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GIRAFFE Radar
Giraffe AFB-radar.jpg
A Giraffe AMB radar on display at Le Bourget Air Show, 2007.
Country of origin  Sweden
Introduced 1977
Number built 450~
Type Early warning radar
Frequency C band
Range Between 45 to 180 kilometres (28 to 112 mi) (dependent on variant)
Altitude Between 6,000 to 20,000 metres (20,000 to 66,000 ft) (dependent on variant)

The Saab (formerly Ericsson Microwave Systems AB) GIRAFFE Radar is a family of land and naval two- or three-dimensional G/H-band (4 to 8 GHz) radar-based surveillance and air defense command and control systems tailored for operations with medium- and Short Range Air Defense (SHORAD) missile or gun systems or for use as gap-fillers in a larger air defense system. The radar gets its name from the distinctive folding mast which when deployed allows the radar to see over nearby terrain features such as trees, extending its effective range against low-level air targets. The first systems were produced in 1977. By 2007, some 450 units of all types are reported as having been delivered.

Description[]

Giraffe is a family of G/H (formerly C-band) frequency agile, low to medium altitude pulse doppler air search radars and combat control centers which can be used in mobile or static short to medium range air defense applications. Giraffe is designed to detect low-altitude, low cross-section aircraft targets in conditions of severe clutter and electronic countermeasures. When equipped as an air-defense command center Giraffe provides an air picture to each firing battery using manpack radio communication.

GIRAFFE uses Agile Multi-Beam (AMB), which includes an integrated Command, control and communication (C3) system. This enables GIRAFFE to act as the command and control center in an air defense system, it can also be integrated into a sensor net for greater coverage. It is normally housed in a single 6m long shelter mounted on an all-terrain vehicle for high mobility. Additionally the shelter can be augmented with Nuclear, Biological and Chemical protection and light layers of armor to protect against small arms and fragmentation threats.

Manufacturers[]

M85 "Žirafa" on chasis of FAP 2026

Variants[]

Giraffe 40[]

This is a short-range (40 kilometres (25 mi) instrumented) air defense radar with command and control capability. It employs a folding antenna mast that extends to a height of 13 metres (43 ft) when deployed and can be integrated with an Interrogation Friend or Foe (IFF) capability. Coverage is stated to be from ground level to 10,000 metres (33,000 ft) in altitude. In Swedish service the radar is designated PS-70 and PS-701 and provides target data to RBS-70 SHORADS missiles and 40mm Bofors guns. A more powerful version with a 60 kW transmitter is known commercially as Super Giraffe and in Swedish service as PS-707. These radars are no longer marketed.

Giraffe 50AT[]

This is the model used in the Norwegian NALLADS air defense system which combines the radar and RBS-70 missiles with 20 mm anti-aircraft guns to provide low-level air defense for the combat brigades of the Norwegian army. Mounted on a BV-202 all-terrain tracked vehicle this version has an instrumented range of 50 km (31 mi). The antenna extends to a height of 7 metres (23 ft) and the system can control up to 20 firing units of guns or missiles or a combination of both. The Command and Control system features fully automatic track initiation, target tracking, target identification (IFF), target classification and designation, hovering helicopter detection threat evaluation and handling of "pop-up" targets. It can also exchange data with Giraffe 75 or AMB systems as part of a larger network.

Giraffe 75[]

This features a 13 metres (43 ft) antenna mast and is normally carried on a 6x6 5-ton cross-country truck which carries the radar and command and control shelter. Instrumented range is 75 km (47 mi) and altitude coverage extends from ground-level to 10,000 metres (33,000 ft). An optional add-on unit extends the radars coastal defense capabilities. In Swedish service the radar is designated PS-90.[2] In the Greek Air Force Giraffe 75 is used in combination with Contraves (now Rheinmetall defense) Skyguard/Sparrow fire control systems. 1 Giraffe typically controls 2 Skyguard systems each with 2 twin 35 mm GDF-005 guns and 2 Sparrow surface-to-air missile launchers.

1988, a Republic of Singapore Air Force's GIRAFFE S 3D radar on display at Paya Lebar Air Base.

