Force after high school.[13]

The United States Air Force Academy began admitting women during her junior year at Keene High School (Keene, New Hampshire), and Wilson applied and was appointed to the Academy.[1] At the Academy, she was the first woman to command basic training and the first woman Vice Wing Commander.[14] She graduated in 1982 as a Distinguished Graduate (magna cum laude equivalent).[15][16] Wilson earned a Rhodes Scholarship to study at the University of Oxford and continued her education at Jesus College, University of Oxford, earning an M.Phil. and D.Phil. in international relations by 1985.[15]

In 1990, Oxford University Press published her book, International Law and the Use of Force by National Liberation Movements,[17] which won the 1988 Paul Reuter Prize of the International Committee of the Red Cross.[18] The Paul Reuter Prize is awarded for a major work in the sphere of international humanitarian law. Wilson won the second Reuter prize ever awarded.[19]

An Air Force officer for seven years, Wilson was a negotiator and political adviser to the U.S. Air Force in England, and a defense planning officer for NATO in Belgium, where her work included arms control negotiations.[20]

Pre-congressional career

National Security Council

Wilson served in the United States Air Force until 1989 when she was chosen to serve as director for European Defense Policy and Arms Control on the National Security Council staff,[1] "the President's principal forum for considering national security and foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. Since its inception under President Truman, the Council's function has been to advise and assist the President on national security and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the President's principal arm for coordinating these policies among various government agencies."[21] She worked for Republican President George H. W. Bush.[22]

Keystone International

After leaving government in 1991, Wilson founded Keystone International, Inc. in Albuquerque, New Mexico to promote business development in the United States and Russia.[23][24]

Governor Johnson administration

In 1995, Governor Gary Johnson appointed Wilson to be Cabinet Secretary for Children Youth & Families Department, New Mexico,[23] a $200 million state agency with 2,000 employees, where she led efforts to: reform child welfare laws; modernize the juvenile justice system; and improve early childhood education. This position led her to take an intense interest in Medicare and Medicaid and the ways in which the system can be improved to ensure the health of the American people and the American healthcare industry. Under her leadership, the department opened a juvenile work camp and a secure facility for young, violent offenders. It eliminated the wait for state-subsidized child care, revamped the foster care program and made adoptions faster. She also was an architect and the chief lobbyist for the governor's education agenda, including a law allowing charter schools, annual testing, and more budget authority for local school boards.[25]

U.S. House of Representatives

Congressional Photo of Heather Wilson (1998–2009)


1998 special election

Five-term Republican Congressman Steven Schiff declared he would not run for re-election in February 1998 because of his battle with Squamous-cell carcinoma. Wilson resigned her cabinet post to enter the Republican primary. She won the support of Schiff and U.S. Senator Pete Domenici. Domenici called Wilson "the most brilliantly qualified House candidate anywhere in the country."[26] After Congressman Schiff's death in March, a special election on June 23 was announced. Wilson won the Republican primary for the general election with 62 percent of the vote,[27] "propelling her to a sizable win in the June 2 primary for the fall election against conservative state senator William F. Davis."[1]

Three weeks after winning the primary, Wilson won the special election with 44 percent of the vote in a four-way race against Democratic state senator Phil Maloof, Green Party candidate Robert L. Anderson, and Libertarian Party candidation Bruce Bush.[28] She was sworn into office on June 25, 1998, making her the first woman since Georgia Lusk in 1946, and the first Republican woman ever, to represent New Mexico.[1]

The special election set a record for the infusion of party money.[29] For the June 23 special election, Maloof spent $3.1 million,[1] approximately $1.5 million of which came from the Maloof family fortune and $1 million from committees.[29] Wilson received $1 million from various GOP committees and raised an additional $1.5 million herself.[29]

The special election also raised awareness of a 1996 occurrence when Wilson had her family's foster parent records relocated to a more secure location. After completing an investigation, Former District Attorney Bob Schwartz confirmed that the file was intact, accessible to the Department, and had not been tampered with.[30] It remained in the custody of the Department, available for any official use but unavailable to her other than through the process all foster parents must use to get access to their records. Wilson produced an affidavit from the Department that the file remained intact and unavailable to her for the duration of her time as Cabinet Secretary.[31]

