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B-24 "Sandman" on a bomb run over the Astra Romana refinery in Ploieşti, Romania, during Operation Tidal Wave.[1]

This article lists a few Allied strategic bombing campaigns and their civilian death tolls during World War II.

City Date Low estimates High estimates Attacking force Notes
Hamburg 24–30 July 1943 42,600 [2] 42,600 [2] RAF Bomber Command; USAAF Eighth Air Force. Firestorm.[3]
See also: Battle of Hamburg.
Dresden 13–15 February 1945 22,700 [4] 25,000 [4] RAF: Bomber Command; USAAF Eighth Air Force. Firestorm.
See also: Bombing of Dresden.
Tokyo 9–10 March 1945 88,000 100,000+ USAAF: Twentieth Air Force Firestorm. 279 B-29s dropped about 1,700 short tons (1,500 t) of bombs, destroying 16 square miles (41 km²) of the city.[5][6][7][8][9]
See also: Operation Meetinghouse.
Hiroshima 6 August 1945 80,000 140,000 USAAF: 393rd Bomb Squadron First ever nuclear attack. Uranium-based nuclear weapon: codename Little Boy.
See also: Bombing of Hiroshima.
Nagasaki 9 August 1945 40,000 70,000 USAAF: 393rd Bomb Squadron Plutonium-based nuclear weapon: codename Fat Man.[10]
See also: Bombing of Nagasaki.

See also


  1. Duga, James; Stewart, Carroll (2002). Ploesti. Brassey's. ISBN 978-1-57488-510-1. Retrieved 2009-03-26. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Frankland & Webster 1961, pp. 260-261.
  3. Dyson 2006, p. 3.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Neutzner 2010, p. 17.
  5. U.S. Army Air Forces in World War II: Combat Chronology. March 1945. Air Force Historical Studies Office. Retrieved 3 March 2009.
  6. Freeman Dyson. (1 November 2006). "Part I: A Failure of Intelligence". Technology Review. MIT. 
  7. David McNeill. The night hell fell from the sky. Japan Focus, 10 March 2005.
  8. Rhodes, Richard. "The Making of the Atomic Bomb". p 599. Simon & Schuster Paperbacks (1984) ISBN 0-684-81378-5.
  9. Mark Selden. A Forgotten Holocaust: US Bombing Strategy, the Destruction of Japanese Cities and the American Way of War from the Pacific War to Iraq. Japan Focus, 2 May 2007.
  10. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR VII; Report to the National Academies of Science), 2007


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