Military Wiki

3rd century BCE

  • c. 220 BCE, Siege of Olbia by the Basternae and Scirii.

2nd century BCE

The Defeat of the Cimbri by Alexandre Gabriel Décamps

1st century BCE

  • 74 BCE, Fall of the Kingdom of Bithynia.
  • 71 BCE, Spartacus is killed and his rebel army destroyed.
  • 63 BCE, Pompey the Great conquers Phonecia, Coele-Syria, and Judea for Rome, Fall of the Seleucid Empire, Catiline's conspiracy against the Roman Republic is foiled.

Vercingetorix Throws Down His Arms at the Feet of Julius Caesar by Lionel Noel Royer, 1899

The Death of Cleopatra by Reginald Arthur, 1892

  • 32–30 BCE, Final War of the Roman Republic, Suicide of Mark Antony, Suicide of Cleopatra, Fall of the Ptolemaic Kingdom, Egypt becomes the Roman province of Aegyptus.
  • 27 BCE, Octavian becomes Emperor under the name of Caesar Augustus, Begin of Julio-Claudian dynasty, Begin of the Principate, End of the Roman Republic, Octavian creates the Praetorian Guard, Construction of the Pantheon begins.
  • 23 BCE, Coinage reform begins, Political crisis in Rome.
  • 22–19 BCE, Artaxias II recaptures the throne of Armenia, Riots in Rome,[11] Food shortages in some provinces.[12]
  • 20 BCE, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Governor of Transalpine Gaul, Construction of military roads and especially the military road Lugdunum—Divodurum—Treverorum--Agrippinensium (from Lyon to Cologne), Fall of the Kingdom of Armenia.
  • 16 BCE, clades Lolliana,[13] Destruction of the legion Legio V Alaudae by Sicambri and their allies, Fall of the Kingdom of Noricum.
  • 16–13 BCE, Emperor Augustus on the Rhine, Reorganization of the Three Gauls (capital Trier), Decision to fortify the left bank of the Rhine and conquest of Germania to the Elbe, Rome pays tribute to the Frisii, Begin of invasions east of the Rhine by Rome, Construction of the modern city of Mainz begins.
  • 12–9 BCE, Invasions of Drusus I up the Elbe from the North Sea, the Lippe and Main, Battle of the Lupia River, Cherusci and Sicambri[14] subdued, Chatti, Tencteri and Usipetes are overrun, Establishment of new forts by Rome, Arminius and Flavus sent to Rome, Death of Roman General Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa.
  • 9 BCE, Pannonia is incorporated in the Roman Empire as part of Illyria, Drusus I dies in an accident, Creation of Magna Germania (capital Cologne), Pacification campaigns against the Germanic tribes by the Roman Empire, Deportation of 40,000 Sicambri west of the Rhine.
  • c. 7 BCE, The prophet Jesus is born in Judea.
  • 6–2 BCE, A rabbit plague breaks out in the Balearic Islands, Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus' invasions to the Elbe, Construction of the Pontes Longi begins.
    • 2 BCE, Emperor Augustus is proclaimed Pater Patriae, or "father of the country" by the Roman Senate,[15] Julia the Elder and her mother Scribonia are exiled to Pandateria.

1st century

  • 1–4 CE, Rise of the Chatti[16][17] and Bructeri (immensum bellum)[18] suppressed by Tiberius, who reached the Elbe.
  • 6–9, Uprising in Illyricum, which cancels the major Roman project of war against Suevic Marcomanni.
  • 6, Varus succeeds Saturninus as governor of Germania with the mission of peacekeeping and the implementation of tax and judicial administration.

The Varus battle by Otto Albert Koch, 1909

2nd century

  • 117, Death of Emperor Trajan, Silver content of the Roman denarius falls to 87 percent.