1998 general election

Less than five months later in the general election, Wilson faced Phil Maloof again. This time, she won a full term, defeating Maloof 48 percent to 41 percent.[32] Maloof far outspent Wilson again, spending an additional $5 million to Wilson's $1.1 million, making it the most expensive House race in New Mexico's history.[1]


Wilson managed to defeat her Democratic opponent, former U.S. Attorney John J. Kelly, by five points.[33]


Wilson had a somewhat easier time in 2002, defeating State Senate President Pro Tem Richard M. Romero by 10 points.[34]


In 2004, Wilson faced Romero again. Outside spending on the election was the 15th highest of all House races that year, totaling $2,499,980.[35] The National Republican Congressional Committee spent $1,085,956 in the race. The Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee spent $1,296,402.[36]

Wilson and 66 other candidates received $10,000 donations from then-U.S. House Majority Leader Tom DeLay's Americans for a Republican Majority (ARMPAC) political action committee. ARMPAC filed termination papers with the Federal Election Commission on April 24, 2007.[37] Wilson returned the $10,000 donation from ARMPAC.[38]

During Wilson's reelection campaign in 2004, Romero ran advertisements that made the suggestion that her votes in Congress aided Osama bin Laden because she had voted against a bill to require the screening of cargo holds. Wilson's campaign countered with a policy ad stating Romero "voted against the death penalty for child molesters who murder their victims."[39]

Wilson won the election by eight points.[34]


In the 2006 elections, Heather Wilson faced New Mexico Attorney General Patricia A. Madrid, and a poll taken from October 24–29 prior to the election by Reuters/Zogby showed Madrid leading Wilson 53–44.[40] Wilson won the election by 875 (out of 211,000) votes, or 0.4%[41]


Wilson was the first woman to represent New Mexico since Georgia Lusk in the 1940s.[42] Wilson was a member of the Republican Main Street Partnership, a coalition of centrist Republican leaders.[43] Wilson has appeared on HBO's Real Time with Bill Maher.[44]

On October 10, 2002, together with 213 other Republicans and 81 Democrats, Wilson voted in favor of authorizing the use of military force against Iraq.[45]

The Albuquerque Journal reported several instances in 2004 when Wilson acted in opposition to Republican interests: requiring the Bush administration to release cost figures for his prescription drug plan, lecturing Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld about the importance of the Geneva Conventions during an Abu Ghraib hearing, and opposing a move by House Republicans to protect Tom DeLay from his fundraising scandal. Critics said these were calculated moves to moderate her image for her upcoming election. Later, she lost her seat on the House Armed Services Committee due to the actions of Republican Joe Barton, an ally of DeLay.[46][47][48]

Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 Motion to Recommit

In 2003, Wilson joined 221 Republicans and 1 Democrat in voting against a Motion to Recommit the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (HR 1).[49] The motion would have deleted entire sections of the joint House and Senate compromise bill and replaced them with the respective Senate version.

Broadcast Decency Enforcement Act

On January 21, 2004, legislation was introduced by Congressman Fred Upton to increase the fines and penalties for violating the prohibitions against the broadcast of obscene, indecent, or profane language. On February 12, 2004, the United States House Committee on Energy and Commerce held a hearing on the bill, at which representatives of the Federal Communications Commission, major broadcasting corporations, and the National Football League testified.[50] During the hearing, Wilson denounced Karmazin[51] saying, "You knew what you were doing. You knew what kind of entertainment you're selling, and you wanted us all to be abuzz, here in this room and on the playground in my kids' school, because it improves your ratings. It improves your market share, and it lines your pockets."[52] The bill, H.R. 3717,[53] passed the House of Representatives on March 26, 2004, by a vote of 391–22–1.[54]

NSA warrantless domestic surveillance

On February 7, 2006, Wilson, while serving as Chairwoman of the House Intelligence Subcommittee on Technical and Tactical Intelligence, called for a full congressional inquiry into the NSA warrantless surveillance. Eric Lichtblau of The New York Times said that "the congresswoman's discomfort with the operation appears to reflect deepening fissures among Republicans over the program's legal basis and political liabilities." In an interview for the article, Wilson said, "The president has his duty to do, but I have mine too, and I feel strongly about that."[55]

