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German soldier killed in action

Statistics for German World War II military casualties are divergent and contradictory. The wartime casualty figures compiled by German High Command are often cited by military historians when covering individual campaigns in the war. The German High Command figures cannot be considered definitive because they cover the period up until January 31, 1945, leaving out major battles at the end of the war, also they include prisoners held by the allies who survived the war. A 1946 estimate by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. put German military dead at 3.250 million, a figure that still appears in many reference works. By the end of 1954, the West German military search service Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) had identified approximately 4 million military dead and missing. In 1969, the German military historian Burkhart Müller-Hillebrand estimated the total dead and missing at 4.0 million men. These figures were to remain unchallenged until the 1990s when the German historian Rüdiger Overmans conducted a statistical survey of the records at the military search service Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt). The Overmans study put the total German military war dead at 5.3 million. Overmans found that the wartime casualty figures compiled by German High Command were incomplete because the reporting system broke down during the chaos of the war.

Estimates of combined military and civilian German war dead range from 5.5 to 6.9 million, the lower number are losses in 1937 borders, the higher figure includes losses of the ethnic Germans in east-central Europe. German military losses also include ethnic Germans outside of Germany and Austrians conscripted during the war. The death toll in Germany and Austria due to Allied strategic bombing was estimated at 500,000 by the West German government. They also estimated 300,000 Germans (including Jews) were victims of Nazi political, racial and religious persecution and that 200,000 were murdered in the Nazi euthanasia program.

Civilian deaths due to the Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50) and the Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union are sometimes included with World War II casualties, during the Cold War the West German government estimated the death toll at 2.2 million. This figure was to remain unchallenged until the 1990s when some German historians put the actual death toll in the expulsions at 500,000 confirmed deaths. The German Historical Museum puts the figure at 600,000 victims, they maintain the figure of 2 million expulsion deaths cannot be supported. However, the position of the German government, the German Federal Agency for Civic Education and the German Red Cross is that the death toll in the expulsions is between 2.0 to 2.5 million civilians.

Military casualties

Wartime statistics compiled by German High Command (OKW)

The German military system for reporting casualties was based on a numerical reporting of casualties by individual units and a separate listing of the names of individual casualties. The system was not uniform because various military branches such as the Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen SS and the military hospitals each had different systems of reporting. In early 1945 the German High Command (OKW) prepared a summary of total losses up to January 31, 1945. The German historian Rüdiger Overmans believes, based on his research, that these figures are incomplete and unreliable. According to Overmans the casualty reporting system broke down in the chaos at the end of the war. Many men who went missing or were taken prisoner were not included in the German High Command (OKW) figures. Overmans maintains that many individual reports of casualties were not processed by the end of the war and are not reflected in the German High Command (OKW) statistics.[1]

The following schedules summarize the OKW figures published in post war era.

Reported in the press in 1945

According to a report published by the Reuters News Agency on July 29, 1945 highly confidential archives found at Flensburg, in the house of General Reinecke showed German losses up to November 30, 1944 as 3.6 millions, detailed in the following schedule.

Army Navy Air Force Total
Killed 1,710,000 52,000 150,000 1,912,000
Missing 1,541,000 32,000 141,000 1,714,000
Total 3,251,000 84,000 291,000 3,626,000

Source of figures: Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. Page 72

OKW War Diary

Percy Ernst Schramm was responsible for maintaining the official OKW diary during the war. In 1949 he published an article in the newspaper Die Zeit in which he listed OKW Casualty Figures [2] these figures also appeared in a multi-volume edition of the OKW diaries.

OKW Casualty Figures Sept 1, 1939 to Jan 31, 1945

Description Dead Missing & POW Total Wounded & Sick
Army
Eastern Front 1,105,987 1,018,365 2,124,352 3,498,059
North: Norway/Finland 16,639 5,157 21,796 60,451
Southwest: N Africa/Italy 50,481 194,250 244,731 163,602
Southeast: Balkans 19,235 14,805 34,040 55,069
West: France/Belgium 107,042 409,715 516,757 399,856
Training Forces 10,467 1,337 11,804 42,174
Died of Wounds-All Fronts 295,659 - 295,659 -
Location not Given 17,051 2,687 19,738 -
Subtotal (Army) 1,622,561 1,646,316 3,268,877 4,188,037
Navy 48,904 100,256 149,160 25,259
Air Force 138,596 156,132 294,728 216,579
Total Combat: All Branches 1,810,061 1,902,704 3,712,765 4,429,875
Other deaths (Disease, accidents, etc.) 191,338 - 191,338 -
Overall total 2,001,399 1,902,704 3,904,103 4,429,875

Source of Figures: Percy Schramm Kriegstagebuch des Oberkommandos der Wehrmacht: 1940 - 1945: 8 Bde. 1961 (ISBN 9783881990738) Pages 1508-1511

Notes:

1-These statistics include losses of the Waffen SS as well as Volkssturm and paramilitary serving with the regular forces.[3]

2-These statistics include casualties of the volunteer forces from the Soviet Union. 83,307 dead; 57,258 missing and 118,127 wounded.

3-Included in these statistics are 322,807 POWs held by the US and UK.

4-The figures for Army wounded add up to 4,219,211. Schramm put the total at 4,188,057.

5-Figures of missing include POWs held by Allies.

West German government Statistisches Jahrbuch (Statistical Yearbook).

A. OKW figures from 9/1/1939 to 12/31/1944

Description Dead Missing and Prisoners of War Total Wounded
Army & Waffen SS 1,750,000 1,610,000 3,360,000 5,026,000
Navy 60,000 100,000 160,000 21,000
Air Force 155,000 148,000 303,000 193,000
Total Wehrmacht 1,965,000 1,858,000 3,823,000 5,240,000

Source: Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960, Page 78

B. Monthly Field Army (Feldheer) casualties September 1939 to November 1944

Year Casualties January February March April May June July August September October November December
1939 Killed - - - - - - - - 16,400 1,800 1,000 900
1939 Missing - - - - - - - - 400 - - -
1940 Killed 800 700 1,100 2,600 21,600 26,600 2,200 1,800 1,600 1,300 1,200 1,200
1940 Missing - 100 - 400 900 100 - - 100 100 100 -
1941 Killed 1,400 1,300 1,600 3,600 2,800 22,000 51,000 52,800 45,300 42,400 28,200 39,000
1941 Missing 100 100 100 600 500 900 3,200 3,500 2,100 1,900 4,300 10,500
1942 Killed 44,400 44,500 44,900 25,600 29,600 31,500 36,000 54,100 44,300 25,500 24,900 38,000
1942 Missing 10,100 4,100 3,600 1,500 3,600 2,100 3,700 7,300 3,400 2,600 12,100 40,500
1943 Killed 37,000 42,000 38,100 15,300 16,200 13,400 57,800 58,000 48,800 47,000 40,200 35,300
1943 Missing 127,600 15,500 5,200 3,500 74,500 1,300 18,300 26,400 21,900 16,800 17,900 14,700
1944 Killed 44,500 41,200 44,600 34,000 24,400 26,000 59,000 64,000 42,400 46,000 31,900 -
1944 Missing 22,000 19,500 27,600 13,000 22,000 32,000 310,000 407,600 67,200 79,200 69,500 -

Notes: Figures include Waffen SS, Austrians and conscripted ethnic Germans. Figures for missing include POW held by Allies. Source: Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960, Page 78

Das Heer 1933–1945 (The Army 1933-1945) by Burkhart Müller-Hillebrand

In 1969, the West German military historian de:Burkhart Müller-Hillebrand published the third volume of his study of the German Army in World War II Das Heer 1933–1945 that listed OKW casualty figures and his estimate of total German casualties. Müller-Hillebrand maintained that the OKW figures did not present an accurate accounting of German casualties because they understated losses in the final months of the war on the eastern front and post war deaths of POW in Soviet captivity. According to Müller-Hillebrand actual irrecoverable losses in the war were between 3.3 and 4.5 million men. Overall Müller-Hillebrand estimated the total dead and missing at 4.0 million men.[4]