Construction of Hadrian's Wall by William Bell Scott

  • 122, Construction of Hadrian's Wall begins.
  • 138, Death of Emperor Hadrian, Silver content of the Roman denarius falls to 75 percent.
  • 142, Construction of the Antonine Wall begins.
  • 161, Death of Emperor Antoninus Pius, Weight of a goldpiece, the aureus, is reduced from 7.81 grams to 7.12 grams, Silver content of the Roman denarius falls to 68 percent.
  • c. 165, Invasion of Pannonia by Lombards and Ubii.
  • 165–180, A pandemic kills an estimated 5 million people throughout the Roman Empire.
  • 166–180, Germanic tribes invade the frontiers of the Roman Empire, specifically the provinces of Raetia and Moesia, Marcomannic Wars.
  • 192, Assassination of Emperor Commodus, End of Nerva–Antonine dynasty, Roman civil war.
  • 193, Year of the Five Emperors, Assassination of Emperor Pertinax by Praetorian Guard, Execution of Emperor Didius Julianus, Begin of Severan dynasty, Silver content of the Roman denarius falls to 50 percent.
  • 194, Death of usurper Pescennius Niger.
  • 197, Execution of usurper Clodius Albinus.

3rd century

The area (Agri Decumates) between Main and Rhine was evacuated in 259 CE, dozens of Roman camps were abandoned.

4th century

Empire of the Huns, pushing the Germanic tribes over the Limes into the Roman Empire.

  • 376, Invasion of the Huns, Hunnic war against Visigoths and Ostrogoths, Suicide of Gothic King Ermanaric, Gothic King Vithimer dies in battle.[43][44]
  • 376–382, Hunnic raids on Gothic Thervingi (Visigoths),[37][38][39][40][41][42] Gothic War,[37][39][40][45][46][47][48] Plundering and destruction throughout the Balkans by Goths.
  • 377–378, Invasion of Thrace and Moesia by Gothic Greuthungi led by chieftain Alatheus.
  • 378, Invasion of Alsace by Alemanni, Battle of Argentovaria, Extermination of Alemannic Lentienses, Alemannic King Priarius dies in battle.
  • 380, Battle of Thessalonica, Death of Gothic chieftain Fritigern, Begin of naval raids by Saxons, Begin of the Migration of the Saxons.
  • 382, Peace between Rome and the Goths, Large Gothic contingents of Thervingi, Taifali and Victohali settle along the southern Danube frontier in the province of Thrace.
  • 383, Assassination of Emperor Gratian, Failed raid in the province of Raetia by Alemannic Juthungi.
  • 387, Failed Invasion of Thrace and Moesia by Gothic Greuthungi led by chieftain Alatheus, Greuthungi chieftain Alatheus dies in battle.
  • 390, Massacre of Thessalonica.
  • 392, Emperor Valentinian II is hanged, Frankish General Arbogast names Eugenius to be Western Emperor.
  • 394, 20,000 Gothic mercenaries support Eastern Emperor Theodosius the Great in the Battle of the Frigidus, Suicide of Frankish General Arbogast, Execution of puppet Western Emperor Eugenius.
  • 395, Death of Emperor Theodosius the Great, Assassination of Consul Rufinus by Gothic mercenaries.

5th century

  • 400, Begin of the Dark Ages, Begin of Germanic Iron Age.
  • 401–402, Raid in Raetia by Vandals, Roman campaigns against the Vandals by Stilicho.
  • 401–403, Invasion of Italy by Visigoths under Alaric I, Gothic War, Emperor Honorius moves his capital to the coastal city of Ravenna.
  • 405, Siege of Florence,[53] Battle of Faesulae,[54] Execution of Gothic King Radagaisus,[55] 12,000 Gothic higher-status fighters are drafted into the Roman army.[53][55]
  • 406, War between Franks and Vandals, Battle of Moguntiacum, Vandal King Godigisel dies in battle, Alans under King Respendial rescue the Vandals, Invasion of Gaul by Vandals, Suebi, Burgundians and Alans, Fall of Roman Gaul, Begin of the Fall of Roman Britain, Begin of the Fall of Roman Spain.
  • 408, Failed invasion of Moesia by Huns and Germanic mercenaries led by Uldin the Hun, Capture of thousands of Germanic mercenaries, Execution of Roman General Stilicho, Slaughter of wives and children of barbarian foederati, Siege of Rome by Visigoths, Attacks on Roman Britain by Saxons, Death of Eastern Emperor Arcadius.

Kingdom of the Vandals (yellow) and their allies the Sarmatian Alans before the Invasion of Roman Africa, c. 418 CE.

