Military Wiki
Advertisement
Forth Royal Garrison Artillery
505th (Forth) Coast Regiment, RA
414th (Forth) Coast Regiment, RA
Koning Soldaat., item 60.jpg
Cap Badge of the Royal Regiment of Artillery
Active 1910–1953
Country  United Kingdom
Branch Flag of the British Army.svg Territorial Force
Role Coast Artillery
Part of Scottish Command
Garrison/HQ Edinburgh

The Forth Royal Garrison Artillery and its successors were Scottish part-time coast defence units of the British Army from 1908 to 1956. Although they saw no active service, they supplied trained gunners to siege batteries engaged on the Western Front during World War I.

Origin

When the Territorial Force (TF) was created from the old Volunteer Force under the Haldane Reforms of 1908, a new 'Defended Ports' unit of the Royal Garrison Artillery (RGA) was formed from two Dumbartonshire companies of the 1st Renfrew and Dumbarton RGA (Volunteers), part of the 1st Argyll & Bute RGA (Volunteers), and personnel from the 1st Edinburgh City RGA (Volunteers). The new unit, named the Forth & Clyde Royal Garrison Artillery, totalled eight companies with its headquarters (HQ) at Edinburgh, but in 1910 it was split up, the Clyde elements being detached to form independent unit, the Clyde RGA, while the remainder became the Forth Royal Garrison Artillery at Edinburgh, with two detached companies on the north bank of the Firth of Forth.[1][2][3][4]

The Forth RGA had the following organisation:[2][4][5][6]

It was designated as a Defended Ports Unit in Scottish Coast Defences, which was also based at Edinburgh and included the Regulars of No 21 Company RGA at Fort Leith.[6][8][9]

World War I

Mobilisation

On the outbreak of war the Forth RGA mobilised under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel H. O'Connor, VD.[5] Shortly afterwards TF units were invited to volunteer for Overseas Service and on 15 August 1914, the War Office (WO) issued instructions to separate those men who had signed up for Home Service only, and form these into reserve units. On 31 August, the formation of a reserve or 2nd Line unit was authorised for each 1st Line unit where 60 per cent or more of the men had volunteered for Overseas Service. The titles of these 2nd Line units would be the same as the original, but distinguished by a '2/' prefix. In this way duplicate companies and batteries were created, releasing the 1st Line units to be sent overseas.[10]

By October 1914, the campaign on the Western Front was bogging down into Trench warfare and there was an urgent need for batteries of Siege artillery to be sent to France. The WO decided that the TF coastal gunners were well enough trained to take over many of the duties in the coastal defences, releasing Regular RGA gunners for service in the field, and 1st line RGA companies had been authorised to increase their strength by 50 per cent.[11]

Although complete defended ports units never left the UK, they did supply drafts of trained gunners to RGA units serving overseas. They also provided cadres as the basis on which to form complete new units for front line service. The 70th Siege Battery formed in October 1915 was based on a company (probably 1/4th Company) from the Forth RGA, and 108th Siege Battery formed in the Forth Defences in February 1916 also drew its cadre from the unit. A number of other siege batteries formed in the Forth Defences in 1915–16 (89th, 90th, 118th,[lower-alpha 1] 138th, 152nd, 153rd, 178th, 181st, 210th, 228th, 251st, 263rd, 293rd, and 311th) may also have included trained men from the Forth RGA among the recruits, although the Army Council Instructions did not specifically order this.[2][12]

Under Army Council Instruction 686 of April 1917, the coastal defence companies of the RGA (TF) were reorganised. The RGA companies serving in the Forth garrison (including one from the North Scottish RGA) were reduced from 12 companies to 10, and were to be kept up to strength with non-TF recruits:[13]

  • 1/1st Company – became 1st Company
  • 1/2nd Company – became 2nd Company
  • 1/3rd Company – became 3rd Company
  • 1/5th Company – became 4th Company
  • 1/6th Company – became 5th Company
  • 2/1st Company – became 6th Company
  • 2/2nd Company – became 7th Company
  • 2/3rd Company – became 8th Company
  • 2/4th Company – became 9th Company
  • 2/5th Company – became 10th Company

