|Frontier Works Organization (FWO)|
|File:Frontier Works Organization logo.jpg|
|Headquarters/garrison||General Headquarters (GHQ)|
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971|
War in North-West Pakistan
Lieutenant-General Muhammad Afzal|
|Transport||Bell 206 Jet Ranger|
The Frontier Works Organization (Urdu language: فرينٹير وركس اورگيناأزيشن
- abbreviated as FWO), is a military engineering organization, and one of the major science and technology commands of the Pakistan Army. Commissioned and established in 1966, the FWO includes active duty officers and civilian scientists and engineers. Since its establishment it has been credited with the construction of bridges, roads, tunnels, airfields and dams in Pakistan, on the orders of the civilian government of Pakistan.
Its objectives include projects related to civil, construction, combat, structural, and military engineering and is commanded by Lieutenant-General Muhammad Afzal. The FWO led the design and construction of the Karakoram Highway. It builds civil and military infrastructure for the Government of Pakistan and the Pakistan Armed Forces.
Karakoram Highway Project
In the late 1960s, the Government of Pakistan and Government of China wished to construct a road link between Pakistan and the China. The task was assigned to the Pakistan Army. The army using its Corps of Engineers had already worked in 1959 in connecting Gilgit with Pakistan through the Indus Valley Road.
The funding was provided by the Ministry of Communications which exercised their control over the project on behalf of government of Pakistan. Thus was born the organization known as FWO which later on, in collaboration with the Chinese military engineers, undertook the gigantic task.
Projects with Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
The FWO began working with the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) in December 1985. The FWO completed the engineering design in 1986 and constructed the Uranium mining facility at Baghalchur in February 1987. The construction of Khushab Nuclear Complex began in somewhere in 1986, the FWO joined PAEC in 1987. The FWO started to established a Army Bridge Camp/Base Depot near at the Khushab, and has completed the project under one month.
In 1986, the FWO constructed the nuclear dump waste management plant at the Baghalchur Facility under the code name, Baghalchur Project. The Baghalchur Project was completed in January 1989. The same year and month, the FWO was assigned to conduct the site preparation for the Khushab Reactor, and work was completed in May 1989. In November, 1988, The FWO built the Additional Link Road under the codename "Phase- lV Base Depot Khushab". The project was completed in May 1991.
In October 1990, the FWO was assigned the task of constructing a uranium mining and milling facilityin Thola Dagar, Punjab. The FWO completed the survey and feasibility studies in three months and the construction of the mining facility was completed in October 1991.
The FWO alongside another military organization, the Special Development Works (SDW), (both of which fall under the Pakistan Army Corps of Engineers (PACE)) were involved in the construction of underground tunnels at Chagai, Balochistan in the late 1980s in preparation for the Chagai-I nuclear test which was eventually carried out on 25 May 1998. The military scientists and engineers of the Corps of Engineers, FWO, and SDW were also present during the nuclear test at Kharan Desert, codename Chagai-II.
Work with Military Engineering Service and ERL
In February 1982, the FWO performed its work with Pakistan Army's engineering corps, Military Engineering Services (MES). The project-director was military engineer then-Brigadier-General Zahid Ali Akbar. The FWO designed and constructed the road and a bridge to connect Kahuta to the Khan Research Laboratories (KRL) (then-known as Engineering Research Laboratories (ERL) under the codename "Road KAK Bridge to KRL". The work was done in September 1983.
The FWO, along with the Army Corps of Engineers, has designed and built army airfields, military airport, military bases, and other infrastructure for the Pakistan Armed Forces.
Pakistan Air Force
From January 1981 to April 2000, FWO completed twenty-nine military projects which includes Peshawar Runway, Recarpeting of PAF Base Mianwali, PAF Base Rafiqui, PAF Base Minhas, Murid Airbase, Risalpur Airbase, and the emergency repair of the Gilgit Airport. It constructed Gujranwala Air Field and Skardu Airport.
From April 1986 till May 2000, the FWO participated with the Corps of Engineers and Military Engineering Services in thirty-seven projects.
FWO constructed military infrastructure for the Pakistan Navy, particularly the Gwadar port. In 1980, the contract was awarded to FWO to design, build, and construct the Gwadar International Airport. The work was done in 1984 and it was inaugurated the same year. In 1984, FWO installed the Generator Room at Gwadar and completed the construction of the taxiway at the PNS Mehran, the naval base of the Naval Air Arm in 1991. The same year, the FWO design and constructed the Kalmat Naval Base naval command office near Khor Kalmat.
The Frontier Works Organization has been awarded contracts by Pakistan's Provisional as well as by Pakistan's Federal Government. During the 1970s, the FWO constructed twenty-seven projects for the National Highway Authority. The FWO was awarded a contract by the Government of Balochistan in 1985 to construct the road, under the codename Road Liari Ormara Phase-I. The Balochistan Government continued to work with FWO and, from the period 1985 to 1992, the road project was completed.
Objectives and focus
FWO has issued a code of ethics and objectives:
- Survey, soil investigation for roads, airfields, dams, bridges, tunnels and mining.
- Technical planning including preparation/vetting of designs.
- Preparation/conclusion of contracts.
- Planning/procurement of stores, equipment and plant.
- Coordination/supervision of works.
- Quality control and monitoring of projects.
- Financial management of projects including budgeting and costing.
- Repair of equipment/plant.
- Logistic support tol units in the form of bulk supplies of rations, petrol, oil and lubrications, construction materials, stores.
- Medical support to all units including evacuation of casualties by helicopter and provision of facilities for major surgery and treatment of medical/dental cases.
- Karakoram Highway
- "Frontier Works Organization - Projects". Fwo.com.pk. http://www.fwo.com.pk/projects.php?proid=9&title=completed&cat=paec. Retrieved 23 August 2010. [dead link]
- "When Mountains Move – The Story of Chagai". Defencejournal.com. Archived from the original on 1 April 2012. https://web.archive.org/web/20120401181303/http://www.defencejournal.com/2000/june/chagai.htm. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "Frontier Works Organization - Projects". Fwo.com.pk. http://www.fwo.com.pk/projects.php?proid=9&title=completed&cat=notaval. Retrieved 23 August 2010. [dead link]
- "Frontier Works Organization - Projects". Fwo.com.pk. http://www.fwo.com.pk/projects.php?proid=9&title=completed&cat=paf. Retrieved 23 August 2010. [dead link]
- "Frontier Works Organization - Projects". Fwo.com.pk. http://www.fwo.com.pk/projects.php?proid=9&title=completed&cat=pakarmy. Retrieved 23 August 2010. [dead link]
- "Frontier Works Organization - Projects". Fwo.com.pk. http://www.fwo.com.pk/projects.php?proid=9&title=completed&cat=navy. Retrieved 23 August 2010. [dead link]
- "Frontier Works Organization - Projects". Fwo.com.pk. http://www.fwo.com.pk/projects.php?proid=9&title=completed&cat=nha. Retrieved 23 August 2010. [dead link]
- "Frontier Works Organization - Projects". Fwo.com.pk. http://www.fwo.com.pk/projects.php?proid=9&title=completed&cat=gob. Retrieved 23 August 2010. [dead link]
- "Frontier Works Organization - Pakistan". Fwo.com.pk. 31 October 1966. http://www.fwo.com.pk/index.php?page=3&type=capabilities. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
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