|Grup Gerak Khas|
File:Grup Gerak Khas Insignia.JPG|
January 1960s – First nucleus|
7 May 1965 – Malaysian Special Service Unit (MSSU)
1 August 1970 – Rejimen Pertama Gerak Khas Malaysia (1 RGKM; 1st Malaysian Special Movement Regiment)
1981 – Grup Gerak Khas
Malaysian Armed Forces|
Malaysian Joint Forces Command
RHQ: Mersing, Johore|
11th RGK: Malacca
21st GGK: Malacca, Johore
22nd GGK: Mersing, Johore
|Motto(s)||Cepat dan Cergas (Fast and Agile)|
|Color of Beret||Sherwood Green Beret|
Communist Insurgency War
Operation Restore Hope
Operation 304, Sauk
Genting Sempah Incident
MALCON – UNIFIL 2007, Lebanon
Operation Enduring Freedom
|Brigadier General Effendi bin Hj Abd Karim|
|Beret Badge||Tiger with Commando Bayonet|
The Grup Gerak Khas (Special Service Group) is a special forces regiment of the Malaysian Army which conducts special operations missions for the Malaysian government, such as direct action, unconventional warfare, sabotage, counter-terrorism, and intelligence gathering. It is the administrative and operational group to which the three regiments of the Rejimen Gerak Khas and its supporting units are subordinated.
While the GGK traces its origins to 1965 and the post Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation, they gained fame and recognition worldwide after successfully assaulting the communist terrorist in the jungle during the Communist Insurgency War.
21 Gerup Gerak Khas is commanded by a Brigadier General and is currently located at Iskandar Camp, in Mersing, Johor comprising 11 Gerak Khas Regiment tasked to counter-terrorism, 21 Commando Regiment and 22 Commando Regiment. The three regiments' tasks are guerrilla/anti-guerrilla warfare, escape and evasion, subversion, sabotage, counter terrorism, asymmetric warfare and their most highly regarded expertise – jungle warfare.
The Special Forces Directorate was established in the Ministry of Defense, late Tun Abdul Razak Hussein on 1960s to coordinate the operations of the special forces regiments during the Indonesian Confrontation. In 1965, the Ministry of Defence called for volunteers from the Army and Navy for Commando training. On 25 February 1965, introductory training was conducted at Majidee Camp, Johor Bahru by the British 40 Commando of the Royal Marines. The selection was harsh, and from the initial 300 personnel who volunteered, only 15 were selected to undergo the six weeks Basic Commando course. Of these, only four officers and nine other ranks passed. Here is the list of men who were part of the nucleus team which later formed the GGK :
- Major Abu Hassan Bin Abdullah (Colonel retired)
- Lieutenant Mohd Ramli Bin Ismail (Major General retired)
- Second Lieutenant Ghazali Bin Ibrahim (Major General retired)
- Second Lieutenant Hussin Bin Awang Senik (Colonel retired)
- 4861 Staff Sergeant Zakaria Bin Adas
- 6842 Sergeant Ariffin Bin Mohamad
- 300152 Sergeant Anuar Bin Talib
- 201128 Sergeant Yahya Bin Darus
- 202072 Corporal Silva Dorai
- 203712 Corporal Moo Kee Fah
- 13852 Lance Corporal Johari Bin Haji Morhd Siraj
- 10622 Lance Corporal Sabri Bin Ahmad
This unit is partly based on by the 40th Royal Marines Commandos and was then called Malaysian Special Service Unit. Such was the beginning of the Malaysian Gerup Gerak Khas (Special Service Group). With assistance from instructors from 40 Commando Royal Marines, the Special Service Group expanded and in 1965 alone conducted six Basic Commando courses. On 1 August 1970 the 1st Special Service Regiment was formed at Sungai Udang Camp in Melaka. In January 1981, Markas Grup Gerak Khas was established in Imphal Camp, Kuala Lumpur to act as the Brigade Headquarters for the three special forces regiments. The headquarters group would also include combat support units and service support units.
Gerup Gerak Khas was renamed 21 Gerup Gerak Khas which formalises the formation as the 21st brigade group in the Malaysian Army.
