|Egyptian Air Force |
القوات الجوية المصرية
1930 (as part of the army)1937 (as an independent service)
50,000 Personnel (including 20,000 in reserve)
|Part of||Egyptian Armed Forces|
|Garrison/HQ||Oruba street, Nasr City, Cairo|
|Motto(s)||'Higher and higher for the sake of glory' (Arabic language: إلى العلا في سبيل المجد, I‘la’ al-a‘là fī sabīl al-magd)|
|Anniversaries||14th of October (Mansura Air Battle)|
|Commander – Egyptian Air Force||Air Marshal Younes Hamed|
|Chief of Air Staff||Yehya Hossain Abd ElHamed Hossain|
|Insignia||Egyptian Air Force ranks|
|Attack||Alpha Jet MS.2, L-59, F-4|
|Beechcraft 1900, C-130, Commando Mk.2E, E-2HE2K, Mi-8|
|Fighter||F-16, MiG-21, Mirage V|
|Attack helicopter||AH-64, Mi-8, SA-342|
|Interceptor||J-7, Mirage 2000|
|Patrol||Beechcraft 1900, SA-342|
|Reconnaissance||M-324, Mi-8, Mirage V|
|Trainer||EMB 312, G-115, K-8, L-39, UH-12|
|Transport||An-74, C-130, C-295, DHC-5|
The Egyptian Air Force (EAF) (Arabic language: القوات الجوية المصرية, Al-Qūwāt al-Gawwīyä al-Miṣrīyä), is the aviation branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces. The EAF is headed by an Air Marshal (Lieutenant General equivalent). Currently, the commander of the Egyptian Air Force is Air Marshal Younes Hamed. The force's motto is 'Higher and higher for the sake of glory' (Arabic language: إلى العلا في سبيل المجد, I‘la’ al-a‘là fī sabīl al-magd).
The Egyptian Army Air Service was formed in 1930, and became an independent air force in 1937. It had little involvement in the Second World War. From 1948 to 1973 it took part, with generally mediocre results, in four separate wars with Israel, as well as the quasi-War of Attrition. It also supported the Egyptian Army during the North Yemen Civil War and the Libyan-Egyptian War of 1977. Since 1977 it has seen virtually no combat, but has participated in numerous exercises, including Operation Bright Star from 1985.
Currently the EAF has over 465 combat aircraft and 214 armed helicopters. The Air Force's backbone are 240 F-16 Fighting Falcon fighters. The Egyptian Air Force is the 4th largest operator of F-16s in the world, after the United States, Israel, and Turkey.
In late 1928, the Parliament of Egypt proposed the creation of an Egyptian Air Force. The Egyptian ministry of war announced that it needed volunteers for the new arm to become the first four Egyptian military pilots. Over 200 Egyptian officers volunteered, but in the end only three succeeded in passing strict medical tests and technical examinations.
These three went to British Royal Air Force number 4 Flying Training School at Abu Suwayer near the Suez Canal, where they were trained on a variety of aircraft. After graduation they travelled to the United Kingdom for specialised training.
On 2 November 1930, the King of Egypt and Sudan, Fuad I announced the creation of the Egyptian Army Air Force (EAAF) and in September 1931, the British de Havilland aircraft company won a contract to supply Egypt with 10 de Havilland Gipsy Moth trainers.
The first commander of the EAAF was Canadian squadron leader Victor Hubert Tait. Tait selected staff and weapons and built air-bases. In 1934 the British government provided 10 Avro 626 aircraft, which were the first real Egyptian military planes. A further 17 626s together with Hawker Audaxes for army cooperation and close support and Avro Ansons for VIP work followed shortly afterward.
In 1937 the Egyptian Army Air Force was separated from the army command and became an independent branch named the Royal Egyptian Air Force (REAF). New bases were built in the Suez Canal Zone, and the Western Desert.
In 1938, the REAF received 2 squadrons of Gloster Gladiator biplane fighters and a squadron of then-modern Westland Lysander reconnaissance aircraft, (Egypt was the last state to use the Lysander in action, during the Palestine War of 1948.
Second World War
As the Egyptian border was threatened by an Italian and German invasion during the Second World War, the Royal Air Force established more bases in Egypt. The Egyptian Air Force was sometimes treated as a part of the Royal Air Force, at other times a strict policy of neutrality was followed as Egypt maintained its official neutrality until very late in the war. As a result, few additional aircraft were supplied by Britain, however the arm did receive its first modern fighters, Hawker Hurricanes and a small number of Curtiss P-40 Tomahawks. In the immediate post-war period, cheap war surplus aircraft, including a large number of Supermarine Spitfire Mk.IXs were acquired.
