|Born||May 16, 1806|
|Died||February 3, 1879(aged 72)|
|Place of birth||Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|
United States of America|
|Years of service||1846 - 1848, 1861 - 1865|
|Battles/wars||American Civil War|
He was born and raised in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, studied law, and was admitted to the bar. He served in the Pennsylvania state militia and suppressed anti-foreign riots in Philadelphia. His father was Thomas Cadwalader (1779–1841), not to be confused with his cousin Thomas McCall Cadwalader (1795–1873) who was a general from New Jersey. His mother was Mary Biddle (1781–1850), who was daughter of Clement Biddle (1740–1818) who served in the American Revolutionary War.),
He was married in 1830 to Frances Butler Mease. They had one daughter, Frances who died young.
In 1845 Cadwalader was elected and honorary member of the Pennsylvania Society of the Cincinnati.
On March 3, 1847, he was appointed brigadier general and took command of a brigade of reinforcements being sent to Winfield Scott in central Mexico. His brigade was designated the 2nd Brigade in the newly formed 3rd Division under Gideon Pillow. He participated in the battles of Contreras, Churubusco, and Chapultepec. For his services at Chapultepec he as brevetted major general in the Regular Army to rank from September 13, 1847. Cadwalader was an original member of the Aztec Club of 1847 and was honorably discharged from the Army on July 20, 1848.
When the Civil War broke out, Cadwalader immediately volunteered his services to the Union cause. Due to his distinguished military experience, he was appointed major general of Pennsylvania Volunteers by Governor Andrew Curtin in April 1861.
On May 15, he was appointed military commander in Maryland, where Union communications were threatened by local Confederate sympathizers. On May 25, he ordered the arrest of John Merryman, who had been recruiting soldiers for the Confederate army. When Chief Justice Taney issued a writ of habeas corpus for Merryman, Cadwalader ignored him, stating that he was authorized by the President to suspend habeas corpus. This dispute resulted in the important case of Ex parte Merryman.
Cadwalader later took command of the 1st Division in Robert Patterson's Army of the Shenandoah. On May 25, 1862, he was commissioned major general in the United States Volunteers. Cadwalader later commanded the post at Corinth, Mississippi. He returned to Pennsylvania and commanded the post at Philadelphia and successively the District of Philadelphia, the District of the Brandywine, and the District of the Susquehanna before resigning in July 1865. He spent the remainder of his life in Philadelphia.
In April 1865, General Cadwalader helped found the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States (MOLLUS), a quasi-fraternal organization for former Union Army and Navy officers. He was a member of the Pennsylvania commandery and received MOLLUS insignia number 60. He served as Commander-in-Chief of the Loyal Legion from its founding until his death.
He died in Philadelphia on February 3, 1879.
- Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
- Bauer, K. Jack,The Mexican-American War 1846-48
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