Sungai Udang Camp was the acknowledged Home of the Commandos and its spiritual home. Members of the regiment trained with foreign special forces units from the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Indonesia, Australia and the United States of America, further enriching the knowledge base. Under the 3rd Malaysian Plan and the expansion of the Armed Forces, the PULPAK – Pusat Latihan Peperangan Khas (Special Warfare Training Centre) was established. In 1983, 22nd Commando Regiment moved to Kuala Kubu Baru due to congestion at Sungai Udang Military Camp.
21 Gerup Gerak Khas and its regiments and support units have moved to Iskandar Camp, the new Special Operations Force base in Mersing. Situated 15 km south of Mersing, Iskandar Camp covers an area of 2,000 acres (8.1 km2). Facilities include 200 buildings, 20 km of roads, 3 bridges, a harbour, landing pads, parade squares and other facilities. The project cost was RM422 million. The new base was named Kem Iskandar, after the Sultan of Johor, a staunch supporter of Rejimen Gerak Khas and its current colonel in chief.
The Malaysian Special Forces is subordinated to the Armed Forces HQ and Army HQ. The three regiments of Gerak Khas are grouped under 21 Gerup Gerak Khas. This brigade sized unit also includes supporting units such as Signals and Engineer units. 11 Gerup Gerak Khas is currently also tasked with the CRW function.
Gerup Gerak Khas faces problems retaining members nearing the end of their enlistment, and finding new recruits to replace existing commandos once they reached the mandatory age limit. Concerned with high numbers of special Forces personnel leaving the service, the Malaysian Government increased, as of 1 January 2005, the monthly incentive payments to RM600 for those who have served between 1 to 10 years, RM750 for those who had served between 11 to 15 years and RM900 for those whose service have exceeded 16 years.
Counter Terrorism Regiment or 11th Regiment Gerak Khas
The 11 Rejimen Gerak Khas (11th Special Force Regiments) is called the Special Service Regiment as it specialises in the more refined special forces arts of sabotage, HRT, SBS, CRW etc. This regiment is smaller compared to 21st and 22nd Commando, and is organised into 4 Sabre Squadrons. Only those who have served no less than 6 years in the Commando Regiments are eligible for selection.
Special Forces Directorate
The Special Forces Directorate is a small group of around 20 personnel, tasked with planning and coordination of resources and equipment of Gerup Gerak Khas. The directorate also provides assistance during operational deployment of Gerup Gerak Khas units and formulate policy guidelines. The Cell also undertakes Planning and Intelligence tasks as well as Operational Research Section.
Recruitment, selection and training
Special Warfare Training Centre
Pusat Latihan Peperangan Khusus (PULPAK) (Special Warfare Training Centre) was formed on 1 August 1976. Before its inception, all GGK personnel training was conducted by 1st RGK (now 21 GGK). However, 21st Commando, 22nd Commando and 11th RGK are still supporting PULPAK by providing manpower and expertise. The role of SWTC is to provide specialized courses and training for all army personnel in accordance with current situation:
- To conduct basic commando training for the Malaysian Army and other services (Navy, Air Force).
- To train personnel of Special Operations Forces as well as other soldiers in specialized training and special operations as required by higher authority.
- To conduct advanced training for Special Operations Forces and army personnel as directed by higher authority.
- To conduct training evaluation test on Special Operations Forces Units.
- To provide observers and qualified instructors for specialized assignments in Special Operations Forces Units.
- To revise and analyze all doctrines pertaining to specialized training and operations.
Courses conducted at PULPAK: (Some advanced courses are still classified)
All members of GGK train with SAS (United Kingdom / New Zealand / Australia) as well as US Army's 1st Special Forces Group (1st Bn, Okinawa, Japan) and United States Marine Corps Force Reconnaissance units. 1st Bn/1st SFG usually drops by a few times a year. The GGK and the Indonesian's Kopassus enjoy a close relationship.
All GGK trainees must pass five different training phases:
- Camp Training
- Organized in 5 weeks, this phase is actually the most important level to test and develop individual physical & mental resistance. Physical endurance, weapon handling, explosive handling, tactics & stratagem implementation (muslihat), field medical, rappelling / abseiling and map reading skills are among the exercises conducted. The trainees are also required to undergo several series of long range march with full combat load. Range will be increased from 4.8 km, 8km, 11.2 km, 14 km to 16 km respectively. Usually, some of the trainees fail to arrive to designated checkpoint within the stipulated time and they will be sent back to their original unit or other services ("turun skot" – according to the Army's lingo).
- Jungle Training
- This two-week jungle training is a favorite among the trainees. This is where the trainees will be exposed to practical training, field skills & know-how such as guarding & patrolling, establishing base, survival and section/troop combat.
- Swamp Training and Long Range March
- In this phase, all trainees are subject to undergo a tough combat march along with their 17 kg pack and reach the target 160km in 3 days. Those who succeed, will continue to live in the swampy area for 7 days without food supply or proper clothing (they wear only the underwear). They will practise all survival lessons here.
- Sea Training
- The sea training is conducted in 2 weeks, where the trainees are exposed to practical exercises such as small craft navigation, long range/silent rowing and coastal attack using Rigid-hulled inflatable boats, scuba diving and kayaks. After completing the 'curriculum', they will travel 160km along the Straits of Malacca using kayaks.
- Escape and Evasion (E&E)
- All trainees are deployed in groups and they must report to several agents at designated checkpoints. They must know how to contact their agents and evade from the "enemy" who controls that area. If they are caught, they will be tortured and abused. The trainees will then be released and continue their journey until they arrive at the last checkpoint.
The 2nd Special Service Regiment was established on 1 January 1977, based at Sungai Udang Camp, Melaka. In 1979, Colonel Borhan Bin Ahmad was appointed the Commandant of Special Warfare Training Centre. A separate Special Forces Directorate was established in the Ministry of Defence on 4 April 1980 and the Markas Grup Gerak Khas (HQ Special Forces Group) was established in Imphal Camp, Kuala Lumpur. As such, supporting units were attached to Gerup Gerak Khas.
The commando units were then redesignated and 1st Special Service Regiment became 21st Regiment Para Commando and 2 Special Service Regiment became 22nd Regiment Para Commando. On 1 April 1981, the 11th and 12th Special Service Regiments were formed to provide support to 21st Commando and 22nd Commando. However 12th Special Service Regiment was disbanded soon after during the realignment of the Malaysian Army in the 1980s and its members were deployed to other combat units. Further to this development, the designation for the Para Commando Regiment was changed to the Commando Regiment. In 1983, 22nd Commando Regiment moved to Kuala Kubu Baru due to insufficient facilities in Sungai Udang Camp. All three as well as the Royal Malaysian Navy PASKAL will be soon moving out to the new SOF base in Mersing, facing the South China Sea unlike the Sungai Udang which is facing the very busy waterway of the Straits of Malacca. Sungai Udang Camp is very small and lacking in many facilities for a good SOF base and training centre. It is also near to a massive oil refinery and countless condominium projects which makes it unsuitable for security and practical reasons. The 3 regiments again had a name change, becoming known as 11th CRW Regiment, 21st Commando Regiment and 22nd Commando Regiment.
Sungai Udang Camp was certified as the ‘Home of the Commandos’. Its achievements attracted many volunteers from other corps. Lieutenant Colonel Borhan bin Ahmad was the first administrator of MSSG responsible for expanding the Special Operations Forces. Various activities including sports and other Army activities were organized to get the SOF involved. Joint programs are conducted with other countries such as Britain, New Zealand, Australia and the United States of America to improve knowledge and to get new experience in certain aspects of SOF operations.
In the Third Malaysia Plan and the expansion of the Armed Forces, Special Warfare Training Centre (SWTC) was established on 1 August 1976. The function is to fulfill the training requirements for the Special Forces Team. After the establishment of SWTC, the Second Regiment of Special Service was established on 1 January 1977. All the three units were based in Sungai Udang, Melaka. In 1979, SWTC was fully established with Colonel Borhan bin Ahmad as the Commandant.
The Special Forces Directorate was established in the Ministry of Defence on 4 April 1980. Further to this, in January 1981, Grup Gerak Khas Command Headquarter was established in Imphal Camp, Kuala Lumpur. The establishment of the Special Operations Forces group also involved other elements such as the combat support units and service support units. At the same time the names of the commando units were redesignated to 21st Regiment Para Commando and 22nd Regiment Para Commando.