A roughly 1946 order of battle for the Air Force can be found in Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II.
1948 Arab-Israeli War
Following the British withdrawal from Palestine and the establishment of the State of Israel on 14 May 1948, Egyptian forces crossed into Palestine as part of a wider Arab League military coalition in support of the Palestinians against the Israelis. The Egyptian Air Force contribution included the Short Stirling bomber, C-47 Dakotas performing as light bombers and Spitfires. Two Israeli aircraft were shot down. On 22 May, Egyptian Spitfires attacked the British RAF airfield at Ramat David, believing the base had already been taken over by Israeli forces. The first raid surprised the British, and resulted in the destruction of several RAF aircraft on the ground, and the deaths of four airmen. The British were uncertain whether the attacking Spitfires had come from Arab or Israeli forces. When second and third raids followed shortly afterward, they met a well prepared response, and the entire Egyptian force was shot down – the last aircraft being baited for some time as the RAF pilots attempted to get a close look at its markings.
Relations with Britain were soon restored and the continuing official state of war with Israel ensured that arms purchases continued. New Spitfire Mk. 22s were purchased to replace the earlier models. In late 1949, Egypt received its first jet fighter, the British Gloster Meteor F4, and shortly after De Havilland Vampire FB5s.
After the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, the Egyptian Government was determined to move away from reliance on British armaments. In 1955, under President Gamal Abdel Nasser, Egypt began acquiring weaponry, including aircraft, from the Soviet Union. Initial Soviet deliveries included MiG-15 fighters, Ilyushin Il-28 bombers, Il-14 transports, and Yak-11 trainers. Instructors from Czechoslovakia accompanied these aircraft. This period in the Egyptian Air Force's history also yielded the first indigenous aircraft production as the country began manufacturing its own Czechoslovak-designed Gomhouria Bü 181 Bestmann primary trainers.
The Suez Crisis
After the Egyptian Government's nationalisation of the Suez Canal in 1956, Egypt was attacked by Israel, France, and the United Kingdom in what came to be known as the Suez Crisis. Heavy losses were sustained by the Egyptian side. The conflict, though devastating militarily, turned out to be a political victory for Egypt, and resulted in the total withdrawal of the tri-nation aggressor forces from the country. It also forced the EAF to begin rebuilding with non-British help.
In 1958, Egypt merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, and the previously separate Egyptian, and Syrian forces were combined as the United Arab Republic Air Force. Though Syria left the union in 1961, Egypt continued to use the union's official name until 1971, including for its air force.
By the mid-1960s, British aircraft had been replaced completely by Soviet hardware. The Soviet Union became the principal supplier of the EAF, and many other Arab states. This allowed the EAF to greatly modernise and boost its combat effectiveness. The MiG-21 Fishbed arrived in the early 1960s, bringing with it a Mach 2 capability. The MiG-21 would remain Egypt's primary fighter for the next two decades. In 1967, Egypt had 200 MiG-21s. The EAF also began flying the Sukhoi Su-7 fighter/bomber in the mid-1960s.
Egypt also began the Helwan HA-300 as its first supersonic aircraft. It never went beyond its 3 prototypes and initial test fights then was abandoned due to high military cost inflicted upon the Egyptian military involvement in the Yemen War and the defeat in the 1967 war with Israel.
The Yemen War
The Yemeni Royalist side received support from Saudi Arabia, and Jordan, while the Yemeni Republicans were supported by Egypt. The fighting was fierce, featuring heavy urban combat as well as battles in the countryside. Both foreign irregular and conventional forces were also involved.
Strategically, the Yemen War was an opportunity for Israel. It stagnated Egyptian military plans for the reinforcement of the Sinai by shifting the Egyptian military focus to another theater of operation. Egyptian historian Mohammed Heikal writes that Israel provided arms shipments and also cultivated relationships with hundreds of European mercenaries fighting for the Royalists in Yemen. Israel established a covert air-supply bridge from Djibouti to North Yemen. The war also gave Israelis the opportunity to assess Egyptian combat tactics and adaptability.
