Casualties of the Tigray War refers to civilian and military deaths and injuries in the Tigray War that started in November 2020, in which rape and other sexual violence are also widespread. Claims of civilian deaths range from zero civilians killed in the late November Mekelle offensive, according to Ethiopian prime minister Abiy Ahmed on 30 November 2020 parliamentary statement, to a minimum estimate of at least 52,000 civilians killed by the Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF), the Eritrean Defence Forces (EDF), Amhara militias, and other forces allied with the ENDF as of early February 2021, according to Tigrayan opposition political parties. On 16 February 2021, Getachew Reda of the Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF) estimated that 100,000 soldiers had died in the Tigray War, while the Ethiopian government claims that 1,245 Ethiopian soldiers died in the Tigray war (although the casualties of the Ethiopian army were reported higher than that, reaching nearly 2,000 dead) and 2 aircraft belonging to the Ethiopian Air Force were destroyed not to mention the Ethiopian economic losses itself.
|Abiy Ahmed and ENDF||0||550||32||582||4 November 2020 – 9 February 2021; 4–11 November 2021|
|Tigray opposition parties||Lower estimate of at least 52,000||Lower estimate of at least 52,000||4 November 2020 – 2 February 2021|
|TPLF||224||224||30 December 2020 – 5 January 2021|
|100,000||4 November 2020 – 16 February 2021|
|Other sources||2,316 – 2,886||2,408 – 2,979||9 November 2020 – 10 January 2021|
As of 2 February 2021[update], the highest estimate of civilian deaths in the Tigray War is that stated by three of the opposition parties of the 2020 Tigray regional election, National Congress of Great Tigray, Tigray Independence Party and Salsay Woyane Tigray, who were allocated 15 seats in September 2020, prior to the war. The three parties' February 2021 statement (published 2 February) estimated that at least 52,000 civilians had been killed by the ENDF, the Eritrean Defence Forces (EDF), Amhara militias, and other forces allied with the ENDF. Hailu Kebede, head of foreign affairs in Salsay Woyane Tigray, stated that the three parties' data collection method was to try to register data from witnesses in every administrative area in Tigray Region. He stated that "thousands" of names were already recorded.
Murders and massacres
Multiple reports were made of extrajudicial and summary executions of civilians starting in November during the Tigray War. Typical massacres committed by Ethiopian and Eritrean soldiers in the Tigray war were (1) revenge when they lose a battle; (2) to terrorise and extract information about whereabouts of TPLF leaders; (3) murder of suspected family members of TDF fighters; and (4) terrorising the Tigray society as a whole such as in case of mass killings in churches.
|4-10 November 2020||Shiglil||7||Government-allied militias|||
|9-10 November 2020||Humera||54||ENDF, Amhara militia, Fano||||related: EHRC report|
|5-19 November 2020||Dansha||25||||Civilians were caught in the crossfire between warring parties|
|9–10 November 2020||Mai Kadra||600 or 1100||Samri kebele youths or Amhara militias||victim ethnicity and perpetrators disputed|
|13-17 November 2020||Zalambessa||86||EDF||||Killed mostly in house-to-house searches after shelling the town|
|14–17 November 2020||Bisober||27-31||TPLF & ENDF||||Shelling crossfire and house-to-house search|
|17 November 2020||Shire||200||EDF||||Elders say people were "slaughtered like chicken"|
|c. 19 November 2020||Hitsats||305||TPLF or EDF||Perpetrators disputed. EEPA claims 300 Eritrean refugees executed by EDF, HRW claims EDF, refugees claim local Tigrayan militia or EDF, Ethiopia claims TPLF; five humanitarian workers killed in battle|
|21 November 2020||Idaga Hamus||Dozens||EDF||||after capture of town|
|c. 21 November 2020||Adigrat||12||EDF||||after capture of town|
|27-28 November 2020||Wukro||220||EDF, ENDF||||killing spree accompanying the massive looting of the town|
|28–29 November 2020||Aksum||750||EDF||initial body counts; in-depth||Daily killings preceded and followed the main massacre.|
|30 November 2020||Dengelat||80–150||EDF||||at Maryam Dengelat church|
|late November/early December 2020||Irob||52||||50 men, 2 women|
|1 December 2020||Mekelle||27||ENDF|||
|4–7 December 2020||Ziban Gedena||150-300||EDF||||Also: 150 houses burnt, 90% of livestock killed, harvests burnt and stolen|
|13 December 2020||Kola Tembien||20||ENDF||||Soldiers kept terrorising civilians in Tembien in an effort to get the location of the leader of the TPLF.|
|c. 23 December 2020||Hawzen||up to 70||EDF||||70 bodies recognised by witness|
|5 January 2021||Gu'itelo||29||EDF||||at Medhane-Alem church|
|8 January 2021||Bora||70–187||ENDF||:31||Killing spree after a battle with TDF|
|9 January 2021||Ari Giyergis||12||ENDF||||12 young deacons taken out of the church and executed|
