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Franz Böhme
Franz Böhme
Born (1885-04-15)April 15, 1885
Died 29 May 1947(1947-05-29) (aged 62)
Place of birth Zeltweg, Styria, Austria-Hungary
Place of death Nürnberg, Germany
Buried at St. Leonhard-Friedhof, Graz, Austria
Allegiance Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary (to 1918)
Austria First Austrian Republic (to 1938)
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany
Service/branch Bundesheer
Years of service 1900–1938 (Austria)
1938–1945 (Germany)
Rank Generalmajor (Austria)
General der Gebirgstruppe (Germany)
Commands held 32nd Infantry Division
XVIII Mountain Corps
20th Mountain Army
Battles/wars World War I
World War II
Awards Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross

Franz Friedrich Böhme (15 April 1885, Zeltweg, Styria, Austria-Hungary – 29 May 1947) was an Austrian. He served on behalf of the Austro-Hungarian army in World War I, and as a general in the German Army, serving as Commander of the XVIII Mountain Corps, Hitler's 'Plenipotentiary Commanding General' on the Balkan, and Commander-in-Chief in German-occupied Norway during World War II. Böhme stood trial in Nuremberg for having massacred thousands of Serbian civilians. He committed suicide in prison.

Personal life

Böhme's father, Ernst Friedrich, died in 1902, when Franz was 17 years old, and his mother, the former Maria Ludmilla (née Stremayr), died the following year. In 1929, Böhme married Romana Maria Hüller von Hüllenried, the daughter of Generalmajor Karl Rudolf Hüller von Hüllenried.

First World War

  • 1914: East Galicia (Royal 38th Hungarian Honved Division): Combat at Halych and Bolszowce; Second Battle of Lemberg (de); Combat in the Carpathians at Szinna, Uzsoker Pass, Turka and Boryslaw. West Galicia: Battle of Limanowa
  • 1915: East Galicia (in the German South Army): Combat in the Carpathians at Beskiden and Zwinin; Battle of Steryj, Battle of Halicz and Battle of Ternopil; Combat on the Strypa (de) river.
  • 1916: East Galicia (in the German South Army): Combat on the Strypa river at Burkanow; Combat on the Zlota-Lipa at Brzeżany.
  • 1917: Volhynia-Russia (XXIV Corps): Combat southeast of Vladimir Volynsk (Novi Zagorow). Courland (Prussian General Command for Special Employment 51): Combat at Dünaburg and at Jakobstadt. Italy (XXIV Corps and Second Isonzo Army): 10th, 11th and 12th Isonzo Battles; Advance on the Piave.
  • 1918: Italy (First Isonzo Army): Combat on the Piave River. France (Austrian 1st Division): Defensive Battle on the eastern Maas before Verdun with the Prussian V Reserve Corps.

Interwar years

Böhme served in the Austrian army during the interwar years. The Berchtesgaden agreement (12 February 1938) stipulated in paragraph 8 that the Austrian chief of staff, Alfred Jansa, who favoured a military response in case of a German attack, had to be replaced by Franz Böhme.[citation needed]

Second World War

Trial and suicide

After being captured in Norway, he was brought before the Hostages Trial, a division of the Subsequent Nuremberg Trials, and charged with war crimes committed in Serbia, during his 1941 control of the region. He had upped the ante of retaliatory strikes against Serbs, killing a hundred Serbs for every German killed, and fifty for every German wounded; this resulted in the massacre of thousands of civilians.[1] When his extradition to Yugoslavia seemed imminent, Böhme committed suicide by jumping from the 4th storey of the prison in which he was being held. His body was interred at St. Leonhard-Friedhof in Graz.[citation needed]

Awards and decorations


  1. Weiner, Ofer and Barber 1996, pp. 145–152
  2. Patzwall and Scherzer 2001, p. 49.
  3. Fellgiebel 2000, p. 137.
  • Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000) (in German). Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 – Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtsteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches]. Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6. 
  • Patzwall, Klaus D.; Scherzer, Veit (2001) (in German). Das Deutsche Kreuz 1941 – 1945 Geschichte und Inhaber Band II [The German Cross 1941 – 1945 History and Recipients Volume 2]. Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall. ISBN 978-3-931533-45-8. 
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007) (in German). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives]. Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. 
  • Weiner, Hana; Ofer, Dalia; Barber, Anne (1996). Dead-end Journey: the Tragic Story of the Kladovo-Šabac Group. University Press of America. ISBN 0-7618-0199-5.

External links

Military offices
Preceded by
Generalmajor Kurt von Briesen
Commander of 30. Infanterie-Division
1 July 1939 – 19 July 1939
Succeeded by
General der Infanterie Kurt von Briesen
Preceded by
Generaloberst Nikolaus von Falkenhorst
Commander of 32. Infanterie-Division
19 July 1939 – 1 October 1939
Succeeded by
Generalleutnant Eccard Freiherr von Gablenz
Preceded by
Generalleutnant Eccard Freiherr von Gablenz
Commander of 32. Infanterie-Division
1 December 1939 – 15 June 1940
Succeeded by
Generalleutnant Wilhelm Bohnstedt
Preceded by
Generaloberst Dr. Lothar Rendulic
Commander of 2. Panzer-Armee
24 June 1944 – 17 July 1944
Succeeded by
General der Artillerie Maximilian de Angelis
Preceded by
General Dr. Lothar Rendulic
Commander of 20. Gebirgsarmee
8 January 1945 – 7 May 1945
Succeeded by

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