Many members of the Regiment has been decorated for bravery and gallantry. Notable awards received by members of the Regiment include
- Seri Pahlawan Gagah Perkasa (SP)
- 19151 Lance Corporal Rusli Bin Buang
- Panglima Gagah Berani (PGB)
- Major Ahmad Bin Rashid (410336)
- Major Baharin Bin Abd Jalil (410560)
- 14812 Warrant Officer II Maamor Bin Said
- 23852 Sergeant Ali Bin Ahmad
- 16075 Corporal Zaki Bin Nordin
- 901370 Trooper Sigal s/o Nawan
- 928133 Sergeant Moid Bin Mohamad
Regimental motto and crest
The Regimental motto is "Cepat Dan Cergas" (Swift and Agile).
The Regiment Crest, fondly called "Harimau Berjuang" or fighting tiger, comprises a roaring tiger and the commando dagger. Green signifies the Regiment's status as a Commando regiment. Blue symbolizes the close relationship between Gerak Khas with 40 Commando Royal Marines. The Tiger denotes bravery, signifying ferocity and might. The Commando knife defines the commando status of the Regiment – only commandos use the commando knife.
The Gerak Khas wears the same BDU uniforms as other combat elements of the Malaysian Army, but are distinguished by their Green beret with GERAKHAS insignia, blue lanyard rope on their right shoulder (originated from 40th Royal Marine Commando), commando dagger engraved with GERAKHAS, highly folded sleeves, and their GERAKHAS shoulder tab. Parachute wings are worn over the left pocket, but only by those who specialise in air training.
Members of Gerak Khas wear the Green Beret, a common symbol amongst the commando and special forces community. The "Harimau Berjuang" cap badge is worn with the green beret.
Members of Gerak Khas also wear the blue lanyard, an honour accorded to them by 40 Commando, Royal Marines. 40 Commando was instrumental in training the original members of 1st Special Service Regiment, the forerunner of 21 Komando. Personnel of both 40 Commando Royal Marine and Gerak Khas wear the traditional blue lanyards.
Members of the regiment also wear a 'Gerakhas' shoulder tab.
- The blue color symbolizes close relationship between the Malaysian Special Service Group with 40th Royal Marine Commando (British) . The formation of Malaysian Special Service Group (MSSG) was initiated by 40th Royal Marine Commando which was also responsible for the training and imparting of specialized skills to these selected personnel. Personnel of 40th Royal Marine Commando and Special Forces Units wear the traditional blue lanyards.
- All qualified personnel of Special Forces are awarded the green berets. Green beret is also a commonly worn headgear of the other Special Forces in the world. The green color also symbolizes Islam – the official religion of Malaysia.
- Tiger denotes bravery. The mean and unwaning features of the tiger portrays ferocity and might. These characteristics are to be possessed and portrayed by personnel of the Special Forces.
- The dagger symbolizes the essence of decisiveness, steadfastness and inherent ability of rationalization possessed by the personnel of the Special Forces. The unsheathed dagger portray the status of combat readiness of the Special Forces Units which are ever ready for all eventualities at all times. Its vertical alignment denotes the spirit and aspiration of the Special Forces personnel.
- Cepat dan Cergas
- The slogan ‘Cepat Dan Cergas’ (Fast & Agile) is chosen in accordance with the role and tasks of the special forces. Its personnel must be efficient, nimble and brave
Communist Terrorist Insurgency 1966–1990
- During the communist insurgency, Regiment Gerak Khas members had fought bravely in the Malaysian Jungle. A number of Communist Terrorists were killed and lots of weapons/equipment were seized.
- While deployment of Rejimen Gerak Khas units are secretive, it has been understood that Army and Navy Special Forces have been deployed to back Malaysia's claim to several islets in the Spratly Islands.
Battle of Mogadishu (1993)
- Grup Gerak Khas was involved in the high profile operations including deployment with the Royal Malay Regiment and units of the Pakistani army to rescued trapped US Army Rangers and Delta Force in the gunfight at Bakhara Market, Mogadishu, Somalia against the forces of the warlord Mohamed Farah Aidid. One GGK personnel were killed, and several others wounded.
16th Commonwealth Games
- Grup Gerak Khas was deployed with Pasukan Gerakan Khas (police SWAT unit) to provide security and was on standby for Hostage Rescue during the 16th Commonwealth Games held in Kuala Lumpur in 1998.
- Grup Gerak Khas members were deployed to Bosnia, the one and only commando unit from South East Asia to have served in Bosnia.