A. Losses Reported by OKW Sept. 1, 1939-April 30, 1945(For all branches of service)

Period Killed or Died of Wounds MIA and Prisoners of War Total
Actual:Sept 1, 1939- Dec 31,1944 1,965,324 1,858,404 3,823,728
Estimated: Jan 1, 1945 - April 30, 1945 265,000 1,012,000 1,277,000
Total 2,230,324 2,870,404 5,100,728

Source: Müller-Hillebrand Das Heer 1933–1945 Vol 3. Page 262

The figure of 1,277,000 killed and missing from Jan 1, 1945 - April 30, 1945 was estimated by the U.S. Army in the 1947 report German Manpower[5]

B. Field Army (Feldheer) casualties September 1939 to November 1944

Year Dead Missing
1939/40 76,848 2,038
1940/41 140,378 8,769
1941/42 455,635 58,049
1942/43 413,009 330,904
1943/44 502,534 925,088
1944 until Nov 30. 121,335 215,981
Total 1,709,739 1,540,829

Source: Müller-Hillebrand Das Heer 1933–1945 Vol3. Page 264

C. Field Army (Feldheer) casualties September 1939 to November 1944

Campaign Dead Missing
Poland 1939 16,343 320
Norway 1940 4,975 691
West until May 31, 1944 66,266 3,218
West June 1944-November 30, 1944 54,754 338,933
Africa 1940 - May 1943 12,808 90,052
Balkans 1941 - November 30, 1944 24,267 12,060
Italy May 1943 - November 30, 1944 47,873 97,154
Russia June 1941-November 30, 1944 1,419,728 997,056
Home front 1939-November 30, 1944 64,055 1,315

Source: Müller-Hillebrand Das Heer 1933–1945 Vol.3 Page 265

Russian Sources

The Russian military historian G. I. Krivosheev has published figures for the casualties on all fronts compiled by the German High Command up until April 30, 1945 based on captured German records in the Soviet Archives.

Period Killed or Died of Wounds MIA and Prisoners of War Total Wounded
Sept 1, 1939- Dec 31,1944 1,965,300 1,858,500 3,823,800 5,240,000
Jan 1, 1945 - April 30, 1945 265,000 1,012,000 1,277,000 795,000
Total 2,230,300 2,870,500 5,100,800 6,035,000

Krivosheev gave a separate set of statistics that put losses at 2,230,000 Killed; 2,400,000 missing and 5,240,000 wounded. According to Krivosheev "The figures in the Wehrmacht documents relating to Germany's war losses are therefore contradictory and unreliable."[6]

Based on Soviet sources Krivosheev put German losses on the Eastern Front from 1941-1945 at 6,923,700 men : including-Killed 4,137,100, taken prisoner 2,571,600 and 215,000 dead among Russian volunteers in the Wehrmacht. Deaths of POW were 450,600 including 356,700 in NKVD camps and 93,900 in transit.[7] Soviet sources claimed that “In 1945 the German Army lost more than 1,000,000 men killed on the Soviet-German front alone.” [8]

United States Army Figures for German and Italian Losses

According to the report of General George Marshall the break-down of German and Italian losses against American, British, and French forces in the war in Europe is as follows:

Campaign Battle Dead Permanently Disabled Captured Total
Tunisia 19,600 19,000 130,000(A) 168,000
Sicily 5,000 2,000 7,100 14,100
Italy 86,000 15,000 357,089 458,089
Western Front 263,000 49,000 7,614,794 (B) 7,926,794
Total 373,600 85,000 8,108,983 8,567,583

Source of figures: Biennial report of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army to the Secretary of War : July 1, 1943, to June 30, 1945 [9]

(A) 252,415 Germans and Italians were captured in Tunisia [10] According to the Imperial War Museum Following the Italian surrender in 1943, 100,000 Italians volunteered to work as 'co-operators'. They were given considerable freedom and mixed with local people.[11]

(B)Includes 3,404,949 disarmed enemy forces.

Source of figures: Biennial report of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army to the Secretary of War : July 1, 1943, to June 30, 1945 [9]

Demographic Estimates of Military Losses

Based on information available in January 1946, the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. put German military dead at 3,250,000. According to Gregory Frumkin this presumably referred to aggregate German forces including those conscripted outside the 1937 German borders.[12][13]

The West German government in November 1949, based on an analysis of the population balance for Germany within its 1937 borders, put German military losses at 3,250,000: 1,650,000 killed and 1,600,000 missing. Figures exclude Austria and conscripted ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe[14]

A demographic analysis of the population balance by the West German government in 1960 put the total military losses of the Wehrmacht at 4,440,000; 3,760,000 for Germany (1937 borders); 430,000 conscripted ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe and 250,000 from Austria.[15]

In 1951, Gregory Frumkin, who was throughout its existence the editor of the Statistical Year Book of the League of Nations, provided an assessment of German military losses based on a demographic analysis of the European population from 1939 to 1947. Frumkin put total German military dead and missing at 3,975,000: Germany (1937 borders) 3,500,000; Austria 230,000; 200,000 Sudeten Germans from Czechoslovakia; 40,000 from France, 3,700 from the Netherlands; 700 from Norway and 398 from Denmark.[16]

Records of German Military Search Service

In the post war era the military search service Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) has been responsible for providing information for the families of those military personnel who were killed or went missing in the war. They maintain the files over 18 million men who served in the war. By the end of 1954, they had identified approximately 4 million military dead and missing (2,730,000 dead and 1,240,629 missing),[17] Since the fall of communism the records in the former GDR (East Germany) have become available to the Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt). The German Red Cross reported in 2005 that the records of the military search service Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) list total Wehrmacht losses at 4.3 million men (3.1 million dead and 1.2 million missing) in World War II. Their figures include Austria and conscripted ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe.[18] The German historian de:Rüdiger Overmans used the files of Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) to conduct his research project on German military casualties.

Statistical Study by Rüdiger Overmans

The German historian Rüdiger Overmans in 2000 published the study Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg (German Military Casualties in the Second World War), which has provided a reassessment of German military war dead based on a statistical survey of German military personnel records. The financial support for the study came from a private foundation. When Overmans conducted his research project during 1992 to 1994 he was an officer in the German Armed Forces. Overmans was an associate of the German Armed Forces Military History Research Office from 1987 until 2004 and was on the faculty of the University of Freiburg from 1996-2001. In 1992 when Overmans began the project German military dead in the war listed at the military search service Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) were 4.3 million men (3.1 million confirmed dead and 1.2 missing and presumed dead). Since the collapse of communism previously classified documentation regarding German military casualties became available to German researchers.

The research project involved taking a statistical sample of the confidential German military personnel records located at the Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt). The project sought to determine total deaths and their cause, when and in which theatre of war the losses occurred as well as a demographic profile of the men who served in the war. Nineteen employees at Deutsche Dienststelle assisted in the survey. The personnel records included 3,070,000 men who were confirmed dead in the Death Files and another 15,200,000 men in the General Files who had served in the war including those listed as missing and presumed dead. The total sample pulled for the research consisted of the files of 4,844 personnel dead or missing in military service during the war: The first group 4,137 from Army, Air Force and 172 from Waffen SS and paramilitary organizations including (3,051 confirmed dead from the Death Files and another 1,258 found to be dead or missing in the General Files) The Second Group of 535 men found to be dead or missing was selected from the separate Navy files. Overmans maintains that based on the size of the sample selected that there was a 99% confidence level that the results were accurate. The research by Overmans concluded in 2000 that the total German military dead and missing were 5,318,000. The results of the Overmans research project were published with the endorsement of the German Armed Forces Military History Research Office of the Federal Ministry of Defense (Germany).[19]

The following schedules give a brief overview of the Overmans study.