2/6th Company Forth RGA and 2/1st Company North Scottish RGA were disbanded

In April 1918 the Forth Garrison comprised the following batteries:[6][14]

  • Outer Defences: No 19 Coastal Fire Command, Inchkeith
    • Inchkeith Battery 1 – 3 x 9.2-inch Mk X guns
    • Inchkeith Battery 2 – 6 x 6-inch Mk VII guns
    • Kinghorn Battery 1 – 1 x 9.2-inch Mk X
    • Kinghorn Battery 2 – 2 x 6-inch Mk VII
    • Pettycur Battery – 2 x 6-inch Mk VII
    • Leith Docks – 2 x 6-inch Mk VII
  • Middle Defences: No 20 Coastal Fire Command, Inchcolm (including No 21 Company RGA)[9]
  • Inner Defences: No 21 Coastal Fire Command, Carlingnose Point, North Queensferry
    • Hound Point Battery – 2 x 12-pdr QF
    • Invergarvie Battery – 4 x 12-pdr QF
    • Coastguard Battery – 2 x 12-pdr QF
    • Downing Point Battery – 2 x 12-pdr QF
    • Armoured Train, Craigentinny – 2 x 12-pdr QF

These defences never saw action during the war. The Forth RGA was placed in suspended animation in 1919.[2]

8-inch Howitzer Mk I on the Somme, July 1916.

70th Siege Battery, RGA

70th Siege Battery was formed under War Office Instruction No 144 of 9 October 1915 from one company (probably 1/4th Company) of the Forth RGA. It went out to the Western Front on 26 March 1916 armed with four 8-inch howitzers[lower-alpha 2] and joined the Northern Heavy Group (40th Heavy Artillery Group or HAG) in X Corps. This Corps was part of Fourth Army preparing for that summer's 'Big Push' (the Battle of the Somme).[17][18]

Somme

The role of the northern division of X Corps, the 36th (Ulster) Division, was to attack astride the River Ancre and capture the Schwaben Redoubt on the edge of the Thiepval Ridge.[19] The bombardment programme was to extend over five days, U, V, W, X and Y, before the assault was launched on Z day. The bombardment began on 24 June, but on several days the weather was too bad for good air or ground observation and the programme was extended by two days (Y1 and Y2).[20][21] When the infantry launched their assault at 07.30 on Z Day (1 July) the heavy guns lifted to successive targets, repeating the process six times. On 36th Division's front the initial assault was entirely successful, except for the area immediately adjacent to the Ancre. The Ulstermen overran the German front line trenches and dugouts, and by 08.00 they had captured the front face of the Schwaben Redoubt. Although some parties got into the German 2nd Position, the divisions on either flank had met with disaster, allowing the defenders to get into their rear. Most of the 36th Division was pinned down in the open and had to be withdrawn after dark. The gunners helped to evacuate the wounded, a process that was not completed until 3 July.[22]

By now massive quantities of artillery were employed for each phase of the continuing offensive as Fourth Army and later Reserve Army attacked again and again:[23][24]

On 3 October 70th Siege Bty transferred to 16th HAG with Reserve (later Fifth) Army, which continued to attack on the Ancre Heights until mid-November, and carried out minor operations on the Ancre through the winter.[17][25]

Vimy

On 22 March 1917, 70th Siege Bty transferred to north to join 31st HAG with First Army,[17][25] which was preparing for the Battle of Vimy Ridge. The artillery plan for the heavy guns emphasised counter-battery (CB) fire. At Zero hour, while the field guns laid down a Creeping barrage to protect the advancing infantry, the heavy howitzers fired 450 yards (410 m) further ahead to hit the rear areas on the reverse slope of the ridge, especially known gun positions. The attack went in on 9 April with I Corps and Canadian Corps successfully capturing Vimy Ridge. Fighting in the southern sector (the Battle of Arras) continued into May.[26][27][28]

