|HMS Penguin (1813)|
The action between the USS Hornet and HMS Penguin
|Ordered:||20 August 1812|
|Builder:||William Bottomley, King's Lynn|
|Laid down:||November 1812|
|Launched:||29 June 1813|
|Captured:||23 March 1815|
|Fate:||Scuttled by captors|
|Class & type:||Cruizer-class brig-sloop|
100 ft 5 in (30.61 m) (overall)|
77 ft 6 1⁄2 in (23.6 m) (keel)
|Beam:||30 ft 7 1⁄2 in (9.335 m)|
6 ft 7 in (2.01 m) (unladen)|
11 ft 8 in (3.56 m) (laden)
|Depth of hold:||11 ft 8 in (3.56 m)|
HMS Penguin was a Royal Navy Cruizer-class brig-sloop launched in 1813. In 1815 the USS Hornet captured Penguin in a battle that took place after the end of the War of 1812. Hornet then scuttled Penguin as she was too damaged to merit keeping.
Penguin was commissioned in November 1813 under Commander Thomas R. Toker. The next month Commander George A. Byron took over command. In June 1814 command transferred to Commander James Dickinson.
On 23 March 1815 Penguin encountered the USS Hornet off Tristan da Cunha. In the ensuing single ship action, Penguin lost 10 men killed, including Dickinson, and had 28 wounded; she struck her colours after 22 minutes of combat. By contrast, the Americans only suffered one man killed and nine wounded, including Hornet's captain, James Biddle. The Americans then scuttled Penguin the next day as she was too damaged to keep.
The two vessels had been relatively evenly matched. Hornet had a slightly heavier armament as she had 20 cannon, two 12-pounder guns as bow chasers and eighteen 32-pounder carronades. She also had a crew of 146 officers and men, including 20 US Marines, less a prize crew that she had despatched. Penguin's crew numbered 132 and included 12 extra Royal Marines.
However, what had proved decisive was the Americans' better gunnery. Penguin's gunnery was abysmal as no cannon shots had hit Hornet; most of Hornet's casualties were due to musketry fire from Penguin, i.e., from the Royal Marines.
Shortly after the fight, Peacock and the Tom Bowline rendezvoused with Hornet at Tristan da Cunha. Tom Bowline embarked Penguin's crew and took the prisoners to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The war had already ended at the time of the encounter, but none of the vessels had received the news.
- Winfield (2008), p. 304.
- Clowes et. al (1897-1903), Vol. 6, pp. 173-5.
- Clowes, William Laird, et al. (1897-1903) The royal navy : a history from the earliest times to the present. (London: S. Low, Marston and Co.) Vol. 6.
- Winfield, Rif (2008). British Warships in the Age of Sail 1793–1817: Design, Construction, Careers and Fates. Seaforth. ISBN 1-86176-246-1.
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