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Brabant Revolution
Paul-Jacob Laminit (inc.) Jahann Voeltz (dis.) Combat dans les rues de Gand, novémbre 1789.JPG
Fighting in the streets of Ghent, November 1789
DateJanuary 1789 – December 1790
LocationSouthern Netherlands
Result

Austrian victory

  • Defeat of Austrians at Battle of Turnhout
  • Proclamation of short-lived United States of Belgium
  • Suppression of revolution and reestablishment of Austrian control
Belligerents
 Holy Roman Empire

Brabant rebels


Supported by:
 United Provinces
Republic of Liège
United States of Belgium (starting on 10 January 1790)
Commanders and leaders
Holy Roman Empire Joseph II (until February 1790)
Holy Roman Empire Leopold II (from February 1790)
Holy Roman Empire Albert of Saxony
Jan Frans Vonck
Henri Van der Noot

The Brabant Revolution (January 1789 – December 1790) was a populist revolt which broke out in the Austrian Netherlands against the radical reforms of Emperor Joseph II. Starting out as a movement of protest, the violence developed into a movement for independence. After defeating Austrian forces at the Battle of Turnhout in 1789, a short-lived republic was formed, the United States of Belgium.

The Holy Roman Empire (of which Austria was part) took some time to respond to the crisis as it was embroiled in a war with the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans. However, by the end of 1790, the revolutionaries, wracked by internal division between the "Vonckists" and "Statists", were defeated and the rebellion crushed.

Background

Under the Austrian rule, the territory was divided into varies smaller separate territories, each with their own regional identities:[1]

  • Duchy of Brabant
  • County of Flanders
  • County of Hainaut
  • County of Namur
  • Duchy of Limburg
  • Austrian Guelders
  • Lordship of Mechelen
  • Duchy of Luxemburg

Reforms of Joseph II

In 1786 the Emperor Joseph II began launching a series of liberal reforms in the Austrian Netherlands along the lines of those already introduced in other states of the House of Habsburg, such as the Duchy of Milan. His first reforms included a reform of seminaries in the provinces, followed was the abolition of the Council of Brabant (replaced by a supreme court) in which provoked widespread rioting and even a rising in Brussels known as the "Small Revolution" in May 1787.[2] The suppression of this revolt allowed the Emperor to abolish the Joyous Entry and the rights of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Hainault in June 1789.[3]

Opposition in Exile

By 1789, the imperial government lacked the necessary means to repress political opposition, as for about a year it's full military resources were committed to the Austro-Turkish War.

The Emperor was unable to prevent political dissidents fleeing from his territory to the neighboring United Provinces to organize resistance. In the city of Breda, the rebels were able to form a kind of government in exile and to organize militarily. In addition to the United Provinces, the rebels were also supported by the Principality of Liège after the revolutionaries in Liège overthrew their Prince-bishop and declared a republic in August 1789.

Battle of Turnhout

Rebel incursions along the Austrian Netherlands' border with the United Provinces began in the Summer of 1789. On 24 October, a column of Rebel soldiers crossed the border into Austrian territory. After capturing the town of Hoogstraten on 24 October, one of the revolt's leaders, Henri Van der Noot, read a declaration of independence for Brabant known as the Manifesto of the People of Brabant[4] and declared the Austrian government invalid.

The rebel army, led by Jean-André van der Mersch, moved further into the Austrian Netherlands and fought a battle with a numerically superior force at Turnhout on 27 October. Van der Mersch lured the Austrian force sent against him into the town and bitter street fighting ensued. After five hours of fighting, the Austrian force withdrew from the combat. The commanding general of the imperial army in the Austrian Netherlands, Richard d'Alton, was quick to react, giving orders to his subordinate, Lieutenant-Field Marshal von Arberg,[note 1] retaliate in force in order to revenge the defeat and annihilate the military threat. Van der Mersch retreated across the border but not before the night of 10 November.

Revolution

Rioting in the town of Ghent in November 1789, following the Battle of Turnhout.

Following the Austrian defeat at Turnhout, riots began in major cities in the Austrian Netherlands.[5] Unable to maintain control in the face of both the Patriot army and the rebels, Austrian forces retreated from the territory to the Duchy of Luxembourg in the south.[5]

On 26 December 1789, the state of Brabant declared its independence from the Holy Roman Empire in Brussels.[5]

Notes

  1. Known as Nicolas-Antoine Comte d'Arberg of Valengin and Saint-Empire, (1736–1813), Generalmajor from 1773, Feldmarschalleutnant from 1783. See: Biographical Dictionary of All Austrian Generals

References

Bibliography

  • (French) Christophe Koch, Histoire abrégée des traités de paix, entre les puissances de l'Europe depuis la paix de Westphalie, Edizione continuata ed aumentata da F. Schoell, Bruxelles, 1837, tomo I, Bruxelles, 1837.
  • Petrus Johannes Blok, History of the people of The Netherlands, Part V – Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, London, 1912.
  • (English) F. Franck Bright, Joseph II, 1905, ripubblicato 2007.
  • (French) Louis Dieudonne Joseph Dewez, Histoire générale de la Belgique, tomo 7, Bruxelles,1828.
  • (French) Mathieu Guillaume Delvenne, Biographie du royaume des Pays-Bas, tomo 2, Liegi, 1829.
  • Friedrich Christoph Schlosser, History of the Eighteenth Century and of the Nineteenth Till the Overthrow of the French Empire, capitolo Belgian and Polish Revolutions, Londra, 1845.
  • Biographical Dictionary of all Austrian Generals during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonics Wars, 1792–1815.
  • (French) Émilien -François Malingié, Les commencements de la révolution brabançonne, par un moine de l'Abbaye de Saint-Pierre, Messager des Sciences Historiques ou Archives des Arts et de la Bibliographie de Belgique, gand, 1876.
  • (French) Le Général Comte d'Alton, Mémoires pour servir à la justification de feu son Excellence Le Général Comte D'Alton, et à l'Histoire Secrette de La Révolution Belgique, Seconde Edition, corrigée de toutes les fautes de la première, pubblicato sul finire del 1790 e aumentato di un Rapport essentiel touchant la sortie des Troupes Impériales de Bruxelles, le 12 Décembre 1789. Il tutto riedito in 2 tomi, nel 1791, tomo I.
  • (Dutch) Guy Schrans, Vrijmetselaars te Gent in de XVIIIde eeuw, Liberaal Archief Gent.
  • (French) Principe di Ligne, Lettres et pensées du maréchal Prince de Ligne pubblicato da Anne-Louise-Germaine de Staël, Ginevra, Parigi, 1809.
  • (French) Entretien entre l'Empereur, et Messieurs de Trauttmansdorf, Son Ministre Plénipotentiaire aux Pays-Bas et le Général d'Alton: le 12 Janvier 1790.
  • (French) Un épisode de la prise de Gand par les patriotes-mémoire justificatif par le major Philippe de Vaux , Messager des Sciences Historiques ou Archives des Arts et de la Bibliographie de Belgique, Gand, 1892.
  • (French) Charles Louis Maximilien Diericx, Charles Louis Diericx, Mémoires sur la ville de Gand.
  • (French) Auguste Voisin, Guide des voyageurs dans la ville de Gand, Gand, 1826.
  • (French) Arthur Chunquet LES GUERRES DE LA RÉVOLUTION – IV – Jemappes et la conquete de la Belgique (1792–1793).
  • (French) Antoine-Vincent Arnault, Biographie nouvelle des contemporains (1787–1820), Parigi, 1827.

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