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Gul Hassan Khan
File:Lieutenant-General Gul Hassan Khan of Pakistan Army..jpg
Birth name Gul Hassan Khan
Place of birth Rawalpindi, British Punjab State, British Indian Empire
Buried at Nowshera District, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province
Allegiance  Pakistan
Service/branch  Pakistan Army
Years of service 1933-1972
Rank US-O9 insignia.svg Lieutenant General
Service number PA-457
Unit Armoured Corps
Commands held Army Commander-in-Chief
Chief of General Staff (CGS)
1st Armoured Division
Directorate for Military Operations
Battles/wars Indo-Pakistani War of 1947
Indo-Pakistani war of 1965
Indo-Pakistani war of 1971
Awards Star of Pakistan (Withdrawn)
Other work Author

Lieutenant-General Gul Hassan Khan (death 1999), was a three-star general and the last Army Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army from 20 December 1971 to 3 March 1972. Khan was the shortest Army Commander-in-Chief of Pakistan Army as of time line, and was deposed by President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto after the Hamoodur Rahman Commission, led by Chief Justice Hamoodur Rahman, recommended his deposal. In a trial led by JAG Branch, General Hassan Khan was immediately retired from the Army and further relieved from any benefits given to the retired officers.

Army career

Khan was born in Quetta, British Balochistan of the British Indian Empire. In 1929, Khan joined the Indian Military Academy at Dehra Dun, and graduated from there in 1942. He obtained commission in the British Indian Army, and landed a staff job in the Army. Throughout the World war, Khan served as Aide-de-Camp (ADC) to Viscount Slim and opted for Pakistan citizenship in 1947. Khan participated in the Indo-Pakistani war in Kashmir as Lieutenant-Colonel. He also spent another year serving ADC to Governor-General Jinnah, founder of Pakistan. In 1960, Khan was promoted to Brigadier-General and commanded a small Brigade. During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, he was Director Military Operations (DMO). His actions of valor won him the prestigious Star of Pakistan.After the war, he was promoted to Major-General. In 1967, he was made GOC of the 1st Armoured Division of Pakistan Army. In 1969, he was made Chief of General Staff (CGS).

Role in 1971

During 1971, he allegedly either executed or approved military operations in East-Pakistan, since as the Chief of General Staff (CGS) of Pakistan Army, he was heading the Military operations and intelligence during this period.[1] It is also alleged that he was the 'intellectual planner' of Pakistan Army's crackdown in former East Pakistan and that he preferred a military solution of the political crisis looming over the horizon of Pakistan during 1971.[2] After the war, the newly installed civilian President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto approved the appointment of Army Commander-in-Chief, and promoted him to Lieutenant-General. In controversy, Khan was avoided to be promoted the 4-star rank as oppose to his predecessors, by Bhutto. He lacked foresight as was viewed by some of his colleagues in Pakistan Army as "short on strategic vision but good as field commander".[3] As Army Commander-in-Chief, Khan lessened the value of the Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI). The ISI lost its importance throughout this time, and the new Army Commander did not pay any attention to ISI. The ISI's operations were never revealed to him and Khan was reluctant and incompetent commander to control the ISI.

Ouster from the Army

His tenure, however, was short-lived. He was ousted as Army Commander-in-Chief on 3 March 1972 by Judge Advocate General Branch by the order of the Civilian Martial Law administrator and then-President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. His retirement privileges and benefits were taken away as well as received a dishonorable discharge. He was allegedly huddled up in a car and taken to Lahore by road by Ghulam Mustafa Khar, a politician and a close associate of Bhutto's. Khan's alleged involvement and his controversial approvals of military operations during 1971 in East Pakistan [1] created a public resentment towards him, as he was the Director-General of the Director-general for the Military Operations (DGMO). When it was cleared by Hamoodur Rahman Commission, led by Chief Justice Hamoodur Rahman, Bhutto fired Khan as Army Commander-in-Chief and appointed General Tikka Khan instead.


He had three brothers and a sister. He has relatives still residing in Pabbi near Peshawar, and in Quetta, Pakistan. General Gul Hassan Khan died in 1999 and was buried in Pabbi in Nowshera District (Main town of Chearat Cant, Chowki Mumriaz, Taroo Jaba, Akber Pura).

In the last few years of his life he was dividing his time between Vienna, Austria and Rawalpindi, Pakistan. He wrote a book Memoirs of Lt. Gen. Gul Hassan Khan.

See also

Further reading

  • Gul Hassan Khan, Memoirs of Lt.Gen.Gul Hassan Khan, OUP Pakistan (1994) ISBN 0-19-577445-0


  1. 1.0 1.1 "''Genocide in Bangladesh, 1971.'' Gendercide Watch". Retrieved 10 November 2011. 
  2. Ullah, A. H. Jaffor. "Gul Hassan Khan". Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  3. Qayyum, Col(Rtd) Abdul. "Remembering Gen Gul Hassan". Defence Journal. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 

External links

Military offices
Preceded by
Sahabzada Yaqub Khan
Chief of General Staff
Succeeded by
M. Rahim Khan
Preceded by
Yahya Khan
Commander-in-Chief, Pakistan Army
Succeeded by
Tikka Khan

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