On 29 May 70th Siege Bty was joined by a section from the newly-arrived 310th Siege Bty, bringing it up to a strength of six 8-inch howitzers. It came under the command of a number of different HAGs, finally joining 12th HAG with Third Army on 7 September.[17][25][28][29]

Cambrai

In October, Third Army began preparing for its surprise attack with tanks at the Battle of Cambrai. There was to be no preliminary bombardment or registration: when the battle began with a crash of artillery at 06.20 on 20 November the German defenders were stunned, and the massed tanks completed their overcome. In most areas the attack was an outstanding success. Exploitation over succeeding days was less spectacular.[30][31][32] By now HAG allocations were becoming more fixed, and on 1 February 1918 they were converted into permanent RGA brigades. Because of the inclusion of 70th Siege Bty the 12th Brigade was defined as an 8-inch Howitzer Brigade, though the other three batteries were all equipped with 6-inch howitzers. 70th Siege Bty remained with this brigade until the Armistice.[17][25][33][34]

1918

12th Brigade was part of IX Corps' Heavy Artillery in the fighting at Mont Kemmel, during the Battle of the Lys (the second phase of the German Spring Offensive) in April 1918.[35][36] It then moved to Fourth Amy on 18 August 1918 in time for the Battle of Amiens and to participate in the victorious Hundred Days Offensive.[25]

By the end of September Fourth Army had closed up to the Hindenburg Line. 12th Brigade came under the command of IX Corps once more for the assault crossing of the St Quentin Canal on 29 September. The canal defences were largely destroyed by the heavy guns, which continued firing on the canal banks until the last possible moment as 137th (Staffordshire) Brigade stormed the outpost line and then scrambled across the canal in the morning mist. 70th Siege Bty crossed the canal on 1 October to support 32nd Division's attack on the Beaurevoir Line.[35][37][38]

For the next attack, the Battle of the Selle, IX Corps HQ selected important localities to be bombarded by 70th Siege Bty's heavy howitzers, for which 200 rounds of ammunition per gun were accumulated. The corps attacked on 17 October, 'lifted forward' by two great belts of intense artillery fire, and a German counter-attack was hit by every gun within range.[35][39][40][41] IX Corps renewed its advance on 23 October, with 12th Bde part of a massive corps artillery reserve. The attack went in at 01.20 in moonlight, after the heavy guns had done the usual CB and harassing fire bombardments, and the results were extremely satisfactory.[42] After a pause to regroup and reconnoitre, IX Corps stormed across the Sambre–Oise Canal on 4 November (the Battle of the Sambre). After that the campaign became a pursuit of a beaten enemy, in which the slow-moving siege guns could play no part. The war ended with the Armistice with Germany on 11 November.[43][44][45] 70th Siege Battery was disbanded in 1919.

Crew positioning a 6-inch 26 cwt howitzer in 1918.

108th Siege Battery, RGA

108th Siege Battery was formed in the Forth Defences under Army Council Instruction No 397 of 21 February 1916 with a cadre of three officers and 78 men from the Forth RGA. It went out to the Western Front on 7 June armed with four 6-inch howitzers and also joined 40th HAG in X Corps' Heavy Artillery. It had a similar experience to 70th Siege Bty in the Somme Offensive, although it transferred to 45th HAG on 21 July.[17] For the Capture of Pozières on 23 July, 45th HAG was directly attached to 1st Australian Division. A methodical bombardment of the village began on 19 July, the volume of fire increasing after dark on 22 July. Just before Zero hour (00.30 on 23 July) the heavy artillery provided five minutes of intense bombardment of the western part of the village between the Bapaume road and the cemetery. The Australian battalions attacking the village encountered little resistance and reached their objective before daybreak, though there was bitter fighting elsewhere.[46]

