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One of the X-29A prototypes in tests by NASA

The X-29A is a USAF/NASA technology demonstrator built to investigate the aerodynamic advantages of the forward-swept wing concept. Built upon the body of a modified F-5E Tiger II with a single F404-GE-400 engine, forward-mounted canard wings, and redesigned air intakes, the X-29 logged a total of 422 flights between models 1 and 2 and managed to achieve a maximum angle of attack of 67 degrees. It has the ability to reach a maximum speed of Mach 1.6. Without advanced composites, lightweight airframe made of aluminum and titanium, and fly-by-wire controls, none of the plane’s accomplishments would have been possible as the aircraft is inherently unstable and the FSW adheres to stresses far greater than that of a conventional swept back wing planform. The program was conducted between 1984 and 1992, and has been attributed by western sources as console to the design of the Russian-made Su-47 Berkut.

The X-29 was not the first FSW, the first was made in 1944 by Junkers, called the Junkers Ju-287.


Two X-29As were built by Grumman Aerospace Corporation of two airframes have Northrop F-5A Freedom Fighter, after the proposal has been selected over competing one involving Fighting Falcon General Dynamics F-16. X-29 design makes use of the fuselage and nose landing gear of F - 5As to the control surface of the main driving force and the landing gear of F - 16 . Advances in technology make the X - 29 design reasonable use of carbon - fiber composites. Grumman internal appointments for X-29 " Grumman Model 712 " or " G -712 ".." The X-29 first flew in 1984 out of Edwards AFB with Grumman 's Chief Test Pilot Chuck Sewell in control.

On December 13, 1985 an X-29 became the first jet wing and forward flight in supersonic in level flight . Junkers Ju 287 before the first jet -wing aircraft with forward-swept. NASA test events between the two X-29s , continued from 1984 to 1991.

X - 29A showed very good control and maneuvering characteristics at an angle of attack of 45 °. However, configurasi wings make it unstable and it can fly only with the corrections used ( take to 40 per second) provided by the computerized flight control system . The system consists of three over the digital computer is supported by over three analog computers ; any three can fly it on their own , but the surplus allowed them to hold for an error . Each of the three would " vote "on their size, so that if the first vote so the malfunction can be detected . It has been estimated that the damage amount of the system as it is not possible as the mechanical damage in the arrangement of conventional aircraft .

X-29 was first exhibited at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio. Another of the show at Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base. a model of its original size in a performance at the National Air and Space Museum National Mall building in Washington, DC.


General characteristics

  • Crew: one pilot
  • Payload: 4,000 lb (1,810 kg)
  • Length: 48 ft 1 in (14.7 m)
  • Wingspan: 27 ft 2 in (8.29 m)
  • Height: 14 ft 9 in (4.26 m)
  • Wing area: 188.8 ft² (17.54 m²)
  • Empty weight: 13,800 lb (6,260 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 17,800 lb (8,070 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1× General Electric F404 turbofan, 16,000 lbf (71.2 kN)


  • Maximum speed: Mach 1.8 (1,100 mph, 1,770 km/h)
  • Range: 350 mi (560 km)
  • Service ceiling: 55,000 ft (16,800 m)


  • Guns: M39 Colt Pontiac 20 mm
  • Missiles: 7 hardpoints to put missiles
    • Missiles Air-Air: AIM9X Sidewinder
    • Missiles Air-to-Surface: BLU-73/B Fuel-Air-Explosive, AGM-88 HARM, AGM-65D Maverick

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