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Cannon 102/45
4 inch gun left side Dominion Engineering 1942 LAC 3196181.jpg
The Cannon 102/45 was a licensed copy of the QF 4 inch Mk V naval gun shown here.
Type Naval gun
Anti-aircraft gun
Coastal artillery
Place of origin United Kingdom
Service history
In service 1917-1945
Used by Italy
Wars World War I
World War II
Production history
Designed 1913
Manufacturer Ansaldo
Produced 1917
Variants Schneider-Armstrong
Model 1917
Schneider-Armstrong
Model 1919
Schneider-Canet
Model 1917
Specifications
Weight 2,327 kilograms (5,130 lb)
Length 4.7 meters (15 ft 5 in)
Barrel length 4.57 meters (15 ft 0 in)

Shell weight 13.7–16 kilograms (30–35 lb)
Caliber 102 millimeters (4.0 in)
45 Caliber
Breech Horizontal or vertical sliding breech block
Elevation See Table
Traverse -360°
Rate of fire 7 rpm
Muzzle velocity Schneider-Armstrong: 850 m/s (2,800 ft/s)
Schneider-Canet:
888 m/s (2,910 ft/s)[1]
Maximum range Horizontal: 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) at +35°
AA: 8,000 m (26,000 ft)

The Cannon 102/45 was a naval gun of the Italian Navy in World War II, which was later modified for shore based anti-aircraft and coastal artillery roles.

History

During World War I the United Kingdom delivered a QF 4 inch Mk V naval gun, serial No.974 to Italy to act as a template for licensed production by the Ansaldo Company. The Mark V was constructed of a tapered inner A tube, A tube, taper wound wire, full-length jacket and breech ring.[2] It had either a horizontal or vertical sliding breech block, with semi-automatic action and used fixed quick-fire ammunition. There were three models produced: Schneider-Armstrong Model 1917, Schneider-Armstrong Model 1919, and Schneider-Canet Model 1917; each with differing mounts and elevations. Overall the 102/45 was considered a successful design and it was widely used on destroyers of the Italian Navy before and during World War II. The exception being the Schneider-Armstrong Model 1919 which was an unsatisfactory twin mount with both guns sharing a common cradle. The Model 1919 was later replaced by single mounts during the war.[3] The 102/45 was in the process of being replaced by the Cannon 120/45 and 120/50 when World War II began. Starting in 1937 guns that were removed from ships were mounted on new dual-purpose shore mounts and used as anti-aircraft guns and coastal artillery until retired in 1945.

Interesting facts

  • The reported muzzle velocities for the Schneider-Armstrong 850 m/s (2,800 ft/s) and Schneider-Canet 888 m/s (2,910 ft/s) are slightly different.
  • The muzzle velocities of the 102/45 are higher than the Mk V 719 m/s (2,360 ft/s) implying greater working pressure.[4] What effect this had on barrel life and accuracy is unknown.
  • The rates of fire for the 102/45 (7 rpm) and Mk V (8-10 rpm) are different.[5]

Types

Mounts Model Weight Elevation Naval Classes
Single Open Mount Schneider-Armstrong

Model 1917

4,600 kg -5°/+35° Generali-class,[6] Palestro-class,[7] La Masa class,[8] Giuseppe Sirtori[9]
Schneider-Canet Model 1917 -5°/+30° Mirabello-class,[10] Alessandro Poerio class[11]
Twin Mount Schneider-Armstrong Model 1919 10,000 kg -5°/+35° Curtatone-class[12]
Single Mount

Dual-purpose

Model 1936 -5°/+85° Anti-aircraft and Coastal artillery

Notes

  1. Friedman, Norman (2011-01-01). Naval weapons of World War One. Seaforth. ISBN 9781848321007. OCLC 786178793. https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/786178793. 
  2. DiGiulian, Tony. "Italy 102 mm/45 (4") S-A Models 1917 and 1919 and S-C Model 1917 - NavWeaps" (in en). http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNIT_4-45_m1917.php. 
  3. Friedman, Norman (2011-01-01). Naval weapons of World War One. Seaforth. pp. 339. ISBN 9781848321007. OCLC 786178793. https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/786178793. 
  4. M., Campbell, N. J. (2002-01-01). Naval weapons of World War Two. Naval Institute Press. pp. 241–242. ISBN 0870214594. OCLC 51995246. https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/51995246. 
  5. Fraccaroli, Aldo (1974). Italian Warships of World War II. London: Ian Allen Publishing. pp. 189. 
  6. "Generale Antonio Cantore destroyers (1921 - 1922) - Regia Marina (Italy)". http://www.navypedia.org/ships/italy/it_dd_generali.htm. 
  7. "Palestro destroyers (1921 - 1923) - Regia Marina (Italy)". http://www.navypedia.org/ships/italy/it_dd_palestro.htm. 
  8. "Giuseppe La Masa destroyers (1917 - 1919) - Regia Marina / Italian Navy (Italy)". http://www.navypedia.org/ships/italy/it_dd_la_masa.htm. 
  9. "Giuseppe Sirtori destroyers (1916 - 1917) - Regia Marina (Italy)". http://www.navypedia.org/ships/italy/it_dd_sirtori.htm. 
  10. "Carlo Mirabello flotilla leaders (1916 - 1917) - Regia Marina / Italian Navy (Italy)". http://www.navypedia.org/ships/italy/it_dd_mirabello.htm. 
  11. "Alessandro Poerio flotilla leaders (1915) - Regia Marina (Italy)". http://www.navypedia.org/ships/italy/it_dd_poerio.htm. 
  12. "Curtatone destroyers (1923 - 1924) - Regia Marina / Italian Navy (Italy)". http://www.navypedia.org/ships/italy/it_dd_curtatone.htm. 

Bibliography

  • Campbell, John (1985). Naval Weapons of World War Two. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-459-4. 
  • Fraccaroli, Aldo (1974). Italian Warships of World War II. London, England: Ian Allan Publishing. OCLC 834485650. 
  • Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval Weapons of World War One. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Seaforth. ISBN 978-1-84832-100-7. 

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