108th Siege Bty moved to 59th HAG on 29 September, then began a series of rapid changes in command, to 76th HAG with First Army on 23 December, to 50th HAG with Third Army on 26 January 1917, 31st HAG with First Army two days later, then to 53rd HAG on 5 February and 79th HAG on 18 February, joining 87th HAG with Third Army on 26 March before the Battle of Arras. Then it was with 76th HAG, First Army, from 30 April, and back to 50th HAG, Third Army, on 14 May. It remained with 50th HAG during the summer, being rested from 23 August to 7 September. On 25 September 1917, 108th Siege Bty was made up to six howitzers when it was joined by a section from the newly arrived 441st Siege Bty.[17][25]

The battery was briefly assigned to 16th HAG, First Army, on 6 November, but two days later it left to return to 50th HAG with Third Army (a move that took until 12 November) for the Battle of Cambrai. The group fired in support of III Corps' attack. The attack on this front was a complete success, and the German artillery was largely neutralised by the bombardment (later analysis showed that enemy gun positions had been fixed with 90 per cent accuracy).[17][47] However, further exploitation was slow, and the fighting bogged down round Bourlon Wood. On 30 November the Germans launched a heavy counter-attack. 108th Siege Bty's guns were sited at Sonnet Farm, alongside 110th Siege Bty (formed by the Clyde RGA at the same time as the 108th). The German barrage on the battery positions lasted half an hour and although 110th Siege Bty managed to get two howitzers into action, the retreating British infantry had passed the batteries' position, and about noon the Germans came over the crest of Gonnelieu Ridge. The gunners removed the dial sights before abandoning their howitzers and those armed with rifles took up a position about 300 yards back. Here they were joined by troops from 60th Infantry Brigade who held the German advance.108th Siege Bty had lost five of its howitzers.[48][49][50]

After this action the battery moved to 86th HAG and was re-equipped, but reduced to an establishment of four guns; a section of gunners left on 24 December to join 288th Siege Bty, an 8-inch howitzer unit that had been broken up and was being reconstituted with 6-inch howitzers. 108th Siege Bty was attached to 17th HAG on 27 December, then moved to 78th HAG two days later. This was its final transfer, and it served with 78th HAG (78th Bde RGA from 1 February 1918) until the Armistice.[17][34]

78th Brigade served with Third Army during the German Spring Offensive, then transferred to Second Army on 7 July. Second Army joined in the Allied Hundred Days Offensive on 18 August, advancing in Flanders. On 26 and 30 August, during the Battle of the Scarpe, 78th Bde supported the Canadian Corps, with the heavy guns firing 600 yards (550 m) ahead of the creeping barrage. For the Canadian attack on the Drocourt-Quéant Switch Line (2 September), the brigade directly supported the attacking divisions while other RGA brigades handled CB tasks.[25][51][52]

On 2 October 78th Bde transferred to First Army, supporting XXII Corps at the Battle of the Selle (24 October), after which the pursuit was too fast for most of the heavy artillery to keep up.[25][34][53][54]

The fighting was ended by the Armistice of 11 November 1918 and 108th Siege Battery was disbanded in 1919.

Interwar

The Forth RGA was reformed on 1 July 1920. When the TF was reorganised as the Territorial Army (TA) in 1921 the title was changed to Forth Coast Brigade, RGA, and when the RGA was subsumed into the Royal Artillery in 1924 it became the Forth Heavy Brigade, RA. It formed part of the coast defence troops in 52nd (Lowland) Divisional Area and had the following organisation:[2][4][5][55]

  • HQ at Easter Road Barracks, Edinburgh
  • 160 Heavy Battery at Easter Road Barracks
  • 161 Heavy Battery at Easter Road Barracks
  • 162 Heavy Battery at Easter Road Barracks
  • 163 Heavy Battery at Hunter Street drill hall, Kirkcaldy

A 1927 report on coastal defences by the Committee of Imperial Defence made recommendations for defence schemes at 15 'Class A' home ports, including the Forth (Scheme 7), but little was done to modernise them before the outbreak of World War II.[56][57] On 1 April 1934, 160 Hvy Bty converted to the medium artillery role and transferred to 62nd (North Scottish) Medium Brigade, which had been converted from the North Scottish RGA at Broughty Ferry. The battery rejoined Forth Heavy Regiment (as RA brigades were now termed) on 1 November 1938 and reconverted to the coast artillery role.[2][4][5][58]