Egyptian air and naval forces began bombing and shelling raids in the Saudi southwestern city of Najran and the coastal town of Jizan, which were staging points for royalist forces. In response, the Saudis purchased a British Thunderbird air defense system and developed their airfield in Khamis Mushayt. Riyadh also attempted to convince the United States to respond on its behalf. President Kennedy sent only a wing of jet fighters and bombers to Dhahran Airbase, demonstrating to Egypt the seriousness of his commitment to defending U.S. interests in Saudi Arabia.
The Six-Day War
In the 1967 Six-Day War the EAF's combat capacity was severely damaged after the Israeli Air Force destroyed its airbases in a preemptive strike codenamed Operation Focus. During the last four days the EAF conducted only 150 sorties against Israeli units throughout the Sinai. After the war, the Soviet Union replenished EAF stocks, sending large numbers of aircraft and advisors to Egypt to revitalize the EAF.
The War of Attrition
The years between 1967 and 1970 involved a prolonged campaign of attrition against Israel. The EAF went through a massive construction program to build new air bases in order to increase its survivability. During this period Egypt also received replacements for losses it suffered during the Six Day War. The EAF was the first branch of the Egyptian armed forces to achieve full combat readiness.
On 15 July 1967, six Israeli Mirage III fighters violated Egyptian airspace and orders were given for two formations each consisted of two MiG-21 fighters to intercept, another formation of 2 MiGs piloted by Major Fawzy Salama & Lieutenant Medhat Zaki was ready in West Cairo airbase. Indeed the formation took off, but for protecting the airbase rather than supporting the interception. However Maj. Fawzy insisted on supporting the Egyptians already engaging Israeli fighters and ordered his wingman to follow him. Once the reinforcement arrived Israeli Mirages immediately broke out of the fight.
October War 1973
The EAF was involved in the raid with over 220 aircraft taking part in the initial phase. Unlike their Syrian counterparts, EAF aircraft evaded Israeli radars by flying below detection height. EAF aircraft were held in reserve after that point, mainly concentrating on airfield defence in conjunction with the SA-3 'Goa', while the more mobile SA-6 'Gainful' protected Egyptian forces at low and medium level, aided by the ZSU-23-4SP and shoulder-held SA-7 SAMs.
Despite these limitations, the EAF conducted offensive sorties from time to time. The Su-7BM was used for quick strafe attacks on Israeli columns and the Mirage IIIE (sometimes confused with the Mirage 5), donated by Libya, carried out long-range attacks deep inside Sinai at Bir Gifgafa.
However, when Israeli armoured forces used a gap between the two Egyptian armies to cross the Suez Canal (Operation Stouthearted Men), they destroyed several Egyptian SAM sites, forcing the EAF into battle against the IAF. The EAF claimed victories and continued to contest IAF operations, while also launching attacks on Israeli ground forces on the East Bank of the Suez Canal. In most of these engagements, Egyptian MiG-21s (of all types) challenged Israeli Mirage IIICJs or Neshers.
The IAF did not operate freely and did not have complete air supremacy it enjoyed during the previous conflict, the 1967 war. Egyptian MiGs were used with better efficiency than before which included the tactics and lessons learned from the 1967 war.
It was during this war that the EAF applied the lessons it earlier learnt from the Israelis. A 32-year-old deputy MiG-21 regiment commander who has been flying since he was 15 recalls: "During the war of attrition, the Israeli air force had a favorite ambush tactic", he told Aviation Week and Space Technology. "They would penetrate with two aircraft at medium altitude where they would be quickly picked up by radar, We would scramble four or eight to attack them. But they had another dozen fighters trailing at extremely low altitude below radar coverage. As we climbed to the attack they would zoom up behind and surprise us. My regiment lost MiGs to this ambush tactic three times. But we learned the lesson and practiced the same tactics. In the final fights over Deversoir, we ambushed some Mirages the same way, and my own 'finger four' formation shot down four Mirages with the loss of one MiG."
El-Mansourah air battle
On 14 October 1973, Israel launched a large scale raid with over 250 aircraft – F-4 Phantoms and A-4 Skyhawks – attempting to hit the large air base at el-Mansourah. It culminated in an almost continuous dogfight lasting no less than 53 minutes. According to Egyptian estimates over 180 aircraft were involved at one time, the majority belonging to the Israelis. At 10 pm local time, Cairo Radio broadcast "Communiqué Number 39", announcing that there had been several air battles that day over a number of Egyptian airfields, that most intensive being over the northern Delta area. It also claimed that 15 enemy aircraft had been downed by Egyptian fighters for the loss of three Egyptian aircraft, while an even greater number of Israelis had been shot down by the Army and the Air Defense Forces over Sinai and the Suez Canal. For its part, Israel Radio claimed, early the following morning, that the IAF had shot down 15 Egyptian aircraft, a figure subsequently reduced to seven.
Later on, the Egyptian Government changed the country’s "Air Force Day" from 2 November to 14 October, to commemorate the Mansourah air battle.
During the Shaba I crisis in Zair on 1977, Egyptian Air Force provided 50 pilots and technicians, which operated Mirage jets from the Zairian Air Force.
During the Libyan-Egyptian War, there were some skirmishes between Libyan and Egyptian fighters. In one instance, two Libyan Air Force MiG-23MS engaged two EAF MiG-21MFs that had been upgraded to carry Western weaponry. The Libyan pilots made the mistake of trying to manoeuvre with the more nimble Egyptian fighters, and one MiG-23MS was shot down by EAF Maj. Sal Mohammad, while the other Libyan aircraft used its speed advantage to escape.
Operation Bright Star
Since 1977 the Air Force has seen little active service. Perhaps its most intense training opportunity has become Operation Bright Star, a U.S. Central Command exercise. From 1985 onwards the air forces of both the U.S. and Egypt started participating in what was previous an Army only bilaterial exercise. Starting in 1987 the Navies and Special Operations Forces from both countries have also taken part in the exercise. At least nine other states now take part.
Upgrade and development
The Camp David Accords caused a change in the overall composition of the EAF. They began to rely more and more on American, French and in some cases on Chinese aircraft. The addition of these aircraft from multiple sources along with the ones already in the EAF inventory caused increasing servicability problems. In 1982, the EAF began receiving F-16 fighters under the Peace Vector Program. The EAF received a total of 220 F-16s so far. 18 aircraft were lost in accidents and 7 F-16A/Bs were grounded. These grounded F-16A/Bs were later overhauled, upgraded and returned to active service, additional F-16s were acquired to replace the lost ones. In 1986, the EAF received Mirage 2000 fighters, one lost in a training accident. Egypt also license built Alphajets, Tucano airplanes and Westland Gazelle helicopters. In 1987 the E-2C Hawkeye Airborne Early Warning (AEW) entered service and was upgraded with advanced AN/APS-145 radars. The EAF also upgraded its F-16 fighters to C/D standard that enabled them to fire the AGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missile.
The EAF currently operates 35 AH-64 Apache attack helicopter which were initially delivered as AH-64A variant but were later upgraded to AH-64D standard. On 22 May 2009, Egypt requested the purchase of 36 Apache Arrowhead sensor systems as part of an order for 12 Block II AH-64D Apache helicopters.
During the late 1990s, then Air Marshal Ahmed Shafik (the former Civil Aviation minister until 2011) outlined an ambitious modernization program for the Egyptian Air Force in the 21st century. The EAF planned to obtain the modern technology it needed to deter any foreign aggression, help its allies and protect national security interests. This modernization included the integration of space and air reconnaissance systems, acquisition of airborne command and control capability, aerial refueling capability, advanced next generation fighters and heavy transport aircraft.
Egypt had also made several deals with Ukrainian companies for the modernization of its old MiG-21 fleet but that too has failed and no future plans to implement any modernization of Mig-21.
The Air Force ordered 20 Lockheed Martin F-16C/D Block 52 aircraft on 3 March 2010. The contract is set to complete in 2013 and includes 16 single-seat F-16C and four twin-seat F-16D aircraft. Finally, as of March 2010, Egypt was discussing co-production of the CAC/PAC JF-17 Thunder with Pakistan.
On 14 August 2012, U.S pushed F-16 project for to ensure full cooperation with the new military leadership. The Defense Department has awarded a major contract to facilitate the procurement of F-16s by the Egyptian Air Force. The Pentagon selected American International Contractors for a $66.6 million contract to upgrade infrastructure for Egypt’s order of 20 F-16 Block 52 aircraft, estimated at $2.2 billion. However, the Egyptian air force has one of the worst crash rates of any F-16 fleet in the world. On 24 July 2013, the U.S. announced it would halt deliveries of the F-16s in response to the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état.
The Roundel of the EAF consists of three circles, with the outside one being red, the middle one white, and the inner one being black. These are the colors of the Egyptian flag.