  • 409, 2nd Siege of Rome by Visigoths, Invasion of Roman Spain by Vandals, Suebi (Marcomanni, Quadi, Buri) and Alans.
  • 410, Sack of Rome by Visigoths, Begin of attacks on Vandals by Visigoths, Visigothic King Alaric I dies from disease, Begin of Barbarian raids by Picts, Scoti and Irish Celts, End of Roman rule in Britain, Fall of Roman Britain, Suevi establish a Kingdom in Galicia.
  • 411, Jovinus declares himself Western Roman Emperor with aid of the Burgundians, Franks and Alans, Burgundians establish a Kingdom left of the Rhine under King Gundahar.
  • 412, Sarus the Goth is executed, Death of Uldin the Hun.
  • 413, Capture of Narbonne and Toulouse by Visigoths led by King Ataulf, Usurper Jovinus is executed, Sack of Trier by Franks.
  • 415, Assassination of Visigothic King Ataulf, Assassination of Visigothic King Sigeric.
  • 419, Death of Visigothic King Valia.
  • 421, Sack of Trier by Franks.
  • 422, Capture and Execution of Frankish King Theudemeres by Romans, Attack on Vandals by Romans.
  • 423, Death of Western Emperor Honorius.
  • 426, War between Visigoths and Alans, Western Alan King Attaces dies in battle, Alans subject to the Vandals.
  • 426–436, Campaigns against the Visigoths in southern Gaul under Western Emperor Valentinian III, Battle of Narbonne, Capture of Visigothic chieftain Anaolsus.
  • 428, Invasion of Northern Gaul by Salian Franks led by King Chlodio.
  • 428–431, Failed Roman campaigns against Salian Franks, Alemannic Juthungi on the Rhine and Danube, Fall of the Kingdom of Armenia.

Kingdom of the Vandals in North Africa, c. 429 CE.

  • 429–439, Invasion of Africa by Vandals led by Vandal King Genseric, Siege of Hippo Regius, Capture of Carthage by Vandals, Capture of Roman navy by Vandals, Pillaging of Sicily, Begin of pirate raids by Vandals.
  • 431, Invasion to the Somme River by Salian Franks.
  • 436–437, Invasion of Burgundian Rhineland by Hun mercenaries controlled by Rome, Burgundian King Gundahar dies in battle.
  • c. 443, Britain plunges into civil war, Groans of the Britons, Britain is abandoned by Western Emperor Valentinian III.
  • 448, Defeat of the Salian Franks in the Battle of Vicus Helena by Roman General Aëtius, Frankish King Chlodio dies in battle.
  • c. 449, Anglo-Saxon elite mercenaries land in Britain.
  • 450, Danes defeat the Frisii in the Battle of Finnsburg, Frisian King Finn dies in battle, Danish Prince Hnæf dies in battle, Eastern Emperor Theodosius II dies in an accident.
  • 451, Invasion of Gaul by the Huns with Frankish, Gothic and Burgundian mercenaries led by Attila the Hun, Sack of Trier, Attack on Metz, Siege of Orléans, Coalition of Romans, Franks and Visigoths led by General Aëtius stop the Huns in the Battle of Châlons, Visigothic King Theodoric I dies in battle.
  • 452, Invasion of northern Italy under Attila the Hun, Sack of Aquileia, Sack of Vicetia, Sack of Verona, Sack of Brixia, Sack of Bergamum, Sack of Milan, Anglo-Saxons push the Picts back to Scotland.
  • c. 452–c. 497, Invasion of Roman Britain by Saxons, food shortages, Rebellion of Anglo-Saxon mercenaries in Britain.
  • 453, Attila marries Germanic girl Ildico, Hunnic and Germanic attacks on Constantinople, Attila the Hun dies during heavy drinking.
  • 454, East Germanic Gepids defeat the Huns in the Battle of Nedao, Hunnic King Ellac dies in battle, Assassination of Roman General Aëtius, Gepids establish a kingdom in Pannonia.
  • 455, Assassination of Western Emperor Valentinian III, Sack of Rome by Vandals, Capture of Empress Licinia Eudoxia by Vandals, Stoning of Western Emperor Petronius Maximus.
  • 456, Visigoths defeat the Suebic Kingdom of Galicia in the Battle of Órbigo.
  • 457, Execution of Western Emperor Avitus, Eastern Emperor Marcian dies from disease.
  • 458, Defeat of the Visigoths in southern Gaul in the Battle of Arelate.
  • 459, Seizure of Trier by Franks, Begin of decline of Trier until 1697.
  • c. 460, Night of the Long Knives, Death of all British chieftains, Begin of violent land grab by Anglo-Saxons.
  • 461, Seventeen Vandal ships destroy forty Roman ships in a surprise attack, Execution of Western Emperor Majorian.
  • 465, Death of Western Emperor Libius Severus, Ostrogothic King Valamir dies in battle.
  • 466, Battle of Wippedesfleot.[56]
  • 468, Invasion of the Vandal Kingdom by the Byzantine Empire, Defeat of the Byzantine Empire by the Vandals in the Battle of Cape Bon, Ostrogoths decisively defeat the Huns in the Battle of Bassianae.[57]
  • 469, Ostrogoths decisively defeat an alliance of Germanic and Roman forces in the Battle of Bolia,[57] Fall of the Hunnic Empire, Visigoths thwarted an attack by an alliance of Bretons and Romans in the Battle of Déols.
  • 472, Execution of Western Emperor Anthemius, Death of puppet Western Emperor Olybrius, Revolt in Thrace by Ostrogoths led by chieftain Theodoric Strabo.
  • 474, Deposition of Western Emperor Glycerius, Death of Byzantine Emperor Leo I the Thracian, Poisoning of Byzantine Emperor Leo II.
  • 475, Deposition of Western Emperor Julius Nepos.