Terminated U.S. attorney

Wilson was accused of and later cleared of influencing the termination of a U.S. Attorney. In February 2007, former U.S. Attorney David Iglesias alleged that Wilson's competitive 2006 campaign for re-election to the House was a significant reason for his dismissal from the Justice Department.[56][57] In a March 2007 statement, Wilson said an October call to Iglesias was to resolve an allegation of ethical impropriety made against Iglesias, which Iglesias denied. Iglesias never reported the contact, as he was required to do by DOJ rules.[58] In July 2007, the United States House Committee on Ethics decided not to proceed with any investigation of Wilson.[59] The Justice Department also did a review and the matter was thereafter closed.[60]

Environmental record

Wilson was a member of the Republican Main Street Partnership, the chairs of which introduced legislation to make the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) a cabinet department.[61]

Wilson, along with 80 Democrats and 215 other Republicans, supported House passage of the conference report on the Healthy Forests Restoration Act, which opponents argued would "reduce and expedite (speed up) environmental and judicial reviews of forest thinning projects.[61]

Wilson, 36 Democrats, and 192 other Republicans supported House passage of the Threatened and Endangered Species Recovery Act of 2005, which would have amended and reauthorized the Endangered Species Act of 1973 to provide greater results conserving and recovering listed species, and for other purposes.[61]

The League of Conservation Voters (LCV) Action Fund, the political advocacy group's Political Action Committee (PAC), named Wilson to its 2006 "Dirty Dozen" list[62] of members of Congress targeted for defeat by the LCV in the 2006 elections.[62] The LCVAF also issued a press release in which Wilson was criticized for voting against a $58 million fund for voluntary conservation measures in the state.[63]

Committee assignments

  • United States House Committee on Energy and Commerce, 105th Congress (1997–1998) until her retirement after the 110th Congress (2007–2008).[64]
    • Subcommittee on Energy and Air Quality
    • Subcommittee on Environment and Hazardous Materials
    • Subcommittee on Health
    • Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet
  • United States House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, 106th Congress (1999–2000), 109th Congress (2005–2006), and 110th Congress (2007–2008)
    • Subcommittee on Technical and Tactical Intelligence (Chair & Ranking Member)
    • Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations
  • United States House Committee on Armed Services, 107th Congress (2001–2002) and 108th Congress (2003–2004)

2008 U.S. Senate campaign

Wilson was defeated in a June 3, 2008 primary against Congressman Steve Pearce by a margin of 51% to 49%.[65] Wilson immediately endorsed Pearce's candidacy, saying that Republicans have "no time for disappointment or for bitterness. Republicans have made their choice and I gladly accept it."[66] In the general election, Pearce was overwhelmingly defeated by Congressman Tom Udall, 61% to 39%.[67]

2012 U.S. Senate campaign

On November 6, 2012, incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator Jeff Bingaman decided to retire instead of running for reelection to a sixth term.[68] Democratic U.S. Representative Martin Heinrich defeated Wilson 51% to 45%.[69]

Secretary of the Air Force

Secretary Wilson being sworn in by Secretary of Defense James Mattis

Wilson was sworn in as Secretary of the Air Force on May 16, 2017.[70]

Business career

Wilson was the head of the consulting firm, Heather Wilson & Company after leaving Congress. During her Senate campaign, the Department of Energy began a review of her contracts with national laboratories. In June 2013, a Department of Energy Inspector General report claimed that Wilson collected $450,000 from four Department of Energy facilities between January 2009 and March 2011. The report criticized the labs for maintaining unsatisfactory documentation on the work performed. The labs disagreed with the report.[71]

Sandia Corp., one of the laboratories, reimbursed the federal government for the fees paid to Heather Wilson & Company. There was a settlement agreement with the Justice Department, and Wilson was not mentioned in that agreement. In addition, Wilson stated that she "was not a lobbyist for Sandia and [she] was not a member of the Contract Strategy Team criticized by the Inspector General’s report.”[72]

Personal life

Wilson is an instrument rated private pilot. She is married to Jay Hone, an attorney and retired Air Force Colonel. They have three adult children.[73]


  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 "WILSON, Heather | US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives" (in en). 
  2. "Updated: Race for the Senate: Heather Wilson" (in en-US). 
  3. "Breaking: Heather Wilson is Running For Senate". 
  4. "Updated: Wilson being considered for top national security job" (in en-US). 
  5. "Mines Family Welcomes Wilson Family". 2013-06-26. 
  6. "PHOTOS: Heather Wilson's tenure at School of Mines" (in en). Rapid City Journal. 
  7. "President Donald J. Trump Intends to Nominate Heather Wilson as Secretary of the Air Force" (in en). 2017-01-23. 
  8. "Senate confirms Trump's Air Force chief". TheHill. 2017-05-08. 
  9. "Area native is president's pick for Air Force secretary" (in en). 
  10. "Difficult childhood drove Wilson to seek a better life" (in en-US). 
  11. "Polishing a hidden gem" (in en). Rapid City Journal. 
  12. Woster, Kevin (February 23, 2017). "Wilson carries Frost, Tennyson on road less traveled to lead Air Force". South Dakota Public Broadcasting. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  13. Rubin, Jennifer (April 18, 2012). "Interview: Heather Wilson, Senate candidate". Washington Post. Retrieved 13 February 2017. 
  14. "President Heather Wilson Inauguration Set for Oct. 4 at South Dakota School of Mines & Technology". PRWeb. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 "Wilson, Heather". United States Congress. Retrieved 2009-03-10. 
  16. "White House nominates Academy grad Heather Wilson to become Air Force" (in en-US). Dobbins Air Reserve Base. 
  17. Wilson, Heather A. (1990) (in en). International Law and the Use of Force by National Liberation Movements. Clarendon Press. ISBN 9780198256625. 
  18. "Paul Reuter Prize". 2010-11-19. Retrieved 2011-08-13. 
  19. "The Paul Reuter Prize". 2010-11-30. Retrieved 2011-08-13. 
  20. "Albuquerque Journal from Albuquerque, New Mexico on April 30, 1998 · Page 2" (in en). 
  21. "National Security Council" (in en). 
  22. "US Senate confirms Heather Wilson as Air Force secretary, 76-22" (in en). 
  23. 23.0 23.1 Kheel, Rebecca (January 23, 2017). "Trump taps former congresswoman for Air Force secretary". The Hill. Retrieved 13 February 2017. 
  24. Lamothe, Dan (January 23, 2017). "ChecTrump picks former congresswoman and Air Force veteran Heather Wilson as Air Force secretary". Washington Post. Retrieved 13 February 2017. 
  25. "Heather A. Wilson". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2011-08-13. [dead link]
  26. See "Women in Congress: Heather A. Wilson". Helen Douglas Mankin was a Red Cross civilian nurse who served in World War I, but did not have veteran status. Catherine Small Long, a member of the Navy WAVES, was elected to complete the term of her husband who died in office and did not run for re-election.
  27. "NM District 01 – R Primary". Retrieved 2011-08-13. 
  28. "Secretary of State | Special Election Results". 2008-02-13. 
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 "GOP Spends $1 Million to Hold N.M. Seat". Washington Post. June 25, 1998. Retrieved 2011-08-13. 
  30. Lumpkin, John J. (June 17, 1998). "Former DA Says Wilson Broke No Law Over File". Albuquerque Journal. Retrieved 2011-08-13. 
  31. "ABQJOURNAL: DA Plans Check on Wilson Records". 
  32. "STATE OF NEW MEXICO | Official 1998 General Election Results for UNITED STATES REPRESENTATIVE - DISTRICT 01". 
  33. "THE 2000 ELECTIONS: STATE BY STATE". The New York Times. 2000-11-09. ISSN 0362-4331. 
  34. 34.0 34.1 " - Wilson beats Romero in New Mexico - Nov 3, 2004". 
  35. "2004 Outside Spending, by Races". Center for Responsive Politics. Retrieved 2011-08-15. 
  36. "Congressional Elections: New Mexico District 01 Race: 2004 Cycle". Center for Responsive Politics. Retrieved 2011-08-15. 
  37. "DeLay's PAC closes shop", Washington Post, May 1, 2007
  38. Trenkle, Jason (September 30, 2005). "DeLay's PAC gave money to NM reps; Wilson returned it". New Mexico Business Weekly. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  39. Navrot, Miguel (October 17, 2004). "House Race Is Close, Intense With Both Wilson, Romero on Attack". Albuquerque Journal. 
  40. Whitesides, John (November 1, 2006). "House control in range for Democrats: Reuters poll". Archived from the original on June 10, 2007. 
  41. "CNN 2004 election results". Retrieved 2008-02-06. 
  42. "Lusk, Georgia Lee, Biographical information". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2011-08-13. 
  43. "Republican Main Street Partnership Website". Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-05. 
  44. "Broadcast Transcript". Bill Maher. September 19, 2003. Retrieved 2007-09-29. 
  46. Coleman, Michael (December 17, 2004). "Wilson Scrambling To Keep Energy Seat". Albuquerque Journal. Retrieved 2007-10-06. 
  47. Fleck, John (January 27, 2005). "Wilson Will Return to Intelligence Panel". Albuquerque Journal. Retrieved 2007-10-06. 
  48. Coleman, Michael (January 30, 2005). "N.M. Delegation Heads to Capitol With High Hopes". Albuquerque Journal. Retrieved 2007-10-06. 
  49. "CONFERENCE REPORT ON H.R. 1, MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG, IMPROVEMENT, AND MODERNIZATION ACT OF 2003 – (House of Representatives – November 21, 2003)". 2003-11-21. Retrieved 2011-08-14. 
  50. Janofsky, Michael (2004-02-12). "Review of TV Decency Law Looks Beyond Bared Breast". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-10-30. 
  51. "THE BROADCAST DECENCY ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 2004". Government Printing Office. 2004-02-11. Retrieved 2011-10-30. 
  52. "NM Republican Heather Wilson's "Nipplegate" commentary". November 3, 2006. Retrieved 2011-10-30. 
  53. "Bill Summary & Status 108th Congress (2003-2004) H.R.3717". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2011-10-30. 
  54. "House Passes Broadcast Decency Bill". 2004-03-11.,2933,113951,00.html. Retrieved 2011-10-30. 
  55. Lichtblau, Eric; Scott Shane (February 8, 2006). "Republican Who Oversees N.S.A. Calls for Wiretap Inquiry". New York Times. 
  56. Taylor, Marisa (March 1, 2007). "Sources: GOP lawmakers tried to influence federal investigation". McClatchy Newspapers. Retrieved 2007-03-16. 
  57. Gallagher, Mike (April 15, 2007). "Domenici Sought Iglesias Ouster". The Albuquerque Journal. 
  58. Wilson, Heather (March 5, 2007). "Statement from Congresswoman Heather Wilson". Washington Post. Retrieved 2007-03-16. 
  59. "Wilson formally enters U.S. Senate race". 2011-03-07. Retrieved 2011-08-14. 
  60. "House Ethics Committee to ask Iglesias about call from Heather Wilson". Albuquerque Tribune. July 31, 2007. Archived from the original on 2011-08-14. 
  61. 61.0 61.1 61.2 "Heather Wilson on the Issues". 
  62. 62.0 62.1 "LCVAF NAMES NEXT 7 "DIRTY DOZEN" MEMBERS". 2006-06-13. Retrieved 2011-08-18. 
  63. [1][dead link]
  64. "Congressional Directory". 2009-12-08. Retrieved 2011-08-13. 
  65. "Canvass of Returns of Primary Election Held on June 3, 2008 – State of New Mexico". 
  66. "State Republican Pre-Primary Convention Results". Republican Party of New Mexico. 2008-03-17. Retrieved 2008-05-27. 
  67. "Congressional Elections: New Mexico Senate Race: 2008 Cycle". Retrieved 2011-08-15. 
  68. "Bingaman won't run for Senate in 2012" (in en-US). The Washington Post. 2011-02-19. ISSN 0190-8286. 
  69. "2012 New Mexico Senate Results" (in en). 
  70. Giaritelli, Anna (May 16, 2017). "Heather Wilson sworn in as Air Force secretary during emotional ceremony". Retrieved May 16, 2017. 
  71. Dixon, Darius (June 11, 2013). "DOE IG flags $450K in payments to Heather Wilson's firm". Politico. Retrieved June 12, 2013. 
  72. Bureau, Michael Coleman | Journal Washington. "Updated: Feds fine Sandia for improper lobbying" (in en-US). 
  73. "Biography: Heather Wilson, President". South Dakota School of Mines. Retrieved 24 January 2017. 

External links

United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Steven Schiff
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New Mexico's 1st congressional district

Succeeded by
Martin Heinrich
Party political offices
Preceded by
Allen McCulloch
Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from New Mexico
(Class 1)

Most recent
Academic offices
Preceded by
Robert Wharton
President of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology
Succeeded by
Jan Puszynski
Political offices
Preceded by
Deborah Lee James
United States Secretary of the Air Force

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