|Born||14 January 1909|
|Died||3 September 1944(aged 35)|
|Place of birth||Thalheim, now Fraunberg, Germany|
|Place of death||near Overhespen, Belgium|
|Buried at||Lommel, Belgium|
|Years of service||1939–1944|
|Unit||JG 54, JG 26|
|Commands held||5./JG 54, 9./JG 54, II./JG 26|
|Awards||Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves|
Emil "Bully" Lang (14 January 1909 – 3 September 1944) was a Luftwaffe Flying ace during World War II. A flying ace or fighter ace is a military aviator credited with shooting down five or more enemy aircraft during aerial combat. Lang was credited with 173 aerial victories—144 on the Eastern Front, 29 on the Western Front—and one Soviet torpedo boat sunk in 403 combat missions.
Posted to a fighter wing on the Eastern front, Lang claimed his first aerial victories in March 1943. He was credited with 72 victories in a three-week period, among them an unsurpassed total of 18 on 3 November 1943. He received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) on 22 November 1943 for his 119 victories to that time. By March 1944, his claims totaled 144, for which he received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub) on 11 April 1944. Transferred to the Western front, he claimed his 150th victim during the Normandy Invasion on 14 June 1944. He scored his last three victories on 26 August 1944; on 3 September 1944, he was killed in action over Belgium.
Emil Lang was born on 14 January 1909 at Thalheim, now part of Fraunberg in the Isar region near Freising of Bavaria, Germany. He was a well-known track-and-field athlete who ran the middle distances. Prior to World War II, he qualified as a civil pilot and flew with Deutsche Luft Hansa. Lang earned the nickname "Bully" from his 'bulldog-like' looks, characterized by his barrel-chested physique.
Career in the Luftwaffe
Having served as a transport pilot since 26 August 1939 with the Fliegerhorst Kompanie (Airfield Company) at Gablingen, Lang was 33 years old when he was accepted for fighter pilot training in 1942. He undertook courses at the Jagdflieger Vorschule 1 (1st Fighter Pilot Preparation School) (3 July 1942 – 14 August 1942) and Jagdfliegerschule 5 (5th Fighter Pilot School) (15 August 1942 – 5 January 1943). He was then assigned to Jagdgruppe Ost (Fighter Group East) on 6 January 1943 and then to Jagdgeschwader 54 (JG 54—54th Fighter Wing) on the Eastern Front on 11 February 1943.[Notes 1] Serving with 1./JG 54 (1st Squadron of the 54th Fighter Wing), Leutnant (Second Lieutenant) Lang was 34 and considered exceptionally old for a novice fighter pilot. His first three aerial victories were claimed in March 1943, and within a month he was transferred to 5./JG 54 (5th Squadron of the 54th Fighter Wing) of which he became Staffelkapitän (Squadron Leader) on 20 August 1943.
Before the year's end, Lang's kill tally stood at over 100 victories, with a remarkable 72 scored around Kiev in just three weeks during October and November 1943. This series of multiple victories included ten on 13 October 1943 and 12 (victories 61–72) in three combat missions on 21 October 1943, which earned Lang his first of two references in the Wehrmachtbericht, an information bulletin issued by the headquarters of the Wehrmacht, the name of the unified armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945. Lang set an all-time world record of 18 aerial victories claimed from four combat missions in one day on 3 November 1943, making him aviation history's leading ace in a day. This achievement led to him appearing on the cover of the 13 January 1944 Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung (Berlin's Illustrated Magazine). Lang was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) after 119 aerial victories on 22 November 1943, followed three days later by the German Cross in Gold (Deutsches Kreuz in Gold).
On 9 April 1944, Oberleutnant (First Lieutenant) Lang was appointed Staffelkapitän of the 9./JG 54 (9th Squadron of the 54th Fighter Wing) engaged in Defense of the Reich on the Western Front. He became the 448th recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub) on 11 April 1944 after 144 aerial victories, all claimed on the Eastern Front.
In June, Lang claimed 15 aerial victories, including his 150th—a United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) P-47 Thunderbolt on 14 June 1944—and four P-51 Mustang fighters shot down in four minutes on 20 June 1944, plus another four P-51s on 24 June. Hauptmann (Captain) Lang was then made Gruppenkommandeur (Group Commander) of the II./Jagdgeschwader 26 "Schlageter" (JG 26—2nd Group of the 26th Fighter Wing) on 28 June 1944. On 9 July, he claimed three Royal Air Force (RAF) Supermarine Spitfires (victories 160–162), on 15 August 1944 two P-47s, and on 25 August 1944 three P-38 Lightning fighters in five minutes. He claimed three Spitfires in two missions for his final victories (victories 171–173) on 26 August. Between 24 May and 28 August 1944, Lang had claimed 29 aerial victories on the Western Front, including nine P-51 Mustangs. On 6 June 1944, his group was the first to reach 100 aerial victories over Normandy, earning him and his group a second and final reference in the Wehrmachtbericht on 30 August.