Timor Leste 2006
- The units were deployed with other troopers from 10 Paratrooper Brigade and Royal Malaysian Police elite team, Pasukan Gerakan Khas to calm troubles in Timor Leste, in an Australian-led mission called Operation Astute.
Genting Sempah Incident
- In July 2007, 22nd Gerak Khas co-operated with elite 10 Paratrooper Brigade, PASKAU and Pasukan Gerakan Khas and supported by the US Navy, police General Operations Force, Fire and Rescue Department, Forestry Department rangers, Civil Defense Department (JPA3) and villagers were deployed to search and rescue six missing air force crew who were involved in the Sikorsky S61 Nuri helicopter crash near Genting Sempah, in Genting Highlands. However, the SAR team found the wreckage of the helicopter, with its rotor blades detached at 5 km northwest of location at 17 July 1324 hrs. All six RMAF crew on board were killed and their bodies were found in the cabin.
MALCON – UNIFIL 2007
- Grup Gerak Khas units were deployed with 10 Paratrooper Brigade, PASKAL and PASKAU involved MALCON – UNIFIL to serve in Lebanon.[not in citation given]
MALCON – ISAF
The special forces included Grup Gerak Khas, PASKAU, 10 Paratrooper Brigade and PASKAL was deployed with other Malaysian contingent to involved the administrative workload at the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. The team was deployed to assist the New Zealand Armed Forces in the peacekeeping missions and humanitarian aid at the Bamiyan District, Afghanistan.
2013 Lahad Datu standoff
Grup Gerak Khas is mobilized to Lahad Datu, Sabah for 2013 Lahad Datu standoff alongside various other special forces unit.
SPECIAL SERVICE GROUP
- Brigadier General Dato’ Harun bin Taib, since 1 January 1981
- Brigadier General Dato’ Borhan bin Ahmad, since 1 January 1984
- Brigadier General Datuk Hasbullah bin Yusof, since 19 December 1985
- Brigadier General Dato’ Mohd Ramli bin Ismail, since 1 July 1989
- Brigadier General Dato’ Paduka Ghazali bin Ibrahim, since 3 March 1993
- Brigadier General Dato' Daud bin Ariffin, since 3 November 1995
DIRECTOR OF SPECIAL FORCES
- Lieutenant Colonel Shamsudin bin Abbas, since 1 September 1980.
- Lieutenant Colonel Zainuddin bin Taib, since 1 March 1981.
- Lieutenant Colonel Shamsudin bin Abbas, since 1 June 1982.
- Lieutenant Colonel Zaini bin Said, since 6 August 1984.
- Lieutenant Colonel Zainuddin bin Taib, since 1 January 1986.
- Lieutenant Colonel Daud bin Ariffin, since 26 July 1986.
- Lieutenant Colonel Ahmad Rodi bin Zakaria, since 1 June 1990.
- Lieutenant Colonel Mohd Muzzamil bin Hj. Abd Rahman, since 1 August 1991.
- Lieutenant Colonel Muhamad Yassin bin Yahya, since 18 December 1992.
- Lieutenant Colonel Che Hashim bin Ishak, since 14 February 1994.
- Lieutenant Colonel Muhamad Yassin bin Yahya, since 1 December 1994.
- Lieutenant Colonel Mohd Muzzamil bin. Hj. Abd Rahman, since 1 February 1996.
COMMANDANT OF THE SPECIAL WARFARE TRAINING CENTRE
- Colonel Hussin bin Awang Senik, since 1 January 1977.
- Colonel Borhan bin Ahmad, since 1 March 1978.
- Colonel Hasbullah bin Yusof, since 1 January 1981.
- Colonel Mohd Ramli bin Ismail, since 16 November 1983.
- Colonel Ghazali bin Ibrahim, since 16 January 1987.
- Colonel Zainuddin bin Taib, since 16 January 1990.
- Colonel Ahmad Rodi bin Zakaria, since 1 August 1991.
- Colonel Mohd Shahrin bin Hj. Abd Majid, since 1 May 1995.
- Colonel Muhamad Yasin bin Yahya, since 16 May 1997.
COMMANDING OFFICER 11 SPECIAL FORCES REGIMENT
- Lieutenant Colonel Ahmad Rodi bin Zakaria, since 1 January 1982.
- Lieutenant Colonel Yap Poh Meng, since 1 January 1983.