World War II

Mobilisation

The TA was doubled in size following the Munich Crisis, and in May 1939 163 Batty transferred to join a new Fife Heavy Regiment (later 504th and 507th (Fife) Coast Rgts) on the north bank of the Forth, formed from 62nd (North Scottish) Medium Rgt.[2][4][5][58][59] The Forth Heavy Rgt mobilised in the Lowland Area of Scottish Command on the outbreak of war in September 1939.[60] The coastal artillery regiments underwent a major reorganisation in 1940, and on 14 July the regiment expanded to form five new regiments:[2][4][61]

  • 501st (Forth) Coast Regiment[62][63][64]placed in suspended animation June 1945
    • HQ at Fort South Sutor, Cromarty[65][66]
    • A Bty – became 241 Bty 1 April 1941?[67]
    • B Bty – became 242 Bty 1 April 1941?[67] to 543 Coast Rgt by April 1942[68]
    • 211 Bty – joined by June 1941[67]
    • 227 Independent Bty – joined by mid-June 1941[67]
    • 244 Bty – from 543 Coast Rgt by April 1942
    • 303 Bty – joined by June 1941;[67] to 543 Coast Rgt by April 1942[68]
    • 304 Bty – joined by June 1941;[67] to 542 Coast Rgt by April 1942[68]
    • 82 Coast Observer Detachment joined by April 1942[68]
  • 502nd (Forth) Coast Regiment[69][70]placed in suspended animation March 1941
    • HQ at Aberdeen
    • A Bty at Torry Battery – 243 Bty from 1941; to 2nd Coast Artillery Group (later 542nd Coast Rgt) October 1940[61]
  • 503rd (Forth) Coast Regiment[58][71]placed in suspended animation March 1941
    • HQ at Dundee
  • 505th (Forth) Coast Regiment[2][4][61][72]placed in suspended animation January 1946
    • HQ at Inchkeith
    • A Bty – 251 Bty from 1 April 1941
    • B Bty – 252 Bty from 1 April 1941; to 506th (Forth) Coast Rgt by April 1942[68]
    • C Bty – 253 Bty from 1 April 1941
    • D Bty – 254 Bty from 1 April 1941
    • E Bty – 255 Bty from 1 April 1941
    • 256 Bty – from 506th (Forth) Coast Rgt by April 1942[68]
    • 257 Bty – from 506th (Forth) Coast Rgt by April 1942[68]
    • 309 Bty – joined by June 1941;[67] to 506th (Forth) Coast Rgt by April 1942[68]
    • 310 Bty – joined by June 1941;[67] to 510th (Tynemouth) Coast Rgt by 1 December[68]
  • 506th (Forth) Coast Regiment[59][61][73]placed in suspended animation April 1944
    • HQ at Kinghorn
    • A Bty – 256 Bty from 1 April 1941; to 505th (Forth) Coast Rgt by April 1942[68]
    • B Bty – 257 Bty from 1 April 1941; to 505th (Forth) Coast Rgt by April 1942[68]
    • 252 Bty – from 505th (Forth) Coast Rgt by April 1942[68]
    • 309 Bty – from 505th (Forth) Coast Rgt by April 1942[68]

Service

At their height in September 1941, the East Coast defences of Scotland contained the following guns:[57][74]

BL 6-inch Mk VII naval gun in typical coast defence mounting (preserved at Newhaven Fort).