On 3 September 1944, Emil Lang was killed in action when his Fw 190 A-8 (Werknummer 171 240—factory number) "Green 1" hit the ground and exploded in a field at Overhespen. He had experienced mechanical trouble on the runway when he and the other aircraft of his flight took off at Melsbroek at 1.20 pm. Ten minutes later, Lang was still having difficulties raising his landing gear. Flying at an altitude of 200 metres (660 ft), his wingman, Unteroffizier Hans-Joachim Borreck, called out P-47 Thunderbolts to their rear. Lang broke upward, to the left. Leutnant Alfred Groß saw Lang's Fw 190 diving in flames, its gear extended, but he lost sight of Lang when his own craft was hit and he had to bail out. Examination of both German and American records suggests that Borreck and Groß misidentified their opponents. The P-51 Mustangs of the 55th Fighter Group's 338th Squadron intercepted a flight of three to six Focke Wulfs. Lieutenant Darrell Cramer took a high deflection shot at the Focke Wulf on the left, which fell upside down in a steep dive and crashed hard into the ground; this undoubtedly was Emil Lang.[Notes 2]
On 28 September 1944, Lang's commanding officer, Geschwaderkommodore (Wing Commander) Josef Priller, submitted a request for posthumous promotion to Major. In describing Lang's character, Priller said:
Captain Lang is a fully matured character, serious and calm in his demeanor, yet definite and energetic when strength was needed. Very good attitude as an officer. Demands of himself first. He understands how to reach the men under his command correctly. Captain Lang possesses an exemplary concept of service, has initiative and talent for improvisation to a large degree, well rooted in the National Socialist ideas.
The commander of the II. Jagdkorps (2nd Fighter Corps), Generalmajor (Major General) Alfred Bülowius, concurred with the assessment. Despite these recommendations, Emil Lang did not receive a posthumous promotion to Major.
- War Merit Cross 2nd Class with Swords (24 October 1940)
- Front Flying Clasp of the Luftwaffe for Fighter Pilots in Gold
- Ehrenpokal der Luftwaffe (27 October 1943)
- German Cross in Gold on 25 November 1943 as Leutnant in the II./JG 54
- Iron Cross (1939)
- Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves
- Mentioned twice in the Wehrmachtbericht
References in the Wehrmachtbericht
|Date||Original German Wehrmachtbericht wording||Direct English translation|
|22 October 1943||Leutnant Lang, Staffelführer in einem Jagdgeschwader, errang gestern zwölf Luftsiege.
 || Lieutenant Lang, squadron leader in a fighter wing, achieved twelve aerial victories yesterday.
|30 August 1944
|Eine Jagdgruppe unter Führung von Hauptmann Lang schoß im Westkampfraum seit Invasionsbeginn 100 feindliche Flugzeuge ab und zeichnete sich auch bei Tiefangriffen gegen den Feind besonders aus.
 || A fighter group under the leadership of Captain Lang shot down 100 enemy aircraft in the western combat area since the beginning of the invasion and also distinguished itself in ground attacks against the enemy.
- Spick 1996, pp. 3–4.
- Schaulen 2004, p. 68.
- MacLean 2004, p. 203
- Obermaier 1989, p. 64.
- Toliver and Constable 1998, pp. 295–296.
- MacLean 2007, p. 205.
- Toliver and Constable 1996, p. 247.
- Weal 2001, pp. 103–104.
- Weal 1998, p. 72.
- Bowman 2007, p. 75.
- MacLean 2007, p. 204.
- Caldwell 1998, pp. 343, 344.
- Thomas and Davey 2008, p. 28.
- Patzwall and Scherzer 2001, p. 267.
- Thomas 1998, p. 4.
- Scherzer 2007, p. 491.
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 283.
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 81.
- Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939-1945 Band 2, p. 587.
- Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939-1945 Band 3, p. 225.
- Bowman, Martin (2007). P-51 Mustang Vs Fw 190: Europe 1943-45. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84603-189-3.
- Caldwell, Donald L. (1998). JG 26 War Diary Volume Two 1943–1945. London: Grub Street. ISBN 1-898697-86-8.
- Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000). Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939-1945 (in German). Friedburg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 3-7909-0284-5.
- MacLean, French L. (2007). Luftwaffe Efficiency & Promotion Reports — For the Knight's Cross Winners. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Military History. ISBN 978-0-7643-2657-8.
- Obermaier, Ernst (1989). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Luftwaffe Jagdflieger 1939 - 1945 (in German). Mainz, Germany: Verlag Dieter Hoffmann. ISBN 3-87341-065-6.
- Patzwall, Klaus D. and Scherzer, Veit (2001). Das Deutsche Kreuz 1941 - 1945 Geschichte und Inhaber Band II (in German). Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall. ISBN 3-931533-45-X.
- Schaulen, Fritjof (2004). Eichenlaubträger 1940 - 1945 Zeitgeschichte in Farbe II Ihlefeld - Primozic (in German). Selent, Germany: Pour le Mérite. ISBN 3-932381-21-1.
- Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2.
- Spick, Mike (1996). Luftwaffe Fighter Aces. New York: Ivy Books. ISBN 0-8041-1696-2.
- Thomas, Andrew and Davey, Chris (2008). Griffon Spitfire Aces. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84603-298-9.
- Thomas, Franz (1998). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 2: L–Z (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 3-7648-2300-3.
- Toliver, Raymond F. and Constable, Trevor J. (1996). Fighter Aces of the Luftwaffe. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Military/Aviation History. ISBN 0-88740-909-1
- Toliver, Raymond F. and Constable, Trevor J. (1998). Die deutschen Jagdflieger-Asse 1939 - 1945 (in German). Stuttgart, Germany: Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 3-87943-193-0.
- Weal, John (1998). Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Aces of the Russian Front. London, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-85532-518-7.
- Weal, John (2001). Jagdgeschwader 54 'Grünherz'. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-286-5.
- Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939-1945 Band 2, 1. Januar 1942 bis 31. Dezember 1943 (in German). München: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, 1985. ISBN 3-423-05944-3.
- Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939-1945 Band 3, 1. Januar 1944 bis 9. Mai 1945 (in German). München: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, 1985. ISBN 3-423-05944-3.
- "Aces of the Luftwaffe". Emil Lang. http://www.luftwaffe.cz/lang.html. Retrieved 7 May 2007.
- "The Jagdgeschwader 54 HomePage". Emil Lang. http://www.jg54greenhearts.com/Lang.htm. Retrieved 7 May 2007.
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