By Official Status (Per R. Overmans) [20]
Description Number of Deaths
Confirmed Dead 3,068,000
Declared dead in legal proceedings 1,095,787
Recorded in Records (Registrierfall) 1,154,744
Total Dead 5,318,531
By Official Cause of Death (Per R. Overmans)[20]
Cause of Death Amount
Killed in Action 2,303,320
Died of Wounds, Illness etc. 500,165
Suicides 25,000
Sentenced to Death 11,000
No Information 12,000
Subtotal-Dead in Active Service 2,851,485
Missing 1,306,186
Final Report "Letze Nachricht" 701,385[21]
Sub-total- Presumed Dead 2,007,571
Confirmed deaths as POW 459,475
Total Dead 5,318,531

Of the 2 million presumed dead Overmans believes 700,000 were actually dead in Soviet custody but not reported as POW.[22]

By Front (Per R. Overmans)[20]
Front Total Dead
Eastern Front until 12/31/44 2,742,909
Western Europe until 12/31/44 339,957
Final Battles in Germany 1945 1,230,045
Other (including Sea and Air War Germany) 245,561
Italy 150,660
The Balkans 103,693
Northern Europe 30,165
Africa 16,066
Prisoners of War 459,475
Total 5,318,531

Overmans believes that there is not sufficient data to breakout the 1,230,045 deaths in the 1945 Final Battles in Germany between the Western Allied invasion of Germany and Eastern Front in 1945,[20] although he estimates that 2/3 of these casualties can be attributed to the Eastern Front.[23]

Monthly German military casualties at point the of death according Overmans study (Not including Living POW held)

Year January February March April May June July August September October November December Total
1939 - - - - - - - - 15,000 3,000 1,000 - 19,000
1940 2,000 - 5,000 3,000 21,000 29,000 7,000 4,000 4,000 5,033 1,000 2,000 83,000
1941 10,000 1,000 4,000 4,000 13,000 29,000 67,132 51,066 53,033 44,099 38,000 42,198 357,000
1942 53,165 52,099 46,132 24,066 44,099 34,033 46,099 74,231 46,033 30,000 38,231 83,792 572,000
1943 185,376 74,363 59,099 21,066 31,099 21,066 79,231 66,198 69,495 61,330 77,396 66,330 812,000
1944 81,330 91,495 112,759 92,363 78,495 182,178 215,013 348,960 151,957 184,089 103,561 159,386 1,802,000
1945 451,742 294,772 284,442 281,848 94,528 20,066 13,000 27,099 22,132 19,000 21,033 10,066 1,540,000
1946 7,000 13,099 14,000 6,000 10,066 3,000 3,000 6,000 5,033 3,000 2,000 4,000 76,000
1947 3,008 2,000 5,033 3,000 1,000 5,033 2,000 5,033 1,000 2,000 3,000 1,000 33,000
After 1947 - - - - - - - - - - - - 25,000
Total All Years - - - - - - - - - - - - 5,518,000

Notes: Figures include Waffen SS, Austrians, conscripted ethnic Germans, Volkssturm and other paramilitary forces. Figures do not include Prisoners held by Allies. Prisoners held during the war are listed in a separate schedule below. Monthly figures do not add because of rounding.

Source: Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000, Page 239

Total Missing and Presumed Dead (not including POW) Per Overmans

Year of Death Amount (of which on Soviet-German front)
1941 & before 30,000 (26,000)
1942 116,000 (108,000)
1943 289,000 (283,000
1944 845,000 (719,000)
1945 728,000 (400,000)
1946 & later 0 0
Total 2,007,000 (1,536,000)
German military dead Eastern Front (Per R. Overmans)[20]
Total During Year Total Dead
1941 302,000
1942 507,000
1943 701,000
1944 1,233,000
Total 1941-1944 2,742,000

Soviet sources reported that “In 1945 the German Army lost more than 1,000,000 men killed on the Soviet-German front alone.”[8]

Figures do not include POW deaths of 363,000 in Soviet captivity, these losses were listed separately by Overmans.

By Service Branch (Per R. Overmans)[20]
Branch Total Dead
Army 4,202,030
Air Force (Including Infantry Units) 432,706
Navy 138,429
Waffen SS 313,749
Volkssturm 77,726
Paramilitary and support forces 153,891
Total 5,318,531
By Nation of Origin (Per R. Overmans)[20]
Nation Total Dead
Pre-war Germany (1937 borders) and the Free City of Danzig 4,456,000
Austria 261,000
Ethnic Germans conscripted in Eastern Europe 534,000
French 30,000
Volunteers from Western Europe 37,000
Total 5,318,000

Overmans did not include Russian volunteers in the Wehrmacht in his figures. Russian military historian G. I. Krivosheev estimated these losses at 215,000 killed.[7] The statistics of the German High Command put casualties of the volunteer forces from the Soviet Union up until 1/31/1945 at: 83,307 dead; 57,258 missing and 118,127 wounded[24]

Comparison of figures at 12/31/1944 of Overmans and German High Command

Overmans maintains that his research project taking a statistical sample of the records of the Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) found that the German military casualty reporting system broke down during the war and that losses were understated. The following schedule compares the total dead and living POW according to Overmans at 12/31/1944 with the figures of the German High Command.

Description - Total
Total Dead per Overmans @12/31/44 3,643,000 [25]
Add:POW held by Allies per Overmans 1,283,000 [26]
Add:Estimated losses of Soviet Volunteers 140,000[24]
Adjusted Losses @12/31/1944 5,066,000
Total Dead & Missing per OKW @12/31/1944 3,823,000[27]
Difference 1,243,000

German Prisoners of War

See also: German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union and German prisoners of war in the United States

The fates of German prisoners of war have been a concern in post war Germany. By 1950 the Soviets reported that they had repatriated all German prisoners of war except a small number of convicted war criminals. During the cold war in West Germany there were claims that one million German prisoners of war were held in secret by the USSR. The West German government set up the Maschke Commission to investigate the fate of German POW in the war; in its report of 1974 the Maschke Commission found that about 1.2 million German military personnel reported as missing more than likely died as POWs, including 1.1 million in the USSR.[28] Based on his research Rűdiger Overmans believes that the deaths of 459,000 dead POWs can confirmed be in the files of Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt)(including 363,000 in the USSR). Overmans estimates the actual death toll of German POWs is about 1.1 million men (including 1.0 million in the USSR); he maintains that among those reported as missing were men who actually died as prisoners.[29] Data from the Soviet Archives published by G. I. Krivosheev put the deaths in the USSR of German POWs at 450,600 including 356,700 in NKVD camps and 93,900 in transit.[7] After the collapse of communism, data from the Soviet Archives became available concerning the deaths of German POWs in the USSR. In recent years there has been a joint Russian-German project to investigate the fate of POWs in the war.[30]

German POW deaths- Overmans estimate 2000
Nation holding Prisoners of War Number captured Deaths
UK ca. 3,600,000 c. 2,000
USA ca. 3,000,000 5-10,000
USSR ca. 3,000,000 max. 1,000,000
France ca.1,000,000 more than 22,000
Yugoslavia ca.200,000 ca. 80,000
Poland ca.70,000 ca. 10,000
Belgium ca.60,000 ca. 500
Czechoslovakia ca.25,000 ca. 2,000
Netherlands ca. 7,000 ca. 200
Luxemburg ca. 5,000 15
Total ca. 11,000,000 ca. 1,100,000

Source of figures-Rűdiger Overmans, Soldaten hinter Stacheldraht. Deutsche Kriegsgefangene des Zweiten Weltkriege. Page 246.

