The Comprehensive Peace Accord (or CPA) (Nepali: बिस्तृत शान्ति सम्झौता) was signed between the Government of Nepal and the Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) on November 21, 2006 which formally ended the Nepalese Civil War that lasted for more than decade. Then Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala and Maoist supremo Prachanda signed the deal, which allowed the Maoists to take part in government, and places their weapons under UN monitoring.
Highlights of the peace accord
- Formal end of the Nepalese Civil War that began in 1996.
- People's Liberation Army of Maoists to be put in temporary cantonments and verified. Likewise Nepal army to be confined within the barracks. PLA are to be supervised, rehabilitated, integrated. Maoist army and Nepal Army and their arms to be managed as per the earlier agreement reached between the government and the Maoists
- King to be stripped of political rights and his property to be nationalized under public trusts.
- Strict implementation all previous pacts/agreements reached between the government and Maoists.
- Termination of the military action and the armed mobilization. Both sides to stop attacks or any kind of violent and offensive activities from either side; no new recruitment in armed forces of both sides and no transportation of arms and ammunition and explosives.
- Both sides to fully commit themselves to uphold human rights, all international human rights laws, civil liberties
- Scrapping of Maoists' parallel administration (People's governments, People's Courts) across the country.
- OHCHR-Nepal to monitor human rights situation, and UNMIN to monitor and supervise PLA cantonments and Nepal Army barracks
- Formation of National Peace and Rehabilitation Commission, Truth Commission, and a high-level Commission for State Restructuring.
- Both sides to assist each other to maintain law, peace, law and order
- Respectful rehabilitation and social integration of the people displaced during the insurgency
- End to Feudal land-ownership system, Scientific land distribution system to be adopted
- Strong punitive policy to curb corruption and Property earned illegally through corruption to be confiscated
- Possession, display and use of arms and weapons by anybody a punishable crime
CPA's implementation has been a topic of intense debate over the years. The Maoist army has been confined within temporary cantonments that are verified and monitored by the United Nations (UNMIN). Their arms have been locked in the cantonment and guarded by United Nations Mission in Nepal (UNMIN). An equal number of arms of Nepal Army has also been guarded by the UNMIN. Still, however, the National Peace and Rehabilitation Commission, Truth Commission, and a high-level Commission for State Restructuring have not yet been formed. Properties confiscated by Maoists also still haven't been fully returned. There's been disagreement between Maoists and other parties on issues of Integration of the Maoist army into the Nepal army. Prime Minister Madhav Kumar Nepal says that the Maoist army will be rehabilitated and integrated into the Nepal Army but key coalition partners of the Nepali Congress and Madhesi Janadhikar Forum are vehemently opposed to the idea. Even Defence Minister Bidhya Devi Bhandari is strongly against the deal.
After a second round of verification, 4008 verified minor and late recruits were released from cantonments beginning in January 2010. Among the released 4008 ex-combatants from seven main camps and other 21 satellite camps located at various parts of the country, 2,973 were verified minors (who were under 18 when the peace deal was signed on November 21, 2006) and 1035 were late recruits (recruited after November 21, 2006). The United Nations is providing four types of rehabilitation packages for released ex-combatants which include vocational training, sponsoring school education, health education training and supporting small business initiatives. Research is being done to identify how the private sector could support the rehabilitation program and help in consolidating peace.
References and notes
- Comprehensive peace accord signed, decade-old Maoist armed insurgency ends
- NEPAL: Historic Peace Agreement Signed- but some problems continue- Update No 109
- Full text of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement held between Government of Nepal and Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist)
- Nepal’s Peace Agreement: Making it Work
- Maoists yet to return property of 30,000 families
- Forgotten in the peace deal
- Properties of over 30,000 families still in Maoists hands: Report
- Govt is serious about integration of Maoist combatants: PM
- Army Integration will invite civil war: Nepali Congress.
- No integration of Militias into Nepal Army: Gacchedhar-Tharu
- No to Integration of Militias into Nepal Army: Defense Minister
- Ex-child soldiers bid farewell to Nepal Maoist camps
- NEPAL: CHILDREN DISCHARGED FROM THE MAOIST CANTONMENTS
- NEPAL: Rehabilitation challenge for child soldiers
- Rehabilitation of Nepali ex-combatants: What role for the private sector?
- Full Text of Nepal Comprehensive Peace Agreement, UN Peacemaker
- Text of all peace accords for Nepal, UN Peacemaker
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