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EKS (Edinaya Kosmicheskaya Systema)
Manufacturer RKK Energia (bus) and TsNII Kometa (payload.)[1]
Country of origin  Russia[1]
Operator Russian Aerospace Defence Forces
Applications Early warning of missile attack
Specifications
Bus Possibly USP (Victoria)[1]
Power Deployable solar arrays
Batteries Yes
Equipment Military early warning system and a reported secure emergency communications payload to be used in case of a nuclear war.[1]
Regime Molniya orbits
Production
Status Deployment, first satellite EKS-1 launched in November 2015.[2][3]
Built 2
On order 4
Launched 2
Retired 0
First launch EKS 1 / Tundra-L11, November 17, 2015[2]
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EKS (reportedly standing for Russian: Единая космическая система, romanized: Edinaya Kosmicheskaya Sistema meaning Unified Space System[4]) (GRAU designation: 14F142) is a developing[2][3] programme of Russian early warning satellites as a replacement for the US-KMO and US-K satellites of the Oko programme.[5]:7 These satellites identify ballistic missile launches from outer space and complement early warning radars such as the Voronezh. This gives advance notice of a nuclear attack and would provide information to the A-135 missile defence system which protects Moscow, as well as other Russian missile defense and counterattack resources. Six satellites are planned to be initially orbited.[1] The first of them was launched on November 17, 2015[2] and as of November 2017 there are two in service.[6]

Background

EKS is designed as a replacement for the current system of early warning satellites called Oko, which had its first launch in 1972 [7]:36[8] and was described in 2005 as "hopelessly outdated".[9] Oko has two types of satellites: US-KMO are in geosynchronous orbits and have an infrared telescope to identify ballistic missile launches.[10] US-K are in Molniya orbits and are an earlier model with optical telescopes and infrared sensors.[11] The Oko system has two control centres with the main one being Serpukhov-15 outside Moscow. [7]:40[7]:52

Oko is part of the Main Centre for Missile Attack Warning[12] which is under the Space Command (KK) of the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.[13]

In 2014 Kommersant published that the first satellite, of a type named Tundra, would be launched in 2014. According to that report they would operate on highly elliptical orbits. The satellite was not launched in 2014, however.[14] It was eventually launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome on 17 November 2015, using a Soyuz 2.1b rocket with a Fregat stage, under the name EKS-1 / Tundra-11L.[2][3][15] Until 2020, five more satellites are planned to be orbited.[1]

Timeline

Information on the new EKS system is scarce but it appears that it was designed by Energia Corp in 1999-2000 and was selected against a proposal from Oko manufacturer NPO Lavochkin.[4] The Russian Ministry of Defence awarded the contract to Energia in 2007 with an expected delivery date of 2008, for a test launch in 2009.[16] In 2009 it was reported to be delayed until late 2011/early 2012.[17] In 2011 the Russian MoD sued Energia for the delay, claiming that a contract extension issued until May 2010 was invalid and asking for 262 million rubles in compensation.[18] According to news reports Energia said that the contract extension was valid and that the problem was with their subcontractors.[18] In addition they said that the Russian MoD kept changing the specification and demanding things that were beyond the capabilities of the industry.[18] The Russian MoD lost the court case. Energia delivered a satellite in 2009 but as of April 2012 there had not been a test launch.[16]

In April 2012 minister Alexander Sukhorukov announced that a contract had been signed to manufacture these satellites and that there would be a launch later in 2012.[19] The last satellites of the previous Oko system were Kosmos 2479,[20] launched on 30 March 2012, and Kosmos 2469, launched on 30 September 2010.[21]

The first EKS satellite (Kosmos 2510, EKS-1, Tundra 11L) was eventually launched from Plesetsk on November 17, 2015 using a Soyuz-2.1b rocket[2] and as of November 2017 there are two in service.[6]

Satellites

Satellite[1] COSPAR international designator NORAD catalog # Orbit Launch Date End Date Estimated Operational Life
Kosmos 2510 (EKS 1) (Tundra 11L) Template:COSPAR 41032 Molniya[22] 38,552 x 1,626 km, 63.37º 17 November 2015 Active
Kosmos 2518 (EKS 2) (Tundra 12L) Template:COSPAR 42719 Molniya[6] 38,552 x 1,626 km, 63.37º 25 May 2017 Active[23]

See also

  • Molniya orbit, the orbit to be used by the Tundra / EKS satellites [6]