|mid-January 2021||Mahbere Dego||50–74||ENDF (Amharic speaking)||||People were executed and thrown off a cliff, according to geolocated video evidence.|
|January 2021||Irob||30 Coptic priests, 100 children, 50 women||ENDF, EDF (50 women)|||
|1 February 2021||Kerebera||5||ENDF & EDF||||five priests were killed in the village church|
|10 February 2021||Wukro||18||EDF||||killed in street protests|
|10 February 2021||Kola Tembien||182||ENDF, EDF||||house-to-house killing; access to bodies permitted on 15 Feb, by which time many were partially eaten by wildlife|
|few days before 14 February 2021||Adwa + Shire||30||||killed in street protests|
|c. 19 February 2021||Khisret, Gijet||100+||ENDF|||
|22 February 2021||Debrekerbe||9||EDF|||
|23 February 2021||May Weyni||80||EDF|||
|1-3 March 2021||Humera||250||Amhara militia, Fano, EDF|||
|11 March 2021||Enkikumel, near Shire||100+||ENDF/EDF||||Reports suggest that ENDF/EDF soldiers went door to door and kidnapped civilians in order to force militias to give up their weapons and surrender. Once the militias surrendered, they and the remaining hostages were all executed. All victims were reportedly young men.|
|14 March 2021||Wukro||3-5||ENDF||||retaliation for attacks by TDF|
|23 March 2021||Inda Teka Tesfay between Mekelle and Adigrat||4||ENDF||||Médecins Sans Frontières staff observed the execution of at least four men by the ENDF. They were taken off a public bus and executed.|
|24 March 2021||Grizana, near Samre||11-18||EDF|||
|30 March - 5 April 2021||Wukro Maray||c. 161||EDF & ENDF||||As revenge for lost battles|
|1 or 3 April 2021||May Atsmi, Tisha and Haddush Addi, Tahtay Maychew district||around 140||EDF||||As revenge for lost battles|
|5 April 2021||Debrekerbe in Zana district||116||EDF|||
|(5 April 2021)||(Haruka kebele, Afar Region)||(30+)||(Somali Regional State special forces)|||
|8 April 2021||Freweyni||7||EDF|||
|8 April 2021||Hawzen||30+||EDF|||
|8 April 2021||Around Wukro Maray, between Shire and Axum||200+||ENDF and EDF|||
|12 April 2021||Adwa, Central Tigray||3–9||EDF|||
|12 April 2021||village near Axum||11||presumably EDF|||
|12 April 2021||Hugumburda, Southern Tigray||15||Amhara militias and ENDF|||
|c. 12 April 2021||Wukro Maray town near Aksum||300+||EDF|||
|29 April 2021||Idaga Hibret||20||EDF|||
|30 April 2021||(Bure, Amhara and Danchu Kebelle)||21||unknown||||During the attacks, some civilians had reportedly been burnt alive.|
|8 May 2021||Guh village, Hawzien, Eastern Tigray||19||EDF|||
|12 June 2021||Menji and Guyya villages near the town of
|16||EDF and ENDF||||Reports indicate that cluster bombs and phosphorus gas was used in the shelling of both villages.|
|22 June 2021||Togoga village||50-80||ENDF||||50-80 civilians were killed in an airstrike on the village's market area. Reports indicate that the ENDF blocked ambulances from attending to the dead and wounded in the village, possibly increasing the casualty toll.|
|11 July 2021||Wereta||3||Amhara fano (militia) and mob||||Killed in revenge for the defeat of the Wereta militia in Fiyelwiha (Tigray)|
|17-19 July 2021||Yalo||20||TDF or ENDF||||Victims of shelling|
|~3 August 2021||Humera and elsewhere along the Tekezé River||95||Amhara militia, Fano, EDF||||The victims had been shot with their hands tied|
|5 August 2021||Galikoma, Afar Region||107-200||TDF||||Indiscriminate killing by TDF|
|15 August 2021||Humera and along the Tekezé River||c.150||ENDF or Amhara militias||||Bodies in the Tekezé River were found with their hands bound and fatal gunshot wounds.|
|31 August–4 September 2021||Chenna (near Dabat)||120-200||TDF||||Extrajudicial killings; Using civilians as human shields|
|9 September 2021||Kobo, Ethiopia||600||TDF||||Extrajudicial killings|
An ENDF soldier present at the attack on the Adigrat base of the ENDF Northern Command during the 4 November Northern Command attacks, Bulcha, stated to BBC News that there were 32 ENDF fatalities and 100 TPLF fatalities.
Based on its 14–18 November 2020 visit and a visit starting 10 January 2021 to the Tigray Region, the Ethiopian Human Rights Commission (EHRC) reported a Humera hospital employee's count of the war deaths as 92, including military (ENDF and TPLF) and civilian deaths.
An estimated 760 troops (ENDF and TPLF) were killed during fighting in the Raya region.
The TPLF claimed on 24 November to have killed thousands of ENDF and Eritrean in three fronts: Adwa, Idagahamus and Ray-Mokoni. They also claimed to have killed almost an entire Ethiopian division during fighting at Raya. This division is the 21st mechanised division.
On 7 December 2020 heavy fighting broke out between AMISOM troops and Ethiopian troops in Hiran region, Somalia, when Ethiopian troops tried to disarm Tigrayan troops. In total 21 Tigrayan soldiers and 20 Ethiopian soldiers were killed.
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