The former roundels of the EAF included a similar variant with two green stars used from 1961 to 1973, and one with the old Egyptian crescent and three stars on a green background.
|F-16 Fighting Falcon||United States
|40 (26 built by TAI of Turkey) delivered.|
|12||Out of a total of 26 delivered.|
|Out of 20 delivered.|
|MiG-21 Fishbed||Soviet Union||
|Out of over 490 delivered. Upgraded with British avionics and armed with mixed Russian and Western weapons.|
|Chengdu J-7||China||Interceptor||B/M||57||Some claims as much as 74, out of total of 150 delivered.|
|Model-324 Scarab||United States||Jet Reconnaissance UAV||52||Out of 56 delivered.|
|R4E-50 Sky Eye||United Kingdom||Reconnaissance UAV||48|
|Camcopter||Austria||Helicopter Reconnaissance UAV||4|
|ASN-209||People's Republic of China \ Egypt||Reconnaissance UAV||21||Produced locally under license with 99.5% locally produced|
|Alpha Jet|| France
|License built by AOI. May be replaced with Yak-130.|
|PAC MFI-17 Mushshak||Pakistan||Trainer||B||54|
|EMB 312 Tucano|| Brazil
|Basic Trainer||A||54||Built under license by AOI, out of 134 built; 80 delivered to Iraq.|
|G-115 Tutor||Germany||Primary trainer||E||74|
|K-8 Karakorum|| China
|Advanced trainer||E||120||110 were license built by AOI.|
|L-39 Albatros||Czechoslovakia||Advanced trainer||ZO||10||Ex-Libyan. To be phased out.|
|L-59 Super Albatros||Czechoslovakia||COIN/Light Attack||E||47||Out of 48 delivered.|
|UH-12 Raven||United States||Rotary trainer||E||17||Out of 18 delivered.|
|An-74 Coaler||Ukraine||Tactical transport||T-200A/TK-200A||9|
|Beechcraft 1900||United States||
|C-130 Hercules||United States||
|30 aircraft were delivered. 4 were lost, including one during the Cyprus operation.|
|C-295||Spain||Tactical transport||C-295M||5||Out of an initial total order of 6 (3 + 3), 1 remaining to be delivered in 2013. 6 more are on order.|
|CH-47 Chinook|| Italy
|All 4 Navigational training CH-47C were upgraded to D standard by 2010. New order for additional 6 rebuilt CH-47D is in progress.|
|SH-2G Super Seasprite||United States||ASW||G/E||13||Electronic/Navigation Suite upgraded to Egyptian Navy requirements.|
|AgustaWestland AW109||AM||3||Aeromedical evacuation.|
|Mi-8 Hip||Soviet Union||
|Out of over 140 delivered, some replaced by Mi-17 Hip.|
|Mi-17 Hip||Russia||Assault Support||H||51||Including 24 units ordered in 2009 & were delivered in 2010.|
|Sea King||United Kingdom||ASW||Mk.47||5||Egyptian variant of the British HAS.2 model, out of 6 delivered.|
|A total of 28 were delivered, 2 Mk.2B version were relegated as VIP transport of the Presidential fleet.|
|SA-342 Gazelle||France/ Egypt||
|Out of 108 license-built by the Arab British Helicopter Company.|
Presidential and Governmental Fleet
In addition to Air Force aircraft, a number of aircraft are directly under government control (Presidential Fleet), including:
- 1 Airbus A340
- 4 Beechcraft Super King Air
- 1 Boeing 707
- 4 Boeing 737
- 3 Dassault Falcon 20
- 2 Gulfstream III
- 4 Gulfstream IV
- 1 VC-130H Hercules
- 1 Sikorsky VH-3A Sea King, Bu. No. 150612, a gift from President Nixon
- 2 Agusta AS-61 A-4 Sea King
- 2 Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk
- 2 Westland Commando MK-2B
The following individuals have had command of the Egyptian Air Force:
Royal Egyptian Air Force commanders
- 1932 to 1936 Squadron Leader Victor Hubert Tait
- list incomplete
- 6 July 1939 to 20 August 1939 Ali Islam
- 20 August 1939 to 21 October 1940 Hassan Mohammed Abdel Wahab
- 21 October 1940 to 4 October 1942 Ali Muwafi
- 4 October 1942 to 4 November 1944 Hassan Hosni Taher
- 8 November 1944 to 11 March 1947 Mohammed Metwaly
- 11 March 1947 to 23 July 1952 Mohammed Mustafa Sha'arawy
Egyptian Air Force Chiefs of Staff