  • Forth (504th (Fife), 505th (Forth), 506th (Forth), 507th (Fife) Coast Rgts)
    • 3 x 9.2-inch
    • 16 x 6-inch
    • 4 x 12-pounders
    • 6 x 6-pounders
  • Dundee (503rd Coast Rgt)
    • 4 x 6-inch
  • Aberdeen (502nd Coast Rgt)
    • 4 x 6-inch
  • Invergordon (501st Coast Rgt)
    • 6 x 6-inch

There were also emergency batteries of 6-inch guns of various marks installed in 1940 at Montrose, Peterhead, Stannergate (Dundee), Girdleness (Aberdeen) and Nigg (Cromarty).[57]

Unlike the anti-aircraft defences of the Forth, these units and batteries saw no action. As the invasion threat receded, the coast defences were seen as absorbing excessive manpower and were scaled back, the gunners being redeployed. The surplus TA coast regiments were placed in suspended animation.

Postwar

When the TA was reconstituted in 1947, the following units were reformed in 105th Coast Artillery Brigade based in Edinburgh:[75][76]

  • 412th (Highland) Coast Rgt at Alness, Cromarty, from 501st (Forth) Coast Rgt[62][63]
  • 413th (Fife) Coast Rgt at Kirkcaldy from 503rd (Forth) Coast Rgt[59]
  • 414th (Forth) Coast Rgt at Edinburgh from 505th (Forth) Coast Regt[2][4][77]

On 1 October 1953 413rd (Fife) and 414th (Forth) Rgts amalgamated to form 413th (Mixed) Coast Rgt at Kirkcaldy ('Mixed' indicating that members of the Women's Royal Army Corps were integrated into the unit).[2][4][59]

The Coast Artillery branch of the RA was abolished in 1956.[78] 412th (Highland) Coast Rgt was absorbed into 540th (Lovat Scouts) Light Anti-Aircraft Rgt, to which 412th contributed part of Q (Ross) Bty at Alness and Tain;[62][63][79][80] 413th (Mixed) Coast Rgt was absorbed into the Edinburgh-based 433rd Light Anti-Aircraft Rgt, to which it contributed a battery.[59][77] When the TA was further reduced in 1961, B Troop of 540th LAA Rgt at Alness and Tain amalgamated with 11th Battalion, Seaforth Highlanders, and 433rd LAA Rgt was transferred to the Royal Army Service Corps.[59][77][79][80]

Honorary Colonels

The following served as Honorary Colonel of the unit:[5][81]

Footnotes

  1. A page (no longer available) on the Long, Long Trail website stated that 118th Siege Battery was a New Army ('Kitchener's Army') unit with gunners drawn from the TF units of the Forth defences, and considered itself to be an Edinburgh unit.
  2. At this stage of the war the 8-inch howitzers in use (Marks I–V) were improvised from cut-down and bored-out barrels of 6-inch coast defence guns, with the recoil checked by enormous wooden wedges.[15][16]