Giraffe S[]

Optimized as a mobile radar for un-manned remote-controlled applications as a "gap-filler" in air defense early warning systems concentrating on small, low-flying targets over a long distance. It can also be employed as a coastal surveillance radar where targets are small surface vessels and sea-skimming missiles or aircraft. A new antenna extends range coverage to 180 km (110 mi) with altitude coverage from ground level to 6,000 metres (20,000 ft). The antenna mast extends to 8 metres (26 ft).

ARTE 740[]

This is a coastal defense radar based on the Giraffe 75 antenna and Giraffe AMB processing system optimized for surface and low-altitude coverage for the Swedish Amphibious Forces (formerly the Coastal Artillery). It is mounted on a MOWAG Piranha 10x10 armored vehicle. 6 systems are in service.

GIRAFFE AMB[]

This newest member of the family, providing multi-beam 3-Dimensional air coverage at 5.4 to 5.9 GHz with instrumented ranges of 30 km (19 mi), 60 km (37 mi) and 100 km (62 mi), the altitude coverage is extended from ground-level to 20,000 metres (66,000 ft) with 70-degree elevation coverage. Data rate is 1-scan per-second. Its maintained pulse density suppresses high cluttering in adverse weather conditions. Ultra-low antenna side-lobes combined with pulse-to-pulse and burst-to-burst frequency agility provides some resistance to jamming. As in previous Giraffe radars automatic hovering helicopter detection is provided as is an artillery and mortar locating function, allowing the radar to detect incoming rounds and give 20 seconds or more of warning before impact. Giraffe AMB is the principal sensor of the Swedish RBS 23 BAMSE air defense missile system but is available for many other applications. A skilled crew can deploy the radar in around 10 minutes and recover it in around 6 minutes.

Sea GIRAFFE 3 D radar on Polish Corvette

Sea GIRAFFE[]

Sea GIRAFFE is the naval variant of the GIRAFFE radar with AMB technology. It can detect air and surface targets from the horizon up to a height of 20,000 metres (66,000 ft) at elevations up to 70°, and can simultaneously handle multiple threats approaching from different directions and altitudes, including diving anti-ship missiles. Also, it is specialized for rapidly detecting small, fast moving targets at all altitudes and small surface targets in severe clutter. Its roles include :

  • Air surveillance and tracking
  • Surface surveillance and tracking
  • Target identification for weapon systems
  • High-resolution splash spotting

Users[]

  •  Australia: Sea GIRAFFE installed on Anzac-class frigates. Recently ordered as a ground-based system, too.[3]
  •  Brazil: In use by the Marine Corps since 1989, in the 50AT version, with a BV-206D tractor. To be replaced by the Saber M60.
  •  Canada: Sea GIRAFFE is used on Halifax class frigates.[4]
  •  Croatia
  •  Estonia
  •  Finland
    • Jantronic J-1000 target acquisition systems with Ericsson GIRAFFE Mk IV radars on a XA-182 Pasi APC
  •  France: GIRAFFE AMB in use by the French Air Force.[5]
  •  Indonesia: Indonesian Army
  •  Ireland: Irish Army
  •  Latvia
  •  Lithuania
  •  Greece
  •  Malaysia: Sea GIRAFFE is installed on Lekiu class frigate.[6]
  •  Norway
  •  Pakistan
  •  Poland: Sea GIRAFFE is installed on Orkan class fast attack crafts.
  •  Serbia Producing one domestically upgraded and modernization variant based on purchased licence by VTI - Military Technical Institute Belgrade
  •  Singapore: GIRAFFE S and AMB in service with the Republic of Singapore Air Force's air-defence radar network;[7][8] Sea GIRAFFE aboard the Republic of Singapore Navy's Victory class corvettes.[9]
  •  Sweden: used in coastal defence. Visby class corvettes also use Sea GIRAFFE.
  •  Thailand GIRAFFE S and AMB used in Royal Thai Navy
  •  UAE: UAE Navy Baynunah class corvette also use Sea GIRAFFE
  • United States

See also[]

References[]

Citations
Bibliography

External links[]

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