Confirmed POW Deaths
Nation holding POW Total Dead
USSR 363,000
France 34,000
USA 22,000
UK 21,000
Yugoslavia 11,000
Other nations 8,000
Total 459,000

Source of figures Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg page 286

German POW Held in Captivity (Per R. Overmans)[31]
Average during Quarter Held Western Allies Held by Soviets & their Allies Total Living POW
4th Quarter 1941 6,600 26,000 32,600
4th Quarter 1942 22,300 100,000 122,300
4th Quarter 1943 200,000 155,000 355,000
4th Quarter 1944 720,000 563,000 1,283,000
1st Quarter 1945 920,000 1,103,000 2,023,000
2nd Quarter 1945 5,440,000 2,130,000 7,570,000
3rd Quarter 1945 6,672,000 2,163,000 8,835,000

Source:Rűdiger Overmans Soldaten hinter Stacheldraht. Deutsche Kriegsgefangene des Zweiten Weltkriege. Ullstein Taschenbuch vlg., 2002 Pages 272-273

Overmans has made the following points in Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg

  • Based on his research Overmans believes that 459,000 dead POW listed in the files of Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) are understated. He maintains that included with the 2.0 million reported as missing and presumed dead(see schedule below) were those in fact dead in custody as POW. He points out that this will not increase the number of German war dead because some of those reported missing would be reclassified as dead POW. He believes further research is needed on the fate of the POW.[32]
  • He believes that in addition to the 363,000 confirmed POW dead in the USSR, it seems entirely plausible, while not provable, that 700,000 German military personnel listed with the missing actually died in Soviet custody[32]
  • He believes that personnel captured on the battlefield may have died of wounds or in transit before being recorded as POW. He pointed out that this was the case of some Germans in American and British hospitals.[33]
  • He maintains "Otherwise viewing the case of France, where the figures of the Maschke Commission are based on official French data; an important point to presume, that from the 180,000 missing on the Western front, many were dead in fact in French custody- or soldiers in Indochina-,[32]
  • He pointed out that the heavy death toll estimated by the Maschke Commission of 80,000 German POW in Yugoslavia was based on documented eyewitness accounts.[32]

A compilation of published statistics for German casualties

Estimated figures for German World War II casualties are divergent and contradictory. The authors of the Oxford Companion to World War II maintain that casualty statistics are notoriously unreliable[34] The following is a list of published statistics for German casualties in World War II.

  • Encyclopedia Britannica, article World Wars (2010) Military-killed, died of wounds or in prison-3,500,000; wounded-5,000,000; prisoners or missing 3,400,000; civilian deaths due to war 780,000. Estimated total deaths 4,200,000. (Military deaths include men conscripted outside of Germany, in addition perhaps 250,000 died of natural causes, suicide or were executed. Civilian deaths do not include Austria or 2,384,000 deaths in the Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50) [35]
  • Oxford Companion to World War II (2005) Military losses- Germany 4,500,000, Austria 230,000 Civilian losses- Germany 2,000,000, Austria 144,000. Total losses- Germany and Austria- 6,874,000.[34]
  • World War II Desk Reference (2004) 1,810,061 combat deaths and 1,902,704 missing and presumed dead, total 3,712,865. Civilians killed 3,600,000.[36]
  • Encyclopedia of World War Two (2004) Battle deaths 2,049,872; wounded 4,879,875; missing in action 1,902,704. Civilians dead 410,000.[37]
  • Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference (2002) Total military dead all causes 3,250,00 including battle deaths of 2,850,000; wounded 7,250,000. Civilian deaths 593,000 in Anglo-American bombing (including 56,000 foreign workers and 40,000 Austrians), 10,000 killed in the crossfire in the west and 619,000 lost to Soviets and their allies in the east.[38]
  • Atlas of the Second World War (1997) Germany-military dead 2,850,000; civilian dead 2,300,000. Austria- military dead 380,000; civilian dead 145,000.[39]
  • World War II – A statistical Survey (1993) Military killed and Missing 3,250,000; wounded 4,606,600. Civilians 2,050,000 by Allies and 300,000 by Germans.[40]
  • Harper Encyclopedia of Military History (1993) Military- 2,850,000 dead and 7,250,000 wounded. Civilian dead 500,000.[41]
  • Alan Bullock (1992)- Military dead 3,250,000 and 3,600,000 to 3,810,000 civilian dead.[42]
  • John Keegan (1990) over 4 million military dead; 593,000 civilians died under air attack; possibly 1.0 million civilians died in the flight from the Red Army. An additional 2.1 million civilians perished in the expulsions from Eastern Europe.[43]
  • Rudolph Rummel(1990-1997)- According to the calculations of R. J. Rummel the combined German and Austrian death toll due the war and political killings by governments (Democide) in the World War Two era was 10.1 million persons. Rummel's maintains that his figures for war dead exclude political killings by governments.[44][45] The details of Rummel's estimates are as follows.
A. German war dead- 5,200,000 (3,200,000 military and 2,000,000 civilians)[46]
B. Nazi Democide 895,000 (762,000 in Germany and 133,000 in Austria)[46]
C. Soviet Democide- 1,576,000,(469,000 civilians and 1,107,000 German POW)[47]
C. British Democide- 378,000 civilians killed in area bombing of Germany[48]
D. United States Democide- 37,000 (32,000 civilians killed in area bombing of Germany and 5,000 German POW.)[49]
E. French Democide-23,000 German POW.[50]
F. Yugoslav Democide- 145,000 (75,000 ethnic Germans and 70,000 POW)[51]
g. Hungarian Democide-12,000 ethnic Germans[50]
H. Expulsion of the Germans after World War II- 1,863,000 (Poland 1,583,000, Czechoslovakia 197,000 and Yugoslavia 82,000)[52]
  • Wars and War-Related Deaths 1700-1987 (1987)- Germany/Austria total deaths 6,626,000 - Germany (military 4,750,000; civilians 1,471,000), Austria (military 280,000; civilians 125,000)[53]
  • Melvin Small and J. David Singer (1982) Germany military dead 3,250,000[54]
  • Quincy Wright (1965) Germany total deaths 3,750,000 -(military 3,250,000; civilians 500,000)[55]

Civilian Casualties

Killed by Allied Strategic Bombardment and in 1945 Air Raids on the Eastern Front

A. Estimates Made in Germany

The estimate by West German government of November 1949 for Germany in 1937 borders was 450,000 killed in bombing and 50,000 in ground fighting. Figures do not include Austria.[14]

The West German government in October 1956 estimated 635,000 civilian deaths during the air war in Germany and the annexed territories, 500,000 killed by strategic bombing and 135,000 from air raids in the 1945 flight and evacuations on the eastern front. They also estimated an additional 20,000 civilians, not included here, who were killed during the land campaign in Germany but are included in the schedule below for Total Population Losses 1939-1946. Civilian deaths in the 1945 air raids on eastern Front after 1/31/1945 are also included with the figures for the losses during the Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50)[56]

Air War Casualties
Description Allied
Strategic Bombing
1945 Air Raids
on Eastern Front
Total
Germany 1937 Borders
Civilians 410,000 127,000 537,000
Foreigners/POW 32,000 - 32,000
Police 23,000 1,000 24,000
Subtotal Germany 1937 Borders 465,000 128,000 593,000
Austria & Annexed Territories
Civilians 26,000 7,000 33,000
Foreigners/POW 7,000 7,000
Police 2,000 2,000
Subtotal Austria & Annexed Territories 35,000 7,000 42,000
Total Third Reich 500,000 135,000 635,000

Sources: Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland.(German government Statistical Office) and The Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960, Page 78. The Austrian government puts their losses in the air war at 24,000.