Notes

  1. Litchfield & Westlake, pp. 24, 147.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 Litchfield, p. 307.
  3. Litchfield, p. 298.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 Forth Coast Rgt at Regiments.org.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Army List, various dates.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Conrad, 1914.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Fife at Great War Centenary Drill Halls.
  8. Monthly Army List August 1914.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Lawes.
  10. Becke, Pt 2b, p. 6.
  11. WO Instruction No 248 of October 1914.
  12. Army Council Instructions, 1915–1916.
  13. Army Council Instructions April 1917.
  14. Farndale, Forgotten Fronts, Annexes 4 and 7.
  15. Edmonds, 1916, Vol I, p. 301.
  16. Farndale, Western Front, pp. 130, 141.
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 17.8 'Allocation of Siege Batteries RGA', The National Archives (TNA) file WO 95/5494/4.
  18. Becke, Pt 4, pp. 195–7.
  19. Edmonds, 1916, Vol I, p. 403; Sketch 22.
  20. Edmonds, 1916, Vol I, pp. 299–305.
  21. Farndale, Western Front, pp. 142–8.
  22. Farndale, Western Front, pp. 398, 403–8, 416–21.
  23. Farndale, Western Front, pp. 149–56.
  24. Becke, Pt 4, pp. 102–9.
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 25.6 25.7 'Headquarters Heavy Artillery Groups', TNA file WO 95/5494/1.
  26. Farndale, Western Front, pp. 164–6, 174–6, Map 23.
  27. Cave, pp. 119–27, Map p. 121.
  28. 28.0 28.1 Becke, Pt 4, pp. 74–8.
  29. Becke, Pt 4, pp. 92–8.
  30. Cooper, pp. 85–8.
  31. Farndale, Western Front, pp. 216–30, Map 32.
  32. Miles, 1917, Vol III, pp. 26, 29.
  33. Farndale, Western Front, Annex E.
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 Farndale, Western Front, Annex M.
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 Becke, Pt 4, pp. 187–91.
  36. Edmonds, 1918, Vol II, p. 410.
  37. Blaxland, pp. 232-8.
  38. Edmonds & Maxwell-Hyslop, pp. 101–6, 133, 139.
  39. Blaxland, p. 251.
  40. Edmonds & Maxwell-Hyslop, pp. 295, 299–305.
  41. Farndale, Western Front, pp. 307–8.
  42. Edmonds & Maxwell-Hyslop, pp. 352–61.
  43. Blaxland, pp. 254–6.
  44. Edmonds & Maxwell-Hyslop, pp. 386–8, 463–71.
  45. Farndale, Western Front, pp. 318–20.
  46. Miles, 1916, Vol II, pp. 142–3.
  47. Farndale, Western Front, pp. 220–4.
  48. Cooper, pp. 178–80, 194–7.
  49. Farndale, Western Front, pp. 249–50, 257, Map 33.
  50. Miles, 1917, Vol III, p. 197.
  51. Becke, Pt 4, pp. 82–7.
  52. Edmonds, 1918, Vol IV, pp. 306, 365, 398.
  53. Edmonds & Maxwell-Hyslop, 1918, Vol V, p. 381.
  54. Farndale, Western Front, pp. 313–4.
  55. Titles and Designations 1927.
  56. Collier, Chapter III.
  57. 57.0 57.1 57.2 Farndale, Years of Defeat, Annex B.
  58. 58.0 58.1 58.2 Litchfield, p. 275.
  59. 59.0 59.1 59.2 59.3 59.4 59.5 Litchfield, p. 284.
  60. Scottish Command 3 September 1939 at Patriot Files.
  61. 61.0 61.1 61.2 61.3 Farndale, Years of Defeat, Annex M.
  62. 62.0 62.1 62.2 412 Coast Rgt at Regiments.org.
  63. 63.0 63.1 63.2 Litchfield, p. 308.
  64. 501 Coast Rgt at RA 1939–45.
  65. Farndale, Years of Defeat, Annex H.
  66. South Sutor Coast Battery at Canmore.
  67. 67.0 67.1 67.2 67.3 67.4 67.5 67.6 67.7 Order of Battle of Non-Field Force Units in the United Kingdom, Part 20: Coast Artillery, 1 June 1941, with amendments, TNA file WO 212/117.
  68. 68.00 68.01 68.02 68.03 68.04 68.05 68.06 68.07 68.08 68.09 68.10 68.11 68.12 Order of Battle of Non-Field Force Units in the United Kingdom, Part 20: Coast Artillery, 1 December 1941, with amendments, TNA file WO 212/118.
  69. Litchfield, p. 272.
  70. 502 Coast Rgt at RA 1939–45.
  71. 503 Coast Rgt at RA 1939–45.
  72. 505 Coast Rgt at RA 1939–45.
  73. 506 Coast Rgt at RA 1939–45.
  74. Collier, Appendix XIX.
  75. Litchfield, Appendix 5.
  76. Watson, TA 1947.
  77. 77.0 77.1 77.2 414–433 Rgts RA at British Army 1945 on.
  78. Litchfield, p. 6.
  79. 79.0 79.1 Lovat Scouts at Regiments.org.
  80. 80.0 80.1 520–563 Rgts RA at British Army 1945 on.
  81. Burke's.

