The camp was built during the Korean War and named for the Spanish word for clay oven or kiln. Camp Horno initially consisted of Quonset huts that were typical housing for Marines until the 1970s. In 2008 four-story, 170-room barracks were built as part of a facilities renovation project. Parts of Katy Perry's "Part of Me" music video where shot at Camp Horno in 2012. Camp Horno is the frequent site of many Marine ceremonies due to the history of the 1st Marine Regiment and the unit's frequent deployments to combat zones. In January 2014, the regiment celebrated its 100th anniversary at the camp during a ceremony directed by Col. Peter Baumgarten, the regiment's commanding officer and a Marine whose first tour of duty was at Camp Horno in 1988.
In February, 2004, Kimberley D. O'Neal was found shot to death in a park at Camp Horno. Her husband, Gunnery Sgt. Archie O'Neil Jr. of 2nd Battalion, 1st Marine Regiment (based in Camp Horno) was arrested before deploying with his unit to Kuwait.
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