A 1990 study by the East German historian de:Olaf Groehler estimated 360,000–370,000 civilians were killed by Allied strategic bombing within the 1937 German boundaries, for the German Reich including Austria, forced laborers, POW and military the total is estimated at 406,000. In 2005 Groehler's figures were published in the authoritative series The German Reich and the Second World War[57]

B. Estimates made by US and UK Governments

The United States Strategic Bombing Survey in 1945 gave two figures for German civilian deaths in the air war: The section Effects of Strategic Bombing on the German War Economy put the losses at 375,000, while the section The Effect of Bombing on Health and Medical Care in Germany gave a figure of 422,000 dead.[58]

The British PM Mr. Attlee in a statement to Parliament on 22 October 1945 put the German death toll in the bombing campaign at 350,000 [59]

Deaths due to Nazi political, racial and religious persecution

The West German government put the number of Germans killed by the Nazi political, racial and religious persecution at 300,000 (including 160,000 German Jews)[60]

A 2003 report by the German Federal Archive put the total murdered during the Action T4 Euthanasia program at over 200,000 persons.[61][62][63]

NKVD special camps in East Germany 1945-1950

The Soviets set up NKVD special camps in the Soviet-occupied parts of Germany and areas east of the Oder-Neisse line to intern Germans accused of alleged ties to the Nazis, or because they were hindering the establishment of Stalinism in East Germany. Between 122,000 to 150,000 were detained and at least 43,000 did not survive.[64]

Expulsion of Germans after World War II and the Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union

See Also: Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50) and Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union

Civilian deaths due to the Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50) and the Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union are sometimes included with World War II Casualties. In 1958, the West German government estimated the death toll at 2.2 million. This figure was to remain unchallenged until the end of the cold war in the 1990s when some German historians put the actual death toll in the expulsions at between 500,000-600,000 confirmed deaths. In 2005 the German Red Cross Search Service still maintained that their research put losses at 2,251,500 persons in the expulsions and deportations. They did not provide details of the figure [65]

The following studies were published by the West German government estimating expulsion deaths.

  • In 1950 the West German government made a preliminary estimate of 3,000,000 German civilians missing in Eastern Europe (1.5 million from pre war Germany and 1.5 million ethnic Germans from East Europe)whose fate needed to be clarified.[66] This estimate was later superseded by the 1958 German Government demographic study.
  • The Schieder commission from 1953 to 1961 estimated 2.3 million civilian deaths in the expulsions- Germany in 1937 borders the Oder-Neisse region 2,167,000(figure includes 500,000 military and 50,000 air raid dead); Poland(1939 borders) 217,000, Free City of Danzig 100,000; Czechoslovakia 225,600; Yugoslavia 69,000; Rumania 10,000; Hungary 6,000[67] The statistical information in the Schieder Report was later superseded by the 1958 German Government demographic study.
  • The West German government statistical office issued a report in 1958 that put the number of civilians dead or missing in the expulsions and forced labor in the USSR at 2,225,000( including 1,339,000 for Germany in 1937 borders; Poland 185,000, Danzig 83,200; Czechoslovakia 272,900; Yugoslavia 135,800; Rumania 101,000; Hungary 57,000; Baltic States 51,400. The figures include those killed in the 1945 military campaign and the forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union.[68] The figures from this report are often cited by historians writing in the English language. Rüdiger Overmans pointed out that these figures represent persons whose fate had not been clarified, not necessarily dead as a result of the expulsions.[69]
  • The West German government set up a unified body the Suchdienst (search service) of the German churches working in conjunction with the German Red Cross to trace the individual fates of those who were dead or missing as result of the expulsions and deportations. In 1965 the final report was issued by the search service which was able to confirm 473,013 civilian deaths in Eastern Europe; and an additional 1,905,991 cases whose fate could not be determined. This report remained confidential until 1987. Rüdiger Overmans presented a summary of this data at a 1994 historical symposium in Poland.[69]
  • In 1974, the West German Federal Archive (Bundesarchiv) issued a report to "compile and evaluate information available in the Federal Archives and elsewhere regarding crimes and brutalities committed against Germans in the course of the expulsion". The report estimated 600,000 civilian deaths (150,000 violent Deaths during war in 1945; 200,000 in Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union and 250,000 in post war internment Camps and forced labor in Eastern Europe)[70] In particular, the report identified deaths due to crimes against international law: the 1958 report of the Federal Office for Statistics listed as "post-war losses" two million people whose fate remained unaccounted for in the population balance, but who according to the 1974 report were "not exclusively victims of crimes against international law" such as post war deaths due to malnutrition and disease.

Recent research on German expulsion losses:

  • The German Historical Museum puts the number of dead at 600,000, they maintain the official figure of 2 million cannot be supported.[71]
  • In his 2000 study of German military casualties Rüdiger Overmans found 344,000 additional military deaths of Germans from the Former eastern territories of Germany and conscripted ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe. Overmans believes this will reduce the number of civilians previously listed as missing in the expulsions. Overmans did not investigate civilian expulsion losses, only military casualties, he merely noted that other studies estimated of expulsion losses from about 500,000 to 2,000,000. Overmans maintains that there are more arguments for a lower figure of 500,000 rather than the higher figures of over 2.0 million. He believes new research on the number of expulsion deaths is needed since only 500,000 of the reported 2,000,00 deaths have been confirmed.[69][72]
  • The German historian Ingo Haar believes that civilian losses in the expulsions have been overstated in Germany for decades for political reasons. Haar argues that during the Cold War the West German government put political pressure on the Statistisches Bundesamt to push the figures upward to agree to the Church Service figure of 2.3 million confirmed dead and missing. Haar maintains that the German Red Cross figure is based on unreliable information and that the actual death toll in the expulsions is between 500-600,000 which is based on confirmed deaths.[73][74][75]
  • The German historians Hans Henning Hahn and Eva Hahnova have published a detailed study of the flight and expulsions that is sharply critical of official German accounts of the cold war era. The Hahn's believe that the official German figure of 2 million deaths is a historical myth that lacks foundation. The Hahn's point out that the figure of 473,013 confirmed deaths includes 80,522 in the post war period; they maintain that most of the deaths occurred during the Nazi organized flight and evacuation during the war, and the Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union. They place the ultimate blame for the mass flight and expulsion on the wartime policy of the Nazis in Eastern Europe.[76]
  • In 2006 the German government reaffirmed its belief that 2.0 to 2.5 million civilians perished in the flight and expulsion from Eastern Europe. They maintain that the figure is correct because it includes additional deaths from malnutrition and disease of those civilians subject to the expulsions. State Secretary in the German Federal Ministry of the Interior, Christoph Bergner, outlined the stance of the respective governmental institutions in Deutschlandfunk saying that the numbers presented by the German government and others are not contradictory to the numbers cited by Haar, and that the below 600,000 estimate comprises the deaths directly caused by atrocities during the expulsion measures and thus only includes people who on the spot were raped, beaten, or else brought to death, while the above two millions estimate also includes people who on their way to post-war Germany have died of epidemics, hunger, cold, air raids and the like.[77]

Total Population Losses 1939-1946

Estimated total German population losses directly related to the war range between 5.5 to 6.9 million persons, the lower number are losses in 1937 borders, the higher figure of 6.9 million includes losses of the ethnic Germans in east-central Europe[78] In 1956 the West German government figures in the table below list an estimated about 5.5 million deaths (military and civilian) directly caused by the war within the borders of 1937.[79] A study by the German demographer Peter Marschalck put the total deaths directly related to the war both military and civilians at 5.2 million, plus an estimated decline in births of 1.7 million, bringing total population losses related to the war at 6.9 million persons within the borders of 1937.[80] There were additional deaths of the ethnic Germans outside of Germany in Eastern Europe, men conscripted during the war and ethnic German civilian deaths during post war expulsions.