Europe in the late 5th century (476 CE-486 CE).

  • 476, Revolt of Heruli, Scirii and Turcilingi mercenaries, Battle of Ravenna, Execution of Orestes, Deposition of Western Emperor Romulus Augustulus, Germanic Heruli chieftain Odoacer becomes King of Italy, Fall of the Roman Empire, Roman usurper Basiliscus is killed by un-Roman Byzantine Emperor Zeno, End of the Dominate.
  • 477, Death of Vandal King Genseric,[58] Begin of decline of the Vandal Kingdom.
  • 480, Assassination of Ex-Emperor Julius Nepos.
  • 481, Gothic chieftain Theodoric Strabo dies in an accident.
  • 485, Battle of Mercredesburne.[59]
  • 486, Franks under Merovingian King Clovis I defeat the Kingdom of Soissons in the Battle of Soissons, Fall of the Kingdom of Soissons.
  • 489, Theodoric the Great defeats Odoacer in the Battle of Isonzo, Battle of Verona.
  • 491, Siege of Pevensey by South Saxons (Sussex),[60] Death of Byzantine Emperor Zeno.
  • 493, Assassination of King Odoacer by Ostrogothic King Theodoric the Great, Burgundian civil war, Assassination of Burgundian King Chilperic II.
  • 496, War between Merovingians and Alemanni for supremacy on the Rhine, Franks defeat the Alemanni in a decisive battle, Alemannic King Gibuld dies in battle, Alemanni subject to the Merovingians, Begin of Christianization of the Franks, Begin of Christianization of Europe.[61][62][63][64][65]
  • c. 497, Defeat of the Anglo-Saxons in the Battle of Mons Badonicus by Britons led by King Arthur.[66][67][68]

6th century

Kingdom of the Visigoths (orange), Kingdom of the Suebi (green), Kingdom of the Burgundians, Kingdom of the Franks (purple), Kingdom of the Vandals (yellow), c. 490.