External links

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 "Gunter's Space Page - Tundra (EKS, 14F142)". http://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/tundra.htm. Retrieved 2015-12-17. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 "Soyuz 2-1B launches EKS-1 to upgrade Russian Early Warning System". http://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2015/11/soyuz-2-1b-eks-1-russian-early-warning-system/. Retrieved 2015-12-17. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Russia to Launch First Satellite for New Space Defense Network in November". http://sputniknews.com/military/20150629/1023991007.html. Retrieved 2015-06-30. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Podvig, Pavel (August 22, 2007). "Russia is working on new early-warning satellites". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. http://russianforces.org/blog/2007/08/russia_is_working_on_new_early.shtml. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
  5. Podvig, Pavel; Zuang, Hui (2008). Russian and Chinese Responses to US Military Plans in Space. Cambridge, MA: American Academy of Arts and Sciences. ISBN 0-87724-068-X. http://www.amacad.org/publications/militarySpace.pdf. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 "Russia’s Soyuz launches EKS Missile Warning Satellite, ends Year-Long Military Launch Gap". http://spaceflight101.com/soyuz-successfully-launches-second-eks-satellite/. Retrieved 8 July 2017. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Podvig, Pavel (2002). "History and the Current Status of the Russian Early-Warning System" (pdf). pp. 21–60. Digital object identifier:10.1080/08929880212328. ISSN 0892-9882. Archived from the original on 2012-03-15. https://web.archive.org/web/20120315024323/http://iis-db.stanford.edu/pubs/20734/Podvig-S%26GS.pdf. 
  8. Zak, Anatoly (April 18, 2012). "Oko early-warning satellite". Russianspaceweb.com. http://www.russianspaceweb.com/oko.html. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 
  9. Podvig, Pavel (November 21, 2005). "Hopelessly outdated". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. http://russianforces.org/blog/2005/11/hopelessly_outdated.shtml. Retrieved 30 April 2012. 
  10. Krebs, Gunter. "US-KMO (71Kh6)". Gunter's Space Page. http://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/us-kmo.htm. Retrieved 5 March 2012. 
  11. Krebs, Gunter. "US-KS (74Kh6)". Gunter's Space Page. http://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/us-ks.htm. Retrieved 5 March 2012. 
  12. Podvig, Pavel (2012-01-30). "Early Warning". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. http://russianforces.org/sprn/. Retrieved 24 March 2012. 
  13. "Structure". Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. n.d.. http://eng.mil.ru/en/structure/forces/cosmic/structure.htm. Retrieved 24 March 2012. 
  14. Pavel, Podvig (2014-07-19). "New-generation early-warning satellite, Tundra, to be launched in 2014". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. http://russianforces.org/blog/2014/07/new-generation_early-warning_s.shtml. Retrieved 2015-02-10. 
  15. "Russian Soyuz-2.1b rocket successfully launches Tundra satellite - SpaceFlight Insider". http://www.spaceflightinsider.com/missions/defense/russian-soyuz-2-1b-rocket-successfully-launches-tundra-satellite/. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 Podvig, Pavel (August 18, 2011). "New generation early-warning satellite turned up in court". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. http://russianforces.org/blog/2011/08/new_generation_early-warning_s.shtml. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
  17. Podvig, Pavel (April 29, 2009). "Early-warning satellites - old and new". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. http://russianforces.org/blog/2009/04/early-warning_satellites_-_old.shtml. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 Safronov Jr, Ivan (August 17, 2011). "Военные проиграли космический иск космической корпорации". Kommersant. http://www.kommersant.ru/doc-y/1753235. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
  19. "Минобороны РФ заключило контракты на создание спутников для отслеживания ракетных запусков". ITAR-TASS. 19 April 2012. http://www.itar-tass.com/c9/397256.html. Retrieved 9 May 2012. 
  20. "Oko Satellite successfully delivered to Orbit". Spaceflight 101. 2012-03-30. Archived from the original on 2013-02-12. https://web.archive.org/web/20130212044423/http://www.spaceflight101.com/oko-launch-updates.html. Retrieved 2012-04-17. 
  21. Pavel, Podvig (2012-03-30). "Cosmos-2479 - new geostationary early warning satellite". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. http://russianforces.org/blog/2012/03/cosmos-2479_-_the_last_geostat.shtml. Retrieved 2012-04-17. 
  22. "Russia’s 1st EKS Missile Warning Satellite enters surprising Orbit". http://spaceflight101.com/tag/eks-1/. Retrieved 8 July 2017. 
  23. http://bmpd.livejournal.com/2628699.html

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