A. Population Balance for Germany in 1937 borders: May 1939 to October 1946

According to West German Government 1956

Description Amount
Population May 1939 Census 69,310,000
Live Births 8,670,000
Net Immigration-German Refugees 4,080,000
Subtotal Additions 12,750,000
Civilians-Death by natural causes (7,130,000)
Civilians Killed in Air war (410,000)
Civilians Killed in 1945 Land Battles (20,000)
Military Dead (3,760,000)
POW held by Allies (1,750,000)
Germans remaining in Poland (1,750,000)
Germans Remaining Abroad (130,000)
Expulsion and Deportation Civilian Dead/Missing (1,260,000)
Emigrated & Murdered Jews (200,000)
Net Emigration of Foreign Population (200,000)
Other, Misc. (140,000)
Subtotal Reductions (16,750,000)
Population October 1946 Census 65,310,000

Sources for figures: Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, Journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. (German government Statistical Office)

Notes:

1-Population May 1939 Census- Figures are for Germany in 1937 borders and does not include Austria and the ethnic Germans of East Europe.[81]

2-Live Births- are those actually recorded from May 1939 until June 1944 and from January to October 1946. The gap in vital statistics between the middle of 1944 and the end of 1945 was estimated.[81]

3-Net Immigration-German Refugees were ethnic Germans of Eastern Europe who lived outside Germany in 1937 borders before the war.[81]

4-Civilian Deaths- These are deaths due to natural causes not directly related to the war. Figure includes deaths actually recorded from May 1939 until June 1944 and from January to October 1946. The gap in vital statistics between the middle of 1944 and the end of 1945 was estimated.[81] The German government Statistical Office figures in the above table put the deaths due to natural causes at 7,130,000. A study by the German demographer Peter Marschalck estimated the expected deaths from natural causes based on the peacetime death rate would have been 5,900,000.[82] The German economist de:Bruno Gleitze from the German Institute for Economic Research estimated that included in the total of 7.1 million deaths by natural causes that there were 1,2 million excess deaths caused by an increase in mortality due to the harsh conditions in Germany during and after the war[83] In Allied occupied Germany the shortage of food was an acute problem in 1946–47 the average kilocalorie intake per day was only 1,600 to 1,800, an amount insufficient for long-term health.,[84]

5-Killed in Air war - Figure for civilians only, does not include 23,000 police and military and 32,000 POW and foreign workers.[81]

6-Killed in 1945 Land Battles- This is a rough estimate made in 1956 for Germany in current post war borders, not including the former German territories in post war Poland.[81] However there is a more recent estimate of 22,000 civilians killed during the fighting in Berlin only.[85]

7-Military Dead - Includes Wehrmacht as well as SS/police and paramilitary forces. The Statistisches Bundesamt put the total at 3,760,000.[81] The Overmans study of German military casualties put the total at about 4.4 million.[86]

8-POW still held by Allies- 1,750,000 POW from Germany within in the 1937 borders were still held by the allies in October 1946.[81] Total German POW held at that time were about 2.5 million, including 300,000 men from other nations conscripted by Nazi Germany not included in the 1939 population[87] and 384,000 POW held in Germany who are included in the 1946 census figures. By 1950 almost all POW had been released except for 29,000 men held in forced labor in the USSR or convicted as war criminals.

9-Germans remaining in Poland in October 1946 were 1,750,000, but by 1950 the number had been reduced to 1,100,000 because of expulsions after October 1946. Those remaining in 1950 became Polish citizens but were German nationals in 1939.[81]

10-Germans Remaining Abroad-Includes expelled Germans who had emigrated to other countries or were in Denmark.[81]

11-Expulsion and Deportation Dead - This estimate is only for the Oder-Neisse region of Germany in the 1937 borders, not including the ethnic Germans of other Eastern European nations. Figure includes civilian deaths in the 1945 military campaign, the forced labor in the USSR as well as excess deaths due to post war famine and disease.[81] The German Church Service put the total of confirmed expulsion dead at about 300,000 for Germany in the 1937 borders, the balance of 960,000 were reported as missing and whose fate had not been clarified.[73]

12-Emigrated & Murdered Jews- The Statistisches Bundesamt(German government Statistical Office) gave a total of 200,000 Jews who had emigrated or were murdered, they did not estimate those actually who were murdered.[81] Most sources outside of Germany put the Holocaust death toll in Germany at about 150,000 Jews.

13-Net Emigration of Foreign Population - The Statistisches Bundesamt pointed out that this was a rough estimate.[81]

14-Other, Misc. - The Statistisches Bundesamt defined the others as "emigrated Germans, POW remaining abroad voluntarily, and German concentration camp deaths" (deutsche KZ-Opfer).[81]

15- Population October 1946 Census- Figure of 65,310,000 does not include 693,000 displaced persons (DPs) living in Germany. Figure includes 853,000 in the Saarland.[88]

B. Population Balance for Austria

The Austrian government provides the following information on human losses during the rule of the Nazis. For Austria the consequences of the Nazi regime and the Second World War were disastrous: During this period 2,700 Austrians had been executed and more than 16,000 citizens murdered in the concentration camps. Some 16,000 Austrians were killed in prison, while over 67,000 Austrian Jews were deported to death camps, only 2,000 of them lived to see the end of the war. In addition, 247,000 Austrians lost their lives serving in the army of the Third Reich or were reported missing, and 24,000 civilians were killed during bombing raids.[89]

C. Population Balance for the ethnic Germans of eastern Europe

In 1958 the West German government statistical office put the losses of the ethnic Germans at 1,318,000 (886,000 civilians in the expulsions and 411,000 in the German military and 22,000 in the Hungarian and Romanian military) [90] The research of Rűdiger Overmans puts military losses of ethnic Germans at 534,000 [91]Ingo Haar points out that of the 886,000 estimated civilian dead from east Europe only about 170,000 deaths have been confirmed; the balance are considered unsolved cases.[73]

Controversies over German Losses

The German people paid an enormous price in human lives for their support of the Nazi regime during the war. In post-war Germany the fate of civilians and prisoners of war has been a contentious topic. The current view of the German government is that these losses were due to an aggressive war started by the German nation.[92] This view is shared by the vast majority of the Germans. However, there are some who attempt to trivialize the crimes of the Hitler period by comparing German losses to the Holocaust. These claims are viewed as an outrage by those who survived the Holocaust and have from time to time exacerbated Polish-German relations.

The ultra-right in Germany has coined the phrases “Bombing Holocaust” and “Expulsion Holocaust”. The bombing of Dresden and the bombing campaign in general has been a topic of ultra-right propaganda in post-war Germany. Amongst others, the German historian Wolfgang Benz believes that the use of the term “Bombing Holocaust” runs contrary to historical fact.[93] Civilian losses in the expulsions from Eastern Europe are viewed as an enormous human tragedy in Germany. The German government currently places the ultimate blame for the mass flight and expulsion on the wartime policy of the Nazis in Eastern Europe.[92] There are those like Heinz Nawratil who try to equate the expulsions from Eastern Europe with the Holocaust. The German historian Martin Broszat (former head of Institute of Contemporary History in Munich) described Nawratil's writings as “polemics with a nationalist-rightist point of view” and that Nawratil “exaggerates in an absurd manner the scale of ‘expulsion crimes’”.[94] The Federation of Expellees has represented the interests of Germans from Eastern Europe. Erika Steinbach, the current President of the Federation, provoked outrage when she supported the statements of other members of the expellee organization claiming that Hitler's attack on Poland was a response to Poland's policy.[95] The Federation of Expellees initiated the formation of the Center Against Expulsions. The current President of Germany Joachim Gauck and the German chancellor Angela Merkel have voiced support for the Center Against Expulsions. However, in Poland it is viewed by some as an attempt to reopen the wounds of the war and to revert to pre-war borders.