  • 500, Begin of the Early Middle Ages.
  • 501, Assassination of Burgundian King Godegisel.
  • 507, Franks under Merovingian King Clovis I and the Byzantine Empire plot against the Visigoths and defeat them in the Battle of Vouillé,[69] Visigothic King Alaric II dies in battle, Paris becomes capital of the Frankish Kingdom.
  • c. 510, Death of Thuringii King Basinus.
  • 511, Death of Merovingian King Clovis I.
  • 516, Death of Burgundian King Gundobad.
  • 518, Death of Byzantine Emperor Anastasius I.
  • c. 520, Anglo-Saxons took control of Sussex, Kent, East Anglia and part of Yorkshire, West Saxons founded a Kingdom in Hampshire under Cerdic, Begin of War between the Kingdoms.
  • 523, Assassination of Burgundian Prince Sigerich, Political crisis between Burgundians and Ostrogoths, Merovingian Kings Chlodomer, Childebert I and Chlothar I march against the Burgundians.
  • 524, Capture and Execution of Burgundian King Sigismund, Prince Gisald and Prince Gondebaud, Recapture of Burgundy by Burgundian King Godomar with aid of Theodoric the Great, Defeat of the Merovingians in the Battle of Vézeronce, Merovingian King Chlodomer dies in battle, Retreat of the Merovingians.
  • 526, Death of Ostrogothic King Theodoric the Great, Burgundians lose the Ostrogoths as allies, Raid against Gothic Gepidae by Byzantine General Belisarius.
  • 527, Death of Byzantine Emperor Justin I.
  • 529, Thuringii King Bertachar dies in battle, Beheading of Thuringii King Baderic.
  • 531, Merovingian King Theuderic I defeats the Thuringii in the Battle of the Unstrut River.
  • 532, Thuringii King Hermanfrid falls to death, Fall of the Thuringii Kingdom.
  • 532–534, Merovingian Kings Childebert I and Clothar I conquer the Burgundians in the Battle of Autun, Fall of the Burgundian Kingdom.
    • 534, Assassination of Burgundian King Godomar, Destruction of the Burgundian Kingdom by Franks, Burgundians now ruled by Frankish Kings.
  • 533–534, Invasion of North Africa by the Byzantine Empire, Vandalic War.
  • 535–554, Invasion of Italy by the Byzantine Empire,[69] Ostrogothic War.
    • 535, Capture of Sicily by Byzantine General Belisarius.
    • 536, Capture of Naples and Rome by Byzantine General Belisarius.
    • 537–538, Siege of Rome by Ostrogoths.
    • 540, Capture of Mediolanum and the Ostrogothic capital Ravenna by Byzantine General Belisarius, Capture of Ostrogothic King Witiges.
    • 541–542, Bubonic plague wipes out most of the farming community of the former Roman Empire and leaving dead an estimated 25 million people across the world, Begin of territorial decline until the 9th century.
    • 541–544, Recapture of Northern Italy by Ostrogoths.
    • 546, Sack of Rome by Ostrogoths.
    • c. 548, Recapture of Rome by the Byzantine Empire.
    • 549–550, Siege and Capture of Rome by Ostrogoths.
    • 551, Battle of Sena Gallica, Capture of Ostrogothic chieftain Gibal, Demoralization of Gothic army.
    • 552, Byzantine Empire with aid of the Heruli and Lombards defeat the Ostrogoths in the Battle of Taginae, Ostrogothic King Totila dies on the run, Defeat of Gothic Gepids in the Battle of Asfeld against Lombards (Longbeards), Gepid King Thurisind dies in battle.
    • 552–553, Capture of Rome and Siege of Cumae by Byzantine General Narses, Battle of Mons Lactarius, Ostrogothic king Teia dies in battle, Fall of the Ostrogothic Kingdom.
  • 554, Byzantine General Narses defeats the Franks and Alemanni in the Battle of the Volturnus.[70]
  • c. 558–561, Failed Uprising of the Ostrogoth Widin.[71]

The Byzantine Empire at the End of the Antiquity in 565 CE.

  • 565, Death of Byzantine Emperor Justinian the Great, Death of Byzantine General Belisarius.
  • 567, Lombards decisively defeat the Gepids, Gepid King Cunimund dies in battle, Fall of the Kingdom of the Gepidae.
  • 568–c. 572, Invasion of Northern Italy by Lombards, Bavarians, Gepids and Saxons, Longbeards (Lombards) establish a Kingdom in Northern Italy (capital Pavia), Begin of End of Byzantine rule.
    • 569, Seizure of Cividale del Friuli, Vicenza, Verona, Brescia and Mediolanum by Lombards.
    • 570–572, Siege of Ticinum, Seizure of Tuscany by Lombards.
  • c. 570, The prophet Muhammad is born in Mecca.
  • 573, Death of Byzantine General Narses.
  • 574, Byzantine Emperor Justin II went insane.
  • 577, Battle of Deorham, Capture of Glevum, Corinium, Aquae Sulis by Anglo-Saxons (Wessex) led by Cealin.[72]
  • 578, Death of Byzantine Emperor Justin II.
  • 582, Assassination of Byzantine Emperor Tiberius II Constantine.
  • 585, Invasion of Suevic Gallaecia by Visigoths,[69] Fall of the Suebic Kingdom of Galicia.
  • 592, West Saxons are defeated in the Battle of Woden's Burg (Odin's Burg).
  • 596, Angles defeated an alliance of Britons, Scots and Picts in the Battle of Raith.[73]

See also

  • Contact between Germanic tribes and the Roman Empire
  • Gothic and Vandal warfare
  • Anglo-Saxon warfare
  • Furor Teutonicus
  • Animal warrior
  • Germanic Iron Age
  • Germanic Heroic Age
  • Timeline of Anglo-Saxon settlement in Britain
  • Timeline of Germanic kingdoms in the Iberian peninsula


  1. Mommsen, Theodor. "History of Rome: Book IV - The Revolution". p. 67. Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Theodor Mommsen, Römische Geschichte. Vol. 2. Von der Schlacht von Pydna bis auf Sullas Tod.. 3.Ed. Weidmann, Berlin 1861, S. 178. (German) (Roman History: From the battle of Pydna down to Sulla's death.) Römische Geschichte: Bd. Von der Schlacht von Pydna bis auf Sullas Tod
  3. Florus, Epitome 1.38.16-17 and Valerius Maximus, Factorum et Dictorum Memorabilium 6.1.ext.3 (in Latin)
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Mossman, Theodor (1908). History of Rome. New York: Charles Scribner's SOns. p. 71. Retrieved 9 October 2009. 
  5. Caesar. In: Template:Interlanguage link (1960): Geschichte in Gestalten (History in figures), vol. 1: A-E. Template:Interlanguage link 37, Frankfurt 1963, p. 214. "Hauptquellen [betreffend Caesar]: Caesars eigene, wenn auch leicht tendenziöse Darstellungen des Gallischen und des Bürgerkrieges, die Musterbeispiele sachgemäßer Berichterstattung und stilistischer Klarheit sind" ("Main sources [regarding Caesar]: Caesar's own, even though slightly tendentious depictions of the Gallic and the Civil Wars, which are paradigms of pertinent information and stylistic clarity")
  6. Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico 1.31-53
  7. Dio Cassius, Roman History 38.34-50; see also Plutarch, Life of Caesar 19
  8. Smith, William (1867). "Ambiorix". In William Smith. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. pp. 138–139. 
  9. Florus, III. 10. § 8.
  10. Birkhan, Helmut, 1997, Die Kelten, p. 238. (German) (The Celts)
  11. Dio 54.1, 6, 10.
  12. Eck, Werner, 2003, The age of Augustus, p. 55.
  13. Suetonius, Augustus, 23, Tiberius, 12; Tacitus, Annals, I.10, III.48; Velleius II.97, 102; Pliny, Nat. Hist. IX.35 (58); Dio, liv.6.
  14. Dio, Roman History, LIV.33.
  15. Eck, Werner; translated by Deborah Lucas Schneider; new material by Sarolta A. Takács. (2003) The Age of Augustus. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing (hardcover, ISBN 0-631-22957-4; paperback, ISBN 0-631-22958-2).
  16. Several examples by Max Ihm, s. v. Cheruski, in: Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (RE) III.2, Stuttgart 1899, cols. 2270–2272. (German))
  17. "Chatti in Encyclopædia Britannica". Encyclopædia Britannica. September 2010. 
  18. Velleius, Compendium of Roman History, book 2, 104,2.
  19. Wells, Peter S. The Battle that stopped Rome. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. 2003, p. 187 ISBN 0-393-32643-8
  20. "The Ambush That Changed History". Fergus M. Bordewich, Smithsonian Magazine. September 2005. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  21. "Germans under Arminius Revolt Against Rome". Edward Shepherd Creasy, The Great Events by Famous Historians, Vol. 2. 1905.,_Vol._2/Germans_under_Arminius_Revolt_Against_Rome. 
  22. Kevin Sweeney, Scholars look at factors surrounding Hermann’s victory. 2010-10.
  23. Tacitus, Annals, XII.27
  24. Dean-Jones, Lesley (1992), p. 144
  25. 25.0 25.1 Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, Rome's Gothic Wars, p. 18.
  26. Jordanes, The Goths in the Third Century AD in THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS, translated by Charles C. Mierow,
  27. Zosimus, Historia Nova, book 1.43
  28. Syncellus, George, Extract of Chronography, p. 720.
  29. Potter, David S., A Companion to the Roman Empire, p. 270
  30. Sozomen, Ecclesiastical History, book 1, chapter 8 & book 2, chapter 34.
  31. Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, Rome's Gothic Wars, pp. 83-84.
  32. Origo Constantini 6.32 mention the actions.
  33. Eusebius, The Life of the Blessed Emperor Constantine, IV.6
  34. Odahl, Charles M., Constantine and the Christian Empire, chapter X.
  35. Ammianus Marcellinus, Historiae, book 27, chapter 5.
  36. Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, Rome's Gothic Wars, pp. 115-116.
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 Zosimus, Historia Nova, book 4.
  38. 38.0 38.1 Ammianus Marcellinus, Historiae, book 31, chapter 3.
  39. 39.0 39.1 39.2 Philostorgius, Ecclesiastical history, book 9, chapter 17.
  40. 40.0 40.1 40.2 Sozomen, Ecclesiastical History, book 6, chapter 37.
  41. 41.0 41.1 Heather, Peter, 1998, The Goths, pp. 98-104.
  42. 42.0 42.1 Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, Rome's Gothic Wars, pp. 124-128.
  43. Heather, Peter, 2010, Empires and barbarians, p. 215.
  44. Heather, Peter, 1995, The English Historical Review, The Huns and the end of the Roman Empire in Western Europe
  45. Ammianus Marcellinus, Historiae, book 31, chapters 5-16.
  46. Socrates Scholasticus, The Ecclesiastical History, book 4, chapters 34-38 & book 5, chapter 1.
  47. Heather, Peter, 1998, The Goths, pp. 130-138.
  48. Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, Rome's Gothic Wars, pp. 130-153.
  49. Hahn, Irene (2007). "The Day of the Barbarians: The Battle That Led to the Fall of the Roman Empire". Book review. Retrieved 2008-04-19. 
  50. Ammianus Marcellinus, Historiae, book 31, chapters 12–14.
  51. Zosimus, Historia Nova, book 4.
  52. Roman Empire – Adrianople Illustrated History of the Roman Empire. Retrieved April 2, 2007.
  53. 53.0 53.1 Heather, Peter, The Goths, p. 205
  54. Jaques, Tony. Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007, ISBN 978-0-313-33538-9, p. 345.
  55. 55.0 55.1 Heather, Peter, The Goths, p. 194
  56. Nennius (1859). J. A. Giles tr.. ed. History of the Britons. London: Bohn. 
  57. 57.0 57.1 History of the Goths. University of California Press. 13 February 1990. Retrieved 5 April 2012. 
  58. Vandals in Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)
  59. ASC 485 Parker MS : This year Ælle fought with the Welsh nigh Mecred's- Burnsted.
  60. ASC Parker MS. 491AD.
  61. He was baptized by Saint Remigius, bishop of Reims.
  62. See Daly 1994:640 and note).
  63. The date of the death of Childeric, commonly given as 481/82, is thus calculated as fifteen years before Tolbiac, as dated by Gregory.
  64. On-line text in English translation.
  65. A single Frankish-Alemannic combat, in summer 506, is presented, for example, in J.M. Wallace-Hadrill, Long-Haired Kings p 168, or Rolf Weiss, Chlodwigs Taufe: Reims 508 (Bern) 1971; the debate is briefly summarised in William M. Daly, "Clovis: How Barbaric, How Pagan?" Speculum 69.3 (July 1994, pp. 619-664) p 620 note.
  66. Ashe, Geoffrey, From Caesar to Arthur pp.295-8
  67. R. Ernest Dupuy and Trevor N. Dupuy, The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History From 3500 B.C. to the Present, Fourth Edition (New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1993), 193.
  68. C. Warren Hollister, The Making of England to 1399, Eighth Edition (New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), 31.
  69. 69.0 69.1 69.2 "World Timeline of Europe AD 400-800 Early medieval". The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2009-04-06. 
  70. Haldon, John, 2008, The Byzantine Wars, p. 39.
  71. Amory, Patrick, 2003, People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 489-554.
  72. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 577.
  73. Macbean, Lachlan (1924), Kirkcaldy Burgh and Schyre.

Further reading

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