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Prince Gong of the First Rank
Personal details
Born (1657-12-08)December 8, 1657
Died July 20, 1703(1703-07-20) (aged 45)
Spouse(s) Lady Gutu'er

About this sound Changning  (8 December 1657 - 20 July 1703) was a prince of the Qing Dynasty. He was born of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan as the fifth son of the Shunzhi Emperor. He was a half-brother to Shunzhi's successor, the Kangxi Emperor.[1] His title was Prince Gong of the First Rank (和碩恭親王).


Changning received his princedom on 1 March 1671.[2] In August 1690, he was named one of two commanders-in-chief for an expedition against Dzungar leader Galdan, a long-time enemy of the Qing Dynasty.[3] Having been granted the title of "Great General Who Pacifies the North" (安北大將軍), he was ordered to march his armies through the Xifengkou Pass (喜峰口) north of Beijing, and then to combine his forces with those of his half-brother Fuquan, the other commander-in-chief, in order to attack Galdan.[4] They reached Galdan's position on September 3, but after a battle that ended in a standstill, they let Galdan escape, a mistake for which Changning was stripped of his place on the Deliberative Council of Princes and High Officials.[5] In 1696 he took part in a new campaign that decisively weakened Galdan before the latter's final defeat in 1697.[6] When he died in 1703, Changning was not given posthumous honors equal to his princely rank, and was not allowed to pass on his title to his descendants, who instead inherited diminished ranks according to the laws concerning the transmission of Qing nobility titles.[7]


  • Father: Shunzhi Emperor
  • Mother: Lady Chen (陳氏), a concubine of the Shunzhi Emperor.
  • Spouse: Lady Gutu'er (古圖爾氏), personal name Jiancheng (建澄).
  • Children:
    • Yongshou (永壽), Changning's eldest son, granted the title of "General of the Third Class Who Assists the Nation" (三等輔國將軍), had no heir.
    • Manduhu (滿都祜), Changning's second son, inherited the title of beile, later demoted to "Duke Who Receives Grace and Guards the Nation" (奉恩鎮國公).
    • Haishan (海善), Changning's third son, inherited the title of beile, later stripped off his title. He was granted a posthumous name, Ximin (僖敏).

See also

  • Qing Dynasty nobility
  • Ranks of Imperial Consorts in China#Qing


  1. Fang 1943, p. 69. Date of birth: Qingshi gao, ch. 5, p. 150, Shunzhi 14.11.壬寅 (4th); date of death: Qingshi gao, ch. 8, p. 263, Kangxi 42.6.辛巳 (7th).
  2. Qingshi gao, ch. 6, p. 180, Kangxi 10.1.癸酉 (21st); Fang 1943, p. 69.
  3. Fang 1943, p. 69.
  4. Fang 1943, p. 69.
  5. Fang 1943, p. 69.
  6. Fang 1943, p. 69.
  7. Fang 1943, pages 69-70.


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