The fate of over one million missing German soldiers in the USSR was an issue in post-war West Germany, with some claiming that they were held in secret labor camps by the Soviets. It is now known that they did not survive the war, Rüdiger Overmans believes that more than likely they died in Soviet custody.[96]

The Canadian author James Bacque (a novelist with no previous historical research experience) has written a book Other Losses in which he claims that the United States are responsible for the deaths of 800,000 to 1,000,000 German POW. Based on his own research Bacque claims that documents from the US Archives show that there were 800,000 German POW who did not survive US captivity. Bacque alleges that General Eisenhower and the US military deliberately withheld support for the German POW, causing their deaths. Bacque presents his arguments with a description of the horrific conditions at the Rheinwiesenlager POW camps and eyewitness accounts of retired US military officers. Bacque maintains that there has been a conspiracy by the United States to cover up these losses. Bacque’s book received wide attention when it was first published in 1989, since then his claims have been challenged by historians who have found his thesis to be unsubstantiated. The US military historian Stephen Ambrose was co-editor of the book Eisenhower and the German POWs in which he refutes Bacque’s claims. Ambrose maintains that the figure of 800,000 POW missing from the US records was a bookkeeping error, that many POW were released and no records were maintained. Ambrose points out that the US and the UK had to cope with a major logistical problem in order to maintain the huge number of surrendered German personnel and finds the claim that Eisenhower and the US military deliberately withheld support for the German POW to be without merit.[97] Rüdiger Overmans believes that “on the basis of factual individual data, shown before, the thesis of the Canadian James Bacque cannot be supported”.[32]

