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François Paul Anthoine (28 February 1860 – 25 December 1944) was a French army general during World War I, most notable during Robert Nivelle's ill-fated campaign in 1917 and later the Third Battle of the Aisne.

At the height of his career, Anthoine was appointed as Chief of Staff to the former Commander in Chief, Henri-Philippe Petain, during the Third Battle of the Aisne. However, when the "Great War" began, Anthoine was General Castelnau's Chief of Staff. As time passed and Anthoine proved his worth in military tactics, he was eventually promoted to commander of the French First Army.

At the Third Battle of Ypres in 1917, Anthoine and the French First Army were set the tasks of participating in the attacks on the northern flank of the salient and guarding the BEF's northern flank from enemy attack across the Yser Canal. Herbert Plumer's Second Army was given the parallel task of Anthoine, attacking the southern flank of the salient and guarding the BEF's southern flank.

Despite all of his hard work, Anthoine was fired, although some say he was a scape goat, along with Henri-Philippe Petain after poor British and French troop handling allowed German gains that hampered Allied victory in the Third Battle of the Aisne in 1918. After this disgracement, François Anthoine died many years later in 1944.

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