- Lieutenant Colonel Chua Hong Kang, since 1 January 1984.
- Lieutenant Colonel Ahmad Rodi bin Zakaria, since 1 January 1988.
- Lieutenant Colonel Mohd Shahrin bin Hj. Abd Majid, since 1 May 1990.
- Lieutenant Colonel Che Hashim bin Ishak, since 14 January 1992.
- Lieutenant Colonel Mohd Nizam bin Abdullah, since 14 February 1994.
- Lieutenant Colonel Abdul Samad bin Hj. Yaacob, since 1 February 1996.
COMMANDING OFFICER 21 COMMANDO REGIMENT (1 RGKM)
- Lieutenant Colonel Borhan bin Ahmad, since 26 December 1970.
- Lieutenant Colonel Mohd Ramli bin Ismail, since 1 January 1975.
- Lieutenant Colonel Hasbullah bin Yusof, since 1 January 1976.
- Lieutenant Colonel Hussin bin Awang Senik, since 15 April 1978.
- Lieutenant Colonel Zainuddin bin Taib, since 1 January 1980.
- Lieutenant Colonel Shamsuddin bin Abbas, since 1 March 1981.
- Lieutenant Colonel Omar bin Dato’ Ismail, since 1 July 1982.
- Lieutenant Colonel Duraisamy al Vellaisamy, since 1 September 1986.
- Lieutenant Colonel Mohd Muzzamil bin Hj Abd Rahman, since 9 July 1990.
- Lieutenant Colonel Muhamad Yassin bin Yahya, since 4 April 1991.
- Lieutenant Colonel Dul Ngajis bin Amat Supeni, since 1 August 1993.
- Lieutenant Colonel Harun bin Hitam, since 15 October 1996.
- Lieutenant Colonel Ilias bin Moideen, since 1 February 1997.
COMMANDING OFFICER 22 COMMANDO REGIMENT (2 RGKM)
- Lieutenant Colonel Ghazali bin Ibrahim, since 1 July 1977.
- Lieutenant Colonel Zaini bin Said, since 1 September 1980.
- Lieutenant Colonel Daud bin Ariffin, since 1 January 1982.
- Lieutenant Colonel Ahmad bin Abd Rashid, since 1 January 1985.
- Lieutenant Colonel Linus Lunsong AK Janti, since 1 March 1986.
- Lieutenant Colonel Mohd Muzzamil bin Hj Abd Rahman, since 2 April 1987.
- Lieutenant Colonel Abbas bin Hj. Mat, since 16 June 1990.
- Lieutenant Colonel Anuwa bin Hj. Mohd Daud, since 1 August 1993.
- Lieutenant Colonel Omar Al Haded bin Nik Mohd Salleh, since 1 August 1995.
In Popular Culture
GGK was featured in History Channel's Special Forces - Malaysia GGK.
In Black Hawk Down movie, the Malaysia's UN combat rescue team consisting elements from GGK was featured briefly at the end of the rescue effort.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Grup Gerak Khas.|
- Malaysian Army's 10th Paratrooper Brigade
- Royal Malaysian Navy's PASKAL
- Royal Malaysian Airforce's PASKAU
- Royal Malaysian Police's VAT 69/UTK and Senoi Praaq
- Royal Malaysian Police's UNGERIN
- Royal Malaysian Police's Unit Tindakan Cepat(UTC)
- Malaysia Maritime Enforcement Agency (MMEA)'s STAR
- Malaysian Army's Kor Risik Diraja (Royal Intelligence Corps)
- Berita Wilayah
- The 2005 Budget Speech report from the Malaysian Prime Minister's Office.
- Malaysian Special Forces Overview.
- Unofficial GGK Awards Page.
- Operasi Astute
- Roslina Mohamad (2007-07-16). "Villagers help in ground search". The Star. http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2007/7/16/nation/18316892&sec=nation. Retrieved 2009-08-14.
- "Malaysia wants longer peacekeeping tenure". The Star. 2007-04-18. http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2007/4/18/nation/17471544&sec=nation. Retrieved 2009-08-14.
- Hardi Effendi Yaacob (November 2010). "High risk of humanitarian aid". Berita Harian online. http://www.bharian.com.my/bharian/articles/Misikemanusiaanberisikotinggi/Article. Retrieved 2010-12-30.
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