Notes

  1. Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1 Page 13-66
  2. Die Zeit 27 October 1949
  3. Rüdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1 Pages 49-52
  4. Burkhart Müller-Hillebrand Das Heer 1933–1945. Entwicklung des organisatorischen Aufbaues. Band III. Der Zweifrontenkrieg. Das Heer vom Beginn des Feldzuges gegen die Sowjetunion bis zum Kriegsende. Mittler, Frankfurt am Main 1969 Pages 258-266
  5. OVERMANS, Rüdiger: Die Toten des Zweiten Weltkrieges in Deutschland. Bilanz der Forschung unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Wehrmacht und Vertreibungsverluste, in: Der Zweite Weltkrieg. Analysen, Grundzüge, Forschungsbilanz, Michalka, Wolfgang (Hrsg.), München: Piper 1989, pages 862-63
  6. G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 978-1-85367-280-4 Page 276
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7 Pages 276-278
  8. 8.0 8.1 Great patriotic war of the Soviet Union, 1941-1945 : a general outline - Moscow : Progress Publishers, [1974] Page 392
  9. 9.0 9.1 George C Marshall, Biennial reports of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army to the Secretary of War : 1 July 1939-30 June 1945. Washington, DC : Center of Military History, 1996. Page 202
  10. George C Marshall, Biennial reports of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army to the Secretary of War : 1 July 1939-30 June 1945. Washington, DC : Center of Military History, 1996. Page 61
  11. Imperial War Museum- German and Italian Prisoners of War in the United Kingdom Click on "read more"
  12. Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, Statistical bulletin January 1946 Page 7
  13. Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. Page 72
  14. 14.0 14.1 Wirtschaft und Statistik November 1949, journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland.(German Federal Statistical Office)
  15. The Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960, Page 78
  16. Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951.
  17. Ploetz Geschichte des zweiten Weltkrieges Würzburg, Ploetz 1960 page 80
  18. Willi Kammerer; Anja Kammerer- Narben bleiben die Arbeit der Suchdienste - 60 Jahre nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg Berlin Dienststelle 2005 ( Published by the Search Service of the German Red Cross. The forward to the book was written by German President Horst Köhler and the German interior minister Otto Schily)
  19. Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1 Pages 151 to 204
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 Rűdiger Overmans, Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1, Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Overmans" defined multiple times with different content
  21. Overmans on page 176 of Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg defines "Letze Nachricht" das nur bekannt ist, von wann der letzte Feldpost oder ein anders Lebenszeichen stammt. All that is known is the origin of the last postal address or other sign of life
  22. Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1 Page 289
  23. Overmans, p. 265
  24. 24.0 24.1 Percy Schramm Kriegstagebuch des Oberkommandos der Wehrmacht: 1940 - 1945: 8 Bde. (ISBN 9783881990738 ) Pages 1508 to 1511
  25. Rűdiger Overmans, Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1, Page 241
  26. Rűdiger Overmans Soldaten hinter Stacheldraht. Deutsche Kriegsgefangene des Zweiten Weltkriege. Ullstein Taschenbuch vlg., 2002
  27. Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960 Page 78
  28. Erich Maschke ,Zur Geschichte der deutschen Kriegsgefangenen des Zweiten Weltkrieges Bielefeld, E. und W. Gieseking, 1962-1974 Vol 15 P 185-230.
  29. Rűdiger Overmans, Soldaten hinter Stacheldraht. Deutsche Kriegsgefangene des Zweiten Weltkriege. Ullstein., 2000 Page 246 ISBN 3-549-07121-3
  30. Willi Kammerer; Anja Kammerer- Narben bleiben die Arbeit der Suchdienste - 60 \Jahre nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg Berlin Dienststelle 2005 (published by the Search Service of the German Red Cross). The forward to the book was written by German President Horst Köhler and the German interior minister Otto Schily.
  31. Rűdiger Overmans, Soldaten hinter Stacheldraht. Deutsche Kriegsgefangene des Zweiten Weltkriege. Ullstein Taschenbuchvlg., 2002 ISBN 3-548-36328-8
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 32.3 32.4 Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1 Page 286-289
  33. Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1 Page 176
  34. 34.0 34.1 I. C. B. Dear and M. R. D. Foot Oxford Companion to World War II Oxford, 2005 ISBN 019280670 page 225
  35. Encyclopedia Britannica, article World Wars, 2010
  36. Brinkley ,Douglas, World War II Desk Reference , Collins Reference , 2004 ISBN 9780060526511 pages 432-435
  37. Spencer C. Tucker ,Encyclopedia of world war two, Abc-Clio Inc , 2004 9781576079997 pages 300-301
  38. Clodfelter, Michael. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 582-583
  39. John Keegan Atlas of the Second World War , HarperCollins 1997 Pages 204-205
  40. Ellis, John. World War II – A statistical survey Facts on File 1993. ISBN 0-8160-2971-7. pp. 253–254
  41. Dupuy, Col. Trevor N.; Dupuy, R. Ernest, Harper Encyclopedia of Military History, Harper Collins , 1993 ISBN 9780062700568 p.1309
  42. Alan Bullock, Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives Knopf, 1992 ISBN 0394586018, pages 986-988
  43. Keegan, John, Second World War, Penguin Books , 1990 ISBN 9780140113419 pages 592-593
  44. Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder since 1900, Lit Verlag, 1999 (on table 1.6 R. J. Rummel lists 169.2 million Democide deaths and 34.0 million war dead from 1900-1987 for a combined total of 203.2 million)
  45. Democide: Nazi Genocide and Mass Murder, Transaction Publishers, 1992 (on table 1.1 R. J. Rummel breaks out war dead of 5.2 million for Germany separately from Nazi democide)
  46. 46.0 46.1 Democide: Nazi Genocide and Mass Murder, Transaction Publishers, 1992 Table A
  47. Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder since 1917, Transaction Publishers, 1990, Tables 7A and 8A
  48. Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder since 1900, Lit Verlag, 1999 Table 14.1
  49. Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder since 1900, Lit Verlag, 1999 Table 13.1
  50. 50.0 50.1 Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder since 1900, Lit Verlag, 1999 Table 15.1
  51. Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder since 1900, Lit Verlag, 1999 Table 9.1
  52. Death by Government, Transaction Publishers, 1997 Table 12.1
  53. Eckhardt, William Wars and War-Related Deaths. 1700-1987,in World Military and Social Expenditures: 1987-1988, ed. Ruth Leger Sivard page 29
  54. Melvin Small and J. David Singer Resort to Arms: International and Civil Wars, 1816-1980 Sage 1982 page 91
  55. Quincy Wright A Study of War revised ed University of Chicago Press. 1965 page 1542
  56. Die deutschen Vertreibungsverluste. Bevölkerungsbilanzen für die deutschen Vertreibungsgebiete 1939/50.Herausgeber: Statistisches Bundesamt - Wiesbaden. - Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer, 1958 p. 14
  57. Das Deutsche Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg, Bd. 9/1, ISBN 3-421-06236-6. p. 460
  58. Germany and the Second World War, Volume 9, Part 1 Page 475 By Germany (West). Militärgeschichtliches Forschungsamt
  59. Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Page 74 Geneva 1951.
  60. Germany reports. With an introd. by Konrad Adenauer. Germany (West). Presse- und Informationsamt. Wiesbaden, Distribution: F. Steiner, 1961] Page 32
  61. Bundesarchiv Euthanasie" im Nationalsozialismus
  62. Bundesarchiv: Euthanasie-Verbrechen 1939 - 1945 (Quellen zur Geschichte der „Euthanasie“-Verbrechen 1939-1945 in deutschen und österreichischen Archiven. Ein Inventar. Einführung von Harald Jenner)
  63. Quellen zur Geschichte der „Euthanasie“-Verbrechen 1939-1945 in deutschen und österreichischen Archiven. Ein Inventar [1]
  64. Kai Cornelius, Vom spurlosen Verschwindenlassen zur Benachrichtigungspflicht bei Festnahmen, BWV Verlag, 2004, p.126, ISBN 3-8305-1165-5
  65. Willi Kammerer; Anja Kammerer- Narben bleiben die Arbeit der Suchdienste - 60 Jahre nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg Berlin Dienststelle 2005 ( Published by the Search Service of the German Red Cross. The forward to the book was written by German President Horst Köhler and the German interior minister Otto Schily)
  66. Wirtschaft und Statistik April 1950
  67. Bundesministerium für Vertriebene, Dokumentation der Vertreibung der Deutschen aus Ost-Mitteleuropa Vol. 1-5, Bonn, 1954-1961
  68. Die deutschen Vertreibungsverluste. Bevölkerungsbilanzen für die deutschen Vertreibungsgebiete 1939/50. Herausgeber: Statistisches Bundesamt - Wiesbaden. - Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer, 1958 See pages 102, 143,174,323 381
  69. 69.0 69.1 69.2 Rűdiger Overmans- Personelle Verluste der deutschen Bevölkerung durch Flucht und Vertreibung. (A parallel Polish summary translation was also included, this paper was a presentation at an academic conference in Warsaw Poland in 1994), Dzieje Najnowsze Rocznik XXI-1994
  70. German Federal Archive, Siegel, Silke Vertreibung und Vertreibungsverbrechen 1945-1948. Bericht des Bundesarchivs vom 28. Mai 1974. Archivalien und ausgewählte Erlebnisberichte. Bonn 1989
  71. Die Flucht der deutschen Bevölkerung 1944/45
  72. Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1
  73. 73.0 73.1 73.2 Ursprünge, Arten und Folgen des Konstrukts „Bevölkerung“ vor, im und nach dem „Dritten Reich“ Zur Geschichte der deutschen Bevölkerungswissensch: Ingo Haar Die deutschen ›Vertreibungsverluste‹ – Forschungsstand, Kontexte und Probleme, in Ursprünge, Arten und Folgen des Konstrukts „Bevölkerung“ vor, im und nach dem „Dritten Reich“ Springer 2009: ISBN 978-3-531-16152-5
  74. Herausforderung Bevölkerung : zu Entwicklungen des modernen Denkens über die Bevölkerung vor, im und nach dem Dritten Reich Ingo Haar, Bevölkerungsbilanzen“ und „Vertreibungsverluste. Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte der deutschen Opferangaben aus Flucht und Vertreibung Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften 2007 ISBN 978-3-531-15556-2
  75. Ingo Haar, Die Deutschen „Vertreibungsverluste –Zur Entstehung der „Dokumentation der Vertreibung - Tel Aviver Jahrbuch, 2007, Tel Aviv : Universität Tel Aviv, Fakultät für Geisteswissenschaften, Forschungszentrum für Geschichte ; Gerlingen [Germany] : Bleicher Verlag
  76. Hans Henning Hahn and Eva Hahnova : Die Vertreibung im deutschen Erinnern. Legenden, Mythos, Geschichte. Paderborn 2010, ISBN 978-3-506-77044-8 Pages 659-726
  77. Christoph Bergner, Secretary of State in Germany's Bureau for Inner Affairs, outlines the stance of the respective governmental institutions in Deutschlandfunk on 29 November 2006, [2]
  78. Hubert, Michael, Deutschland im Wandel. Geschichte der deutschen Bevolkerung seit 1815 Steiner, Franz Verlag 1998 ISBN 3-515-07392-2 p. 272
  79. Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, figure includes 3,760,000 military dead and missing; Civilian deaths: 410,000 in air war; 20,000 in military campaign and 1,260,000 expellee deaths east of the Oder Neisse line
  80. Marschalck, Peter. Bevölkerungsgeschichte Deutschlands im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, Suhrkamp 1984.
  81. 81.00 81.01 81.02 81.03 81.04 81.05 81.06 81.07 81.08 81.09 81.10 81.11 81.12 81.13 Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, Journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. (German government Statistical Office)
  82. Marschalck, Peter. Bevölkerungsgeschichte Deutschlands im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert- Suhrkamp 1984
  83. Bruno. Gleitze, Deutschlands Bevölkerungsverluste durch den Zweiten Weltkrieg, „Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung” 1953, s. 375-384 Gleitze estimated 400,000 excess deaths during the war and 800,000 in post war Germany
  84. Alan S. Milward, The Reconstruction of Western Europe
  85. Peter Antill, Peter Dennis, Berlin 1945: end of the Thousand Year Reich ISBN 1-84176-915-0 Page 85. Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=vAzgsCDUky0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Peter+Antill,+Peter+Dennis,+Berlin+1945:+end+of+the+Thousand+Year+Reich&hl=en&ei=dK25TJWtLoWKlwfp_I25DQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=22%2C000&f=false. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  86. Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1 Page 335
  87. Rűdiger Overmans Soldaten hinter Stacheldraht. Deutsche Kriegsgefangene des Zweiten Weltkriege. Ullstein Taschenbuch vlg., 2002
  88. Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. Page 4
  89. Austria facts and Figures Page 44
  90. Die deutschen Vertreibungsverluste. Bevölkerungsbilanzen für die deutschen Vertreibungsgebiete 1939/50. Herausgeber: Statistisches Bundesamt - Wiesbaden. - Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer, 1958
  91. Rűdiger Overmans, Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1, p. 265
  92. 92.0 92.1 German President Horst Köhler, Speech on September 2, 2006 [3]
  93. Wolfgang Benz: Feindbild und Vorurteil: Beiträge über Ausgrenzung und Verfolgung. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1996, ISBN 3-423-04694-5, S. 139
  94. Ursprünge, Arten und Folgen des Konstrukts „Bevölkerung“ vor, im und nach dem „Dritten Reich“ Zur Geschichte der deutschen Bevölkerungswissensch: Ingo Haar Die deutschen ›Vertreibungsverluste‹ – Forschungsstand, Kontexte und Probleme, in Ursprünge, Arten und Folgen des Konstrukts „Bevölkerung“ vor, im und nach dem „Dritten Reich“ Springer 2009: ISBN 978-3-531-16152-5 Page 373
  95. Paterson, Tony (September 11, 2010). "Merkel ally quits after claiming Nazis didn't start war". The Independent. London. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/merkel-ally-quits-after-claiming-nazis-didnt-start-war-2076379.html. 
  96. Rüdiger Overmans, Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1, pages 284-292
  97. Bischoff, Gunter; Ambrose, Stephen (1992), "Introduction", in Bischoff, Gunter; Ambrose, Stephen, Eisenhower and the German POWs, New York: Louisiana State University Press, ISBN 0-8071-1758-7

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