The defence industry of Pakistan, under the Ministry of Defence Production, was created in September 1991 to promote and coordinate the patchwork of military production facilities that have developed since independence. The ministry also includes seven other specialized organizations devoted to research and development, production, and administration.  The navy is supported mainly by a facility at the Karachi Shipyard, which has limited production capacity. In 1987 development of a submarine repair and rebuild facility at Port Qasim was begun. By early 2000, in a joint project with China led to the development of the JF-17 Thunder fighter and the Al-Khalid Tank. Pakistan also has taken major steps to becoming self-sufficient in aircraft overhaul, modernization and tank and helicopter sales and a transfer of technology with France led to the construction of the Agosta B-90 Submarine in the late 1990s and early 2000s and is currently actively participating in many joint production projects such as Al Khalid 2, advance trainer aircraft, combat aircraft, navy ships and submarines.
After the success of its major developments in the defence industry, the Defence Export Promotion Organisation (D.E.P.O.) was created to promote Pakistani defence equipment to the world by inviting major and small players to the I.D.E.A.S. Exhibition, which is held annually at the Karachi expo center. In recent reports, the defence exports were worth over $500 million USD in 2006 and growing annually.
Facilities and products
- Air Weapons Complex (AWC) — development and production of various airborne weapon systems and avionics.
- Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT) — maintenance, overhaul, modernisation, development and production of armoured vehicles including main battle tanks, self-propelled artillery, armoured personnel carriers and armoured cars.
- Kahuta Research Laboratories
- Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works (KSEW) — production of civilian and naval vessels, including surface warships and submarines.
- National Defence Complex (NDC) — development and production of tactical and strategic ballistic missiles for the Pakistani military.
- National Engineering and Scientific Commission (NESCOM)
- Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) — maintenance and overhaul of various aircraft, production of aircraft and components.
- Pakistan Ordnance Factories (POF) — production of various ammunition types, small arms and explosives.
- SATUMA — design and production of various unmanned aerial vehicles for sale to domestic and foreign customers.
- Global industrial defence solutions - design and production of various types of defence and industrial products.
- Integrated Dynamics - design and production of various unmanned aerial vehicles for sale to domestic and foreign customers.
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