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The following directory lists and provides links to articles about the Troubles.

Main articles

General
  • Operation Banner
  • Provisional IRA campaign 1969–1997
  • Segregation in Northern Ireland
  • Parades in Northern Ireland
  • Murals in Northern Ireland
  • The Troubles in Derry
  • The Northern Ireland Troubles in popular culture

Paramilitaries

Anti-terrorist laws in both Ireland and the UK proscribe (ban) membership of a number of republican and loyalist groups organised in Northern Ireland. Several other smaller paramilitary factions have appeared throughout the Troubles as well as cover-names used to deflect responsibility for attacks.

Note: In this context, operational refers to the period during which the 'official' paramilitary campaign was conducted.

Republicans

Name Initials Operational
Saor Éire 1967–1975
Provisional Irish Republican Army PIRA 1970–2005
Official Irish Republican Army OIRA 1970–1972
Irish National Liberation Army INLA 1974–2009
Irish People's Liberation Organisation IPLO 1986–1992
Continuity Irish Republican Army CIRA 1994–
Real Irish Republican Army RIRA 1997–
Óglaigh na hÉireann (Real IRA splinter group) ONH 2009-

Umbrella groups

Loyalists

Name Initials Operational
Ulster Protestant Volunteers UPV 1966–1969
Ulster Volunteer Force
Red Hand Commando
UVF
RHC
1966–2007
1972–2007
Ulster Defence Association
Ulster Freedom Fighters
UDA
UFF
1971–2007
Ulster Resistance UR 1986–?
Loyalist Volunteer Force LVF 1996–2005
Orange Volunteers OV 1998–
Red Hand Defenders RHD 1998–

Umbrella groups

In the table below:

  • The period of activity for republican groups is shown in green.
  • The period of activity for loyalist groups is shown in orange.
  • The period of ceasefire is shown in grey.
Group Year
70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99
Provisional IRA
Official IRA
UVF
UDA
INLA
IPLO
Continuity IRA
Real IRA
LVF

State security forces

United Kingdom

Northern Ireland

  • The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) – to 3 November 2001
  • The Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) – from 4 November 2001
  • The Ulster Special Constabulary (USC) – to 30 April 1970
  • The Northern Ireland Prison Service (NIPS)

Republic of Ireland

Political parties

Listing includes brief summary of ideology and position on the Good Friday Agreement 1998.

Irish Nationalist/Republican

  • Sinn Féin (SF). President: Gerry Adams. Militant nationalist. Often associated with the Provisional IRA. Translation from Irish: "We Ourselves". Pro-Agreement.
  • The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP). Leader: Margaret Ritchie. Moderate centre-left nationalist. Pro-Agreement.
  • The Irish Republican Socialist Party (IRSP). Militant nationalist. Political wing of INLA. Anti-Agreement.
  • Republican Sinn Féin (RSF). President: Des Dalton. Militant nationalist. Often associated with the Continuity IRA. Anti-Agreement.
  • The 32 County Sovereignty Movement (32CSM). President: Francis Mackey. Militant Nationalist. Often associated with the Real IRA. Anti-Agreement.
  • The Workers' Party (WP). President: Mick Finnegan. Marxist nationalist. Formerly Official Sinn Féin. Pro-Agreement.
  • The Republican Network for Unity (RNU). Militant nationalist. Accused by Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) of being the political wing of Óglaigh na hÉireann (Real IRA splinter group) however rejected by both groups. Anti-Agreement.

Ulster Unionist/Loyalist

  • The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP). Leader: Peter Robinson. Radical populist unionist. Originally anti-Agreement; now pro-Agreement.
  • The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP). Leader: Tom Elliott. Moderate conservative unionist. Pro-Agreement.
  • The Progressive Unionist Party (PUP). Leader: Brian Ervine. Moderate centre-left unionist. Political wing of Ulster Volunteer Force. Pro-Agreement.
  • The Conservative Party also organises and contests elections in Northern Ireland. Moderate unionist. Pro-Agreement.

Other

  • The Alliance Party of Northern Ireland. Leader: David Ford. Liberal cross-community. Pro-Agreement
  • The Green Party. Environmentalist. Pro-Agreement.
  • Ulster Third Way. Supports Northern Ireland independence.

Political structures

Northern Ireland government

1921-1972

  • Governor
  • Prime Minister
  • Cabinet

1998-

  • First Minister and deputy First Minister
  • Executive

Northern Ireland legislatures

1921-1972
The Parliament of Northern Ireland:

  • House of Commons
  • Senate

1972-1998

  • The Northern Ireland Assembly (1973–1974)
  • The Northern Ireland Constitutional Convention (1975–1976)
  • The Northern Ireland Assembly (1982–1986)
  • The Northern Ireland Forum (1996–1998)

1998-

  • The Northern Ireland Assembly

Republic of Ireland government

  • Dáil Éireann (assembly)
  • Seanad Éireann (senate)

United Kingdom government

  • The House of Commons
  • The House of Lords
  • The Northern Ireland Affairs Committee (House of Commons)
  • The Northern Ireland Grand Committee (House of Commons)

Peace process

Co-operative bodies

  • British-Irish Council (BIC)
  • British-Irish Inter-Parliamentary Body
  • North/South Ministerial Council (NSMC)

Key steps in the peace process

  • Sunningdale Agreement (1973)
  • Anglo-Irish Agreement (1985)
  • Downing Street Declaration (1993)
  • Establishment of the IICD (1997)
  • Belfast Agreement (1998)
  • Amendment of Articles 2 and 3 (1999)
  • Establishment of the Independent Monitoring Commission (2003)
  • IRA Ceasefire & Decommissioning (2005)
  • St Andrews Agreement (2006)

Cultural and religious organisations

  • The Roman Catholic Church in Ireland
  • The Church of Ireland (Anglican)
  • The Presbyterian Church in Ireland
  • The Methodist Church in Ireland

Nationalist

  • The Ancient Order of Hibernians (AOH)
  • The Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA)

Unionist

  • The Apprentice Boys of Derry
  • The Orange Institution
  • The Independent Orange Order
  • The Royal Black Institution

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