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Military ranks of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman
ranks
Western
equivalents
Officers
Müşir
مشير
Field marshal
Birinci Ferik (Serdar)
فريق أول
General
Ferik
فريق
Lieutenant general
Mirliