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Hayne Davis Boyden
Boyden as Colonel, USMC
Nickname "Cuckoo"
Born (1897-01-11)January 11, 1897
Died August 23, 1978(1978-08-23) (aged 81)
Place of birth Statesville, North Carolina
Place of death Asheville, North Carolina
Allegiance United States
Service/branch USMC logo.svg United States Marine Corps
Years of service 1918-1949
Rank US-O7 insignia.svg Brigadier General
Service number 0-99
Commands held MCAS Santa Barbara
Marine Bombing Squadron 2
Marine Observation Squadron 6
Battles/wars

World War I
Banana Wars

World War II

Awards Legion of Merit
Distinguished Flying Cross

Hayne Davis Boyden (January 11, 1897 - August 23, 1978) was a highly decorated Naval aviator and aviation pioneer in the United States Marine Corps who retired at the rank of Brigadier General. A veteran of several campaigns of the Banana Wars, Boyden became known in the Marine Corps as a pioneer in Aerial photography. He photographed thousands of square miles of Cuba, Haiti, Nicaragua, Panama and the Olympic forestry region of the Pacific northwest. This aerial photography became the basis for mosaic maps of these areas.[1][2][3]

Boyden also distinguished himself as an attack pilot during the Battle of Ocotal in July 1927 and received Distinguished Flying Cross and as Chief of Staff, 2nd Marine Aircraft Wing during World War II. He completed his career as Facilities Officer at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina in June 1949.[2][3][4]

Early career

Education and World War I

Hayne D. Boyden was born on January 11, 1897 in Statesville, North Carolina as the son of wealthy farmer John L. Boyden and his wife Mary Davis. He was a member of the prominent lawyer family from mother's side and his great-grandfather was Richmond M. Pearson, Chief Justice of the North Carolina Supreme Court from 1858 to 1878. Young Boyden completed grade schools in Statesville and Hill's private school before entered the Brevard College in Brevard, North Carolina. He graduated in summer 1914 and enrolled the Webb School in Bell Buckle, Tennessee.[1][2][3]

Boyden completed four-year course in three years, graduating in January 1917 and then taught the geometry and trigonometry there until June 1918. He became interested in flying and took extra mathematics courses to increase his knowdlege. Boyden enlisted the Marine Corps Reserve Flying Corps on August 13, 1918 and was ordered to the Ground School, U.S. Naval Aviation Detachment at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology at Cambridge for three-month course. Upon the completion of the ground school in December that year, he was sent as Gunnery sergeant to the Marine Flying School at Miami, Florida together with another Marine sergeant, future general and Medal of Honor recipient Christian F. Schilt.[1][2][5]

By the beginning of June 1919, Boyden completed the course and was commissioned second lieutenant in the Marine Corps Reserve. He was subsequently ordered to Marine Officers' Training School at Marine Barracks, Quantico, Virginia for officers' instruction, unfortunatelly due to postwar reorganization of the Marine Corps and budget cuts, Boyden was relieved from active duty on August 18, 1919.[1][2][6]

First aviation duty

However due to resignations of several officers who had been selected for retention on active duty, he was re-appointed second lieutenant in the Regular Marine Corps on September 2, 1919. Boyden resumed his officers' training at Quantico and completed his instruction in December that year. He was then assigned to Squadron "D," Marine Air Forces, 2nd Provisional Brigade and departed for Santo Domingo.[1][2][7]

Boyden participated in air patrols over the jungles of Santo Domingo until July 1921, when his unit was transferred to Haiti for similar duty. While in Santo Domingo, Boyden unit was redesignated Marine Observation Squadron One and he designed squadron's insignia, the famous Ace of Spades. The distinctive emblem bore the letters "A" and "S". As conceived by Boyden, the ace being the first card in a suit stood for "First" while "A" and "S" represented the words "Air" and "Squadron". This design is the first official unit insignia to appear in the Marine Corps aviation.[8]

Boyden and a United States Senator in Nicaragua in September 1932.

During the flight from Santo Domingo to Port-au-Prince, the engine of Boyden's plane suffered mechanical failure over the Maimón mountains and he was forced to parachute to safety. He and his passanger survived the crash, but suffered a fractured skull, which also resulted in permanent loss of hearing in his left ear. Boyden was forced to march 25 miles through dense jungle for two days, before he reached help.[1][2][9]

He spent almost a year in hospital, before he was declared fit for duty again and returned to the United States by the end of April 1922. Boyden was then assigned to Marine Corps Flying Field Quantico, Virginia and remained there until March 1923, when he was ordered to the Air Corps Technical School at Chanute Field in Rantoul, Illinois for a course of instruction in aerial photography.[1][2][10]

In December 1923, Boyden completed the course and was assigned to special temporary duty with the Marine Corps Expeditionary Force of the United States Fleet. He was promoted to first lieutenant on June 16, 1924 and married Amanda Mayo, a daughter of Navy Captain Chester G. Mayo that year. Captain Mayo was the son of former Commander-in-Chief, Atlantic Fleet, Admiral Henry T. Mayo. Their marriage lasted only seven years, ending with divorce and no children. Boyden remarried to Dorothy A. Townsend in 1933 and they had one son.[1][2][11]

During the fall of 1924, Boyden was ordered to Port-au-Prince, Haiti on a special temporary assignment to photograph the valley of Artibonite River. Hie aerial map proved invaluable to the Haitian government in developing the valley for agricultural purposes. Photographing approximately 300 square miles of terrain from 10,000 feet, Boyden's work was highly praised. by the Adjutant and Inspector of the Marine Corps, Rufus H. Lane as well as by Major General Commandant of the Marine Corps, John A. Lejeune.[1][2][12][13]

Boyden then remained in Haiti as a member of Observation Squadron 2 and received a Letter of Commendation from the Secretary of the Navy, Curtis D. Wilbur for reaching year's highest score with the free machine gun during individual battle practice. He then resumed his photographic duties and participated in the photographing of Gulf of Fonseca. For his service in Haiti, Boyden later received National Order of Honour and Merit by the Haitian Government.[1][2]

In December 1926, Boyden returned to the United States and was assigned to the Naval Air Station North Island, California. He was subsequently tasked with the command of Marine air mapping expedition, send to make an aerial survey and mosaic map of the Olympic forestry region of the Pacific northwest.[1][2][14][15]

Nicaraguan campaign

During March 1927, Boyden was attached to Observation Squadron 1 under Major Ross E. Rowell and departed for Nicaragua, where they were joined the 2nd Brigade of Marines under Brigadier general Logan Feland. Their task was to support ground forces of the brigade in combats against rebels called Sandinistas by their leader Augusto César Sandino. Boyden and his squadron also conducted air patrols over the jungles of Nicaragua in order to search for concentration of enemy forces.[1][2][3][16]

On July 16, 1927, Boyden was in command of an air patrol of two planes when he discovered the small Marine detachment at Ocotal to be besieged by a vastly superior force. The 37-man Marine Garrison on the ground was was surrounded by several hundred sandinistas for whole night, cutting their telegraph line and using sniper fire to supress their advance. At around 10:00 am, Boyden landed his plane near the town, grabbed a passing peasant and, after aquick interrogation, headed south to Managua to report the situation to Major Rowell.[1][2][3][4][17]

Major Rowell then flew a five plane detachment of DHs to help relieve the garrison. The dive-bombing runs from low altitude made by Rowell, Boyden and their men marked one of the first coordinated dive-bombing attacks in aviation history. The guerillas fled, many abandoning their arms and leaving 56 dead with only one U.S. Marine killed in action and five wounded. For his service during the battle, Boyden was decorated with the Distinguished Flying Cross and also Cross of Valor from the Government of Nicaragua.[1][2][4]

Further aerial photography duty

Boyden (center) with 1st Lt. Caleb T. Bailey (left) and Shirley Temple on the Set of The Little Colonel, 1935.

Boyden had gained a reputation as an aerial photography expert and his services were required again in September 1927, when he was ordered to Naval Air Station Key West, Florida. He was tasked with photographing the whole north and south coasts of Cuba. His excellent work was later praised by then-Chief of the Bureau of Navigation, Rear Admiral Richard H. Leigh from whom he received a Letter of Appreciation.[1][2]

Upon finishing his task in Cuba, Boyden and his unit were sent to Coco Solo, Panama Canal Zone, where he conducted an aerial survey of the Gulf of Panama. He photographed 10,000 square miles of territory, before returning to the United States to complete his photographic work for the Cuban Expedition. Boyden again astonished Commandant Lejeune and Chief of Navigation Bureau Leigh and received another Letter of Commendation from the both.[1][2]

In October 1928, Boyden was transferred to Marine Observation Squadron 6 at Marine Corps Air Station, Quantico, Virginia and served as the squadron's acting commanding officer during October that year. He remained at Quantico until November 1929, when he was transferred to Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida for duty as an Instructor at the Naval Aviators' School.[1][2][18]

On May 1930, Boyden was on a flight above Pensacola Bay with a student pilot, when the plane suddenly went into a spin and dove 3,000 feet into the bay. The student was uninjured but Boyden suffered a brain concussion and fractured skull. He spent five months in the hospital, before he was declared fit for duty again and ordered to the Headquarters Marine Corps. Boyden was then tasked with the photographing Marine Barracks Parris Island, South Carolina and making a large mosaic map of the base, that could be used in the planned development of the facility. He later received another Letter of Commendation from Major General Smedley Butler, commanding general of Parris Island, for his work.[2][19]

Boyden then resumed duty as Squadron's Photographic Officer of the Aircraft Squadrons, East Coast Expeditionary Force under Major Roy S. Geiger and remained in that capacity until June 1932, when he embarked for Nicaragua again as a member of the Aircraft Squadrons, 2nd Marine Brigade. The main task of the Marine forces in that country was to supervise the Nicaraguan elections of 1932, peacekeeping operations and training of the members of Nicaraguan National Guard.[1][2]

Boyden as Major in September 1938.

In August 1932, Boyden participated in the search for Marine patrol of three men, which lost in the jungle. Upon locating them, he flew food and supplies out to them and in addition, he dropped emergency supplies to a rescue patrol of the Nicaraguan National Guard and then guided them to the lost Marines. For his second tour in Nicaragua, Boyden received a Presidential Medal of Merit with Diploma from the Government of Nicaragua and also shared the Letter of commendation won by the squadrons for their cooperation during the elections.[1][2]

Boyden returned to the United States in September that year and was stationed again at Quantico until June 1933, when he embarked for Port-au-Prince, Haiti as a member of the Observation Squadron 9. He remained in Haiti until July 1934, when he returned to the United States for brief period before he was ordered back to Nicaragua for his third tour. The Marines were withdrawing from the country following the mutual agreement between two countries and Boyden was tasked with the preparation of the evacuation flight of all Observation Squadron 9 planes still remaining in Nicaragua.[20]

The flight consisted of nine observation land planes, one observation amphibian plane and one transport amphibian plane. He completed the task successfully and received another Letter of commendation for the excellent performance of a difficult mission. Boyden was promoted to Captain on November 30, 1934, after ten years as first lieutenant.[1][2]

He then joined Aircraft One at Marine Corps Air Station Quantico, Virginia and remained in that capacity until October 1935, when he flew two Department of Agriculture engineers on an inspection trip over the interior of Puerto Rico and later went to that island to be Officer-in-Charge of the construction of a landing field at Culebra. Boyden later served at the Marine Corps Air Station at St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, before returned to the States in August 1936.[1][2][21]

Boyden was subsequently ordered to the Air Corps Tactical School at Maxwell Air Force Base, in Montgomery, Alabama for a course in instruction. He was in the same class as future generals William O. Brice and Vernon E. Megee and they graduated in July 1937. Boyden then joined Aircraft Two in San Diego, California and remained there until July 1938, when he was promoted to Major and succeeded Major Frank D. Weir as commanding officer of Marine Bombing Squadron 2.[1][2][22][23][24]

He led his squadron during the series of exercises aboard aircraft carrier Ranger and participated in the winter fleet operations in the Caribbean based at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba. Boyden remained in that command until the end of January 1940, when he was ordered to Washington, D.C. for new assignment.[1][2]

World War II

Boyden was ordered to the Office of Naval Intelligence for a two month preparatory indoctrination course and upon the completion, he embarked for Havana, Cuba and succeeded his former superior commanding officer, Ross E. Rowell as Naval attaché and Naval attaché for Air to the American Ambassador George S. Messersmith. He had to face an attempts of enemy's spies, who raided his office in Havana and stole some documents in November 1940 and also abortive revolution in February 1941.[1][2][25][26][27]

Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the United States entry into World War II, Boyden assisted in the evacuation of total 450 civilians dependents of the Naval personnel at Guantánamo Bay and was praised by the Commandant of the Naval Base there, Rear admiral George L. Weyler. Boyden was promoted to the temporary rank of lieutenant colonel on January 26, 1942 and assumed additional duty as Naval attaché for Haiti two months later. He was later promoted to the temporary rank of Colonel on October 13, 1942 and served in Cuba until August 1943, when he was succeeded by Colonel John N. Hart and ordered back to the United States for new assignment. For his service in Cuba, Boyden was decorated with Order of Naval Merit, 1st Class and Red Cross Medal of the Order of Honor and Merit, rank Commander by the Cuban Government.[1][2]

Boyden then reported at the Headquarters Marine Corps in Washington, D.C. and was attached to the Division of Aviation under Major general Louis E. Woods. However he remained there only for two weeks and was transferred to Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina, where he assumed duty as Assistant Wing Commander, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing under Brigadier general Claude A. Larkin. He participated in the training of replacements Marine air crews until December 1943, when he was ordered to the Army Air Forces School of Applied Tactics at Orlando Army Air Base, Florida and completed one-month instruction there.[1][2]

He was subsequently ordered to the Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas and completed another one-month course of instruction there. Boyden was then sent to the Army and Navy Staff College in Washington, D.C. and completed his third instruction after two months in April 1944. He was then assigned to the headquarters, Marine Air, West Coast in San Diego, California under Major general Francis P. Mulcahy.[1][2]

In July 1944, Boyden was then ordered to Espiritu Santo and assumed duty as Chief of Staff, 2nd Marine Aircraft Wing (2nd MAW) under Major general James T. Moore. The 2nd MAW just returned from combats in Northern Solomons and served mainly to train and outfits Marine air units throught the summer of 1944. Following the Battle of Peleliu in November 1944, the 2nd MAW moved there and served as Garrison Air Force, Western Carolines. Boyden was largely responsible for preparing the wing for the operation, procuring equipment and personnel, arranging transportation, assigning and training officers and non-commissioned officers to specific duties, and coordinating the entire organization into a smooth functioning combat unit.[1][2][3]

By the end of April 1945, the 2nd MAW was ordered to Okinawa to support the landing troops. Boyden was in command of the rear echelon after embarkation of the assault unit, and was responsible for completing preparations for the movement of his troops and equipment. Landing on Okinawa on May 1, he was indefatigable in carrying on the details of administration under the new Commanding General of the Wing, Francis P. Mulcahy, being especially diligent in arranging for the security of the camp and effecting physical improvements. He carried on his work in exposed areas heedless of danger, and his disregard of personal safety was an inspiration to the entire command. For his service during the Okinawa campaign, Boyden was decorated with Legion of Merit with Combat "V" and also received Navy Presidential Unit Citation.[1][2][3][4]

Postwar service

Boyden returned to the United States in August 1945 and after brief tour at Headquarters Marine Corps in Washington, D.C., he was ordered to California for duty as Commanding Officer of Marine Corps Air Station Santa Barbara. The Marine Corps considered making MCAS Santa Barbara a permanent installation, however the city of Santa Barbara opposed this, since the area was needed for its municipal airport, as no other land nearby was suitable. The Marine Corps Air Station went into caretaker status on March 1, 1946, and it was released to the War Assets Administration for disposal two months later. Boyden supervised the decommissioning of the base and received a letter of appreciation from the Mayor of Santa Barbara, Herbert E. Weyler, for the fine relations between the station and the city.[1][2]

He was subsequently ordered back to Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina, where he assumed duty as Facilities Officer under Brigadier General Ivan W. Miller. His main duty was to maintain the cleanliness, general appearance and maintenance of the base. Boyden retired on June 30, 1949 after 31 years of active service and was advanced to the rank of Brigadier general on the retired list for having been specially commended in combat.[1][2]

Retirement

Following his retirement from the Marine Corps, Boyden remained with his wife at the Cherry Point Air Station, before moved to Asheville, North Carolina, where he died on August 23, 1978, aged 81. He was buried at McKendree United Methodist Church Cemetery in Manquin, Virginia with his second wife Dorothy Antoinette Townsend Boyden (1909–1978). They had together one son, Richmond P. Boyden.[1][2][28]

Decorations

Brigadier general Boyden's personal decorations include:[1][4]

Naval Aviator Badge.jpg
V
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
USMC Pistol Sharpshooter badge.png USMC Pistol Expert badge.png
Naval Aviator Badge
1st
Row
Legion of Merit
with Combat "V"
Distinguished Flying Cross Navy Presidential Unit Citation
with one star
Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal
with one 3/16 inch service star
2nd
Row
World War I Victory Medal Haitian Campaign Medal Second Nicaraguan Campaign Medal American Defense Service Medal
with Base Clasp
3rd
Row
American Campaign Medal Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal
with one 3/16 inch service star
World War II Victory Medal Nicaraguan Presidential Medal of Merit
with Star and Diploma
4th
Row
Nicaraguan Cross of Valor Haitian National Order of Honour and Merit,
rank Chevalier
Cuban Order of Naval Merit,
1st Class with White ribbon
Cuban Red Cross Medal of the Order of Honor and Merit,
rank Commander

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29 1.30 1.31 1.32 "COL. BOYDEN RETIRES TODAY, page 1 and 7". The Windsock, U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; June 30, 1949. https://www.cherrypoint.marines.mil/Portals/86/Windsock/1949/19490630.pdf. Retrieved 2018-10-07. 
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 2.28 2.29 2.30 2.31 2.32 2.33 "Fortitudine 8, Part 1 - In Memoriam, page 20". marines.mil. Marines Websites. https://www.marines.mil/portals/1/Publications/Fortitudine%20Vol%208%20No%201.pdf. Retrieved September 12, 2017. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 "Boyden retires after 30 years in Marine Corps - Statesville Daily Record , 01 Jul 1949, Friday, Page 1". newspapers.com. newspapers.com Websites. https://www.newspapers.com/clip/23704173/boyden-retires-after-30-years-in-marine/. Retrieved 31 December 2017. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 "Hayne D. Boyden". The Wall of Valor Project. Sightline Media Group. https://valor.militarytimes.com/hero/42306. 
  5. Register of Commissioned and Warrant Officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1 July 1918. p. 66. http://archive.org/details/registerofcommis1918wash. 
  6. Register of Commissioned and Warrant Officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1 July 1919. p. 68. http://archive.org/details/registerofcommis1919wash. 
  7. Register of Commissioned and Warrant Officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1 July 1920. pp. 50–51. http://archive.org/details/registerofcommis1920wash. 
  8. "The Marine Corps Gazette, November 1973, Volume 57, Number 11". The United States Marine Corps. 1937. pp. 50–51. https://books.google.cz/books?id=1GqN4QA7taMC&pg=RA11-PA50&dq=Hayne+D.+Boyden+squadron&hl=cs&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjum7Kk6fbtAhUuxosKHdRiCFgQ6AEwAHoECAMQAg#v=onepage&q=Hayne%20D.%20Boyden%20squadron&f=false. 
  9. Register of Commissioned and Warrant Officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1 July 1921. pp. 50–51. http://archive.org/details/registerofcommis1921wash. 
  10. Register of Commissioned and Warrant Officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1 July 1922. pp. 48–49. http://archive.org/details/registerofcommis1922wash. 
  11. Register of Commissioned and Warrant Officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1 July 1923. pp. 50–51. http://archive.org/details/registerofcommis1923wash. 
  12. Register of Commissioned and Warrant Officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1 July 1924. pp. 58–59. http://archive.org/details/registerofcommis1924wash. 
  13. Register of Commissioned and Warrant Officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1 July 1925. p. 56. http://archive.org/details/registerofcommis1925wash. 
  14. Register of Commissioned and Warrant Officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1 July 1926. p. 56. http://archive.org/details/registerofcommis1926wash. 
  15. "Airmen Will Map Northwest Forests - Coronado Eagle and Journal, Volume XIV, Number 52, 28 December 1926; page 10; California Digital Newspapers Collection". cdnc.ucr.edu. https://cdnc.ucr.edu/?a=d&d=CJ19261228.2.131&srpos=39&e=-------en--20--21--txt-txIN-Hayne+D.+Boyden-------1. Retrieved 2016-08-27. 
  16. Register of Commissioned and Warrant Officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1 July 1927. p. 52. http://archive.org/details/registerofcommis1927wash. 
  17. "Fortitudine 7, Part 3 - "If Words Were Bulletsand Phrases Were Soldiers", page 14". marines.mil. Marines Websites. https://www.marines.mil/Portals/1/Publications/Fortitudine%20Vol%207%20No%203.pdf. Retrieved September 12, 2017. 
  18. "A History of Marine Observation Squadron Six – USMC Military History Division". USMC Military History Division. https://www.marines.mil/Portals/1/Publications/A%20History%20of%20Marine%20Observation%20%20Squadron%20Six%20PCN%2019000308700_2.pdf. 
  19. Register of Commissioned and Warrant Officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1 July 1930. p. 48. http://archive.org/details/registerofcommis1930wash. 
  20. Register of Commissioned and Warrant Officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1 July 1933. p. 50. http://archive.org/details/registerofcommis1933wash. 
  21. Register of Commissioned and Warrant Officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1 July 1936. p. 42. http://archive.org/details/registerofcommis1936wash. 
  22. "Air Corps Tactical School Graduates, by Class 1920–1940". dtic.mil. Defence Technical Information Center Websites. http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a432954.pdf. Retrieved July 14, 2018. 
  23. Register of Commissioned and Warrant Officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1 July 1939. p. 34. http://archive.org/details/registerofcommis1939wash. 
  24. "A History of Marine Fighter Squadron 232 – USMC Military History Division". USMC Military History Division. https://www.marines.mil/Portals/59/Publications/A%20History%20of%20Marine%20Fighter%20Attack%20Squadron%20232%20%20PCN%2019000308100_2.PDF. 
  25. Register of Commissioned and Warrant Officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1 July 1940. p. 36. http://archive.org/details/registerofcommis1940wash. 
  26. "CUBANS BLAME SPIES IN U.S. PAPERS' THEFT". timesmachine.nytimes.com. New York Times Websites. December 15, 1940. p. 24. https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1940/12/15/95789998.html?pageNumber=24. Retrieved June 19, 2018. 
  27. "Soon to Depart - Coronado Eagle and Journal, Volume XXVIII, Number 2, 11 January 1940; page 5; California Digital Newspapers Collection". cdnc.ucr.edu. https://cdnc.ucr.edu/?a=d&d=CJ19400111.2.57&srpos=2&e=-------en--20--1--txt-txIN-Hayne+D.+Boyden-------1. Retrieved 2016-08-27. 
  28. "BG Hayne D. Boyden – Find A Grave Memorial". Find a Grave websites. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/5212382/hayne-davis-boyden. 

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