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Royal Dano-Norwegian Navy
Active 1509-1814
Country Denmark-Norway
Engagements Swedish War of Liberation (1510-23)
Count's Feud (1534-36)
Nordic Seven Years' War (1563-70)
Kalmar War (1611-13)
Torstenson War (1643-45)
Second Nordic War (1657-60)
Scanian War (1675-79)
Great Nordic War (1700 & 1709-20)
Battle of Copenhagen (1801)
Battle of Copenhagen (1807)
Gunboat War (1807-14)
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Peter Tordenskjold
Henrik Bjelke
Niels Juel
Cort Adeler
Insignia
Naval Ensign Naval Ensign of Denmark.svg

The Royal Danish-Norwegian Navy or Common Fleet, also known simply as the Danish Navy, was the naval force of the united kingdoms Denmark and Norway from 1509 to 12 April 1814. The fleet was established when the Royal Danish Navy and the Royal Norwegian Navy were combined by King Hans, when he ordered the ships Engelen and Maria. The common fleet was dissolved when Prince Christian Fredrik established the separate Royal Norwegian Navy on 12 April 1814, and was thus succeeded by the Royal Danish Navy and the Royal Norwegian Navy, respectively. The Common Fleet was largely funded by the Kingdom of Norway, and for much of its history a large majority of its sailors and officers were Norwegian.

The task of the navy

The primary task of the fleet in the first period of its existence was to counter the power of the Hanseatic League and secure control in the Baltic Sea. The fleet was one of the largest in Europe under King Christian IV with 50-60 larger battle ships and a large number of defensive ships. In the 17th and 18th centuries during the period of absolutism its primary aim was to control the Strait of Øresund against Sweden. In this period it consisted of 20 ships of the line with an average of 60 guns, plus 20-40 frigates, large enough to counter the Royal Swedish Navy at the time. The number of guns on the ships of the line was smaller than the average number of the great sea powers of the time, but it was partly a deliberate decision of the admiralty, in order to make the ships able to navigate in the countless narrow waters around the Danish isles.[1]

The navy was considered to be the King's personal property, and "the King's waters" consisted of the sea off Norway, Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland, large parts of the Baltic, the waters east of the North Cape and off Spitsbergen. For the entire period of its existence its main base was Holmen in Copenhagen, but on different occasions smaller task forces was stationed in Fredriksvern in Norway and in Glückstadt.

Navy personnel

In 1679 the fleet's regular officers corps consisted of 217 men. Of these 31% were Dutch, 27% were Norwegian, 19% were Danish and the rest were from other nations.[citation needed]

In 1709 there were about 15,000 personnel enrolled in the common fleet. Of these 10 000 were Norwegian. When Tordenskjold made his famous raid at Dynekil in 1716, over 80% of the sailors and 90% of the soldiers were Norwegian.[2]

During peace time most of the navy personnel served in the merchant fleet, which was of a considerable size in the 18th century. The main problem for Denmark-Norway in case of war was thus often to round up the required number of skilled sailors for the navy.

The navy was for a large part funded by Norwegian means as a royal resolution dictated that the income from Norway was to be used towards its construction and upkeep[citation needed].

The majority of the ships of the line in the 17th and 18th centuries were named after the royalty of Denmark-Norway, as well as the lands of the kingdoms. At the end of the 18th century it became more common to name them in a national romantic vein, using names from the history of Denmark and from the Old Norse mythology.

Ships

This list is not complete.

  • Engelen, (1504-?)
  • Maria, (1504-?)
  • Trost aka. Hunden and Skjodehunden (c. 1600)
  • Den Røde Løve aka. Løven (c. 1600)
  • Katten aka. Grønlandiske Kat (1605–1611)
  • Tre Kroner, warship (1601–1624)
  • Gabriel (c. 1616)
  • Sancte Sophia, warship (1624–1645)
  • Norske Løve, warship (1634–1653)
  • Frederik, warship (1649–1673)
  • Sophia Amalia, warship (1650–1687)
  • Prins Christian, aka. Prinsesse Charlotte Amalie and Enigheden, warship (1651–1679)
  • Trefoldighed, warship (1652–1676)
  • Norske Løve, warship (1654–1666)
  • Prins Christian aka. Christianus Quintus, (1665–1708) Orlogsskib
  • Norske Løve, warship (1665–1679)
  • Hummeren, warship/frigate (1666–1700)
  • Norske Løve, warship (1680–1715)
  • Elephanten, royal yacht (1687–1721)
  • Dannebrog, warship (1692–1710)
  • Fredericus Quartus aka. Store Christianus Quintus (1699–1732) warship
  • Hjælperinden, artillery pram (1718-?)
  • Norske Løve, warship (1735–1764)
  • Fridericus Quintus, warship (1753–1775)
  • Søridderen, frigate (1758–1785)
  • Norske Løve, warship (1765–1798)
  • Christian den Syvende, warship (1767-?)
  • Den Prægtige, warship (1768–1799)
  • Dristigheden, bomb vessel (1771-?)
  • Holsteen, ship of the line (1775–1801)
  • Disco, frigate (1778-?)
  • Friderichsværn, frigate (1783–1807)
  • Speideren, cutter (1783–1799)
  • Søehesten, gun barge (1785–1801)
  • Aggershuus, cavalry pram (1786–1805)
  • Indfødsretten, ship of the line (1787–1801)
  • Hielperen, frigate (1787–1806)
  • Lærken, lugger (1788–1797)
  • Neptunus, warship (1789–1807)
  • Najaden, frigate (1796–1807)
  • Waldemar, warship (1797–1807)
  • Prinds Christian Frederik, warship (1804–1808)
  • Najaden, frigate (1811–1812)

Sources

  1. Ole Feldbæk, Gyldendal og Politikens Danmarkshistorie, volume 9, 2003. pp. 133. ISBN 87-89068-30-0.
  2. Ole Feldbæk, Gyldendal og Politikens Danmarkshistorie, volume 9, 2003. pp. 135. ISBN 87-89068-30-0.


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