- 30 July 1952 to 22 June 1953 Hassan Mahmoud
- 23 June 1953 to 19 September 1959 Mohamed Sedky Mahmoud
Egyptian Air Force and Defense commanders
- 20 September 1959 to 11 June 1967 Mohamed Sedky Mahmoud
Egyptian Air Force commanders
- 11 June 1967 to 2 November 1967 Air Vice-Marshal Madkour Ahmed Abou El-Ezz
- 2 November 1967 to 22 June 1969 Air Vice-Marshal Mustafa Shalaby El Hennawy
- 22 June 1969 to 23 April 1972 Air Vice-Marshal Ali Mustafa Baghdady
- 23 April 1972 to 16 April 1975 Air Chief Marshal Hosni Mubarak
- 16 April 1975 to 6 April 1980 Air Vice-Marshal Mahmoud Shaker Abd El Moneim
- 6 April 1980 to 14 April 1982 Air Vice-Marshal Mohamed Lotfy Shabana
- 14 April 1982 to 15 April 1987 Air Vice-Marshal Mohamed Abd El Hamid Helmy
- 15 April 1987 to 6 April 1990 Mohamed Alaa El Din Barakat
- 7 April 1990 to 7 April 1996 Ahmed Abdel Rahman Nasser
- 7 April 1996 to 1 March 2002 Air Marshal Ahmed Shafik
- 1 March 2002 to 20 March 2008 Air Marshal Magdy Galal Sharawi
- 20 March 2008 Air Marshal Reda Mahmoud Hafez Mohamed
AIR TO AIR MISSILES
AIR TO GROUND/SURFACE MISSILES
- Martel (AS 37)
- AT-2 Swatter radio command Anti-tank missile (On Mi-8).
- AT-3 Sagger wire-guided anti-tank guided missile system (on Gazelle).
- GBU-89 Gator
- Matra Durandal
- Mark 46 torpedo
Advanced targeting pods
Advanced reconnaissance pods
- DB110 Aerial Reconnaissance Pod (4) ( Used on board Block 52+jets )
- Theater Airborne Reconnaissance System pods (6) ( Used on board F-16 block 40 jets )
Advanced jamming pods
- AN/ALQ-131: Jamming ECM pod ( Used onboard C-130 and F-16 Block 40/42 )
- AN/ALQ-184: Jamming ECM pod ( Used onboard F-16 Block 40/42 )
- AN/ALQ-187 (V2): Jamming ECM pod ( NOTE: It is a part of the ACES EW system for the new Block 52+ jets )
- "Ministry of Defense-Egypt". GlobalSecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/egypt/airforce.htm. Retrieved 5 January 2009.
- Nicolle, David; Sherif Sharmy (24 September 2003). "Battle of el-Mansourah". Middle East Database. Air Combat Information Group. http://www.acig.org/artman/publish/article_266.shtml. Retrieved 5 January 2009.
- F-16 Air Forces – Egypt
- Kenneth M. Pollack, Mark Grimsley, Peter Maslowski, Arabs at War: Military Effectiveness, 1948–1991,University of Nebraska Press, 2004 p.170
- Hosni Mubarak – Air Force Hero
- "Battle of el-Mansourah". 24 September 2003. http://www.acig.org/artman/publish/article_266.shtml. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- Libya & Egypt, 1971–1979
- Boeing: Boeing, U.S. Army Sign Contract for 35 Egyptian AH-64D Apaches
- Scramble on the Web – Egyptian Air Force
- Egyptian Military Purchase.
- "Egypt mulls JF-17 co-production and signs for more F-16s". Jane's Defence. 4 March 2010. http://jdw.janes.com/public/jdw/index.shtml. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
- "U.S. pushes F-16 project for Egypt despite Muslim Brotherhood purge of military". Worldtribune.com. 15 August 2012. http://www.worldnewstribune.com/2012/08/15/u-s-pushes-f-16-project-for-egypt-despite-muslim-brotherhood-purge-of-military/. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
- Eric Schmitt (20 August 2013). "Cairo Military Firmly Hooked to U.S. Lifeline". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/21/world/middleeast/cairo-military-firmly-hooked-to-us-lifeline.html?ref=world.
- Obama halts delivery of four F-16 jets to Egypt amid unrest - NBCnews.com, 24 July 2013
- Egyptian military aviation OrBat
- "World Military Aircraft Inventory", Aerospace Source Book 2007, Aviation Week & Space Technology, January 15, 2007.
- Air Forces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire: Key Publishing Ltd. March 2013. pp. 31.
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