References

  • Maj A.F. Becke,History of the Great War: Order of Battle of Divisions, Part 2b: The 2nd-Line Territorial Force Divisions (57th–69th), with the Home-Service Divisions (71st–73rd) and 74th and 75th Divisions, London: HM Stationery Office, 1937/Uckfield: Naval & Military Press, 2007, ISBN 1-847347-39-8.
  • Maj A.F. Becke,History of the Great War: Order of Battle of Divisions, Part 4: The Army Council, GHQs, Armies, and Corps 1914–1918, London: HM Stationery Office, 1944/Uckfield: Naval & Military Press, 2007, ISBN 1-847347-43-6.
  • Gregory Blaxland, Amiens: 1918, London: Frederick Muller, 1968/Star, 1981, ISBN 0-352-30833-8.
  • Burke's Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage, 100th Edn, London, 1953.
  • Nigel Cave, Battleground Europe: Arras: Vimy Ridge, Barnsley: Leo Cooper, 1996, ISBN 0-85052-399-0.
  • Basil Collier, History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series: The Defence of the United Kingdom, London: HM Stationery Office, 1957.
  • Bryan Cooper, The Ironclads of Cambrai, London: Souvenir Press, 1967/Pan Books, 1970, ISBN 0-330-02579-1.
  • Brig-Gen Sir James E. Edmonds, History of the Great War: Military Operations, France and Belgium, 1916, Vol I, London: Macmillan,1932/Woking: Shearer, 1986, ISBN 0-946998-02-7.
  • Brig-Gen Sir James E. Edmonds, History of the Great War: Military Operations, France and Belgium 1918, Vol II, March–April: Continuation of the German Offensives, London: Macmillan, 1937/Imperial War Museum and Battery Press, 1995, ISBN 1-87042394-1.
  • Brig-Gen Sir James E. Edmonds, History of the Great War: Military Operations, France and Belgium 1918, Vol IV, 8th August–26th September: The Franco-British Offensive, London: Macmillan, 1939/Uckfield: Imperial War Museum and Naval & Military, 2009, ISBN 978-1-845747-28-2.
  • Brig-Gen Sir James E. Edmonds & Lt-Col R. Maxwell-Hyslop, History of the Great War: Military Operations, France and Belgium 1918, Vol V, 26th September–11th November, The Advance to Victory, London: HM Stationery Office, 1947/Imperial War Museum and Battery Press, 1993, ISBN 1-870423-06-2.
  • Gen Sir Martin Farndale, History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery: The Forgotten Fronts and the Home Base 1914–18, Woolwich: Royal Artillery Institution, 1988, ISBN 1-870114-05-1.
  • Lt-Col M.E.S. Lawes, Battery Records of the Royal Artillery, 1859–1877, Woolwich: Royal Artillery Institution, 1970.
  • Norman E.H. Litchfield, The Territorial Artillery 1908–1988 (Their Lineage, Uniforms and Badges), Nottingham: Sherwood Press, 1992, ISBN 0-9508205-2-0.
  • Norman Litchfield & Ray Westlake, The Volunteer Artillery 1859–1908 (Their Lineage, Uniforms and Badges), Nottingham: Sherwood Press, 1982, ISBN 0-9508205-0-4.
  • Capt Wilfred Miles, History of the Great War: Military Operations, France and Belgium 1916, Vol II, 2nd July 1916 to the End of the Battles of the Somme, London: Macmillan, 1938/Imperial War Museum & Battery Press, 1992, ISBN 0-89839-169-5.
  • Capt Wilfred Miles, History of the Great War: Military Operations, France and Belgium 1917, Vol III, The Battle of Cambrai, London: HM Stationery Office, 1948/Uckfield: Naval and Military Press, 2009, ISBN 978-1-84574724-4.
  • War Office, Army Council Instructions, London: HM Stationery Office, various months.
  • War Office, Titles and Designations of Formations and Units of the Territorial Army, London: War Office, 7 November 1927 (RA sections also summarised in Litchfield, Appendix IV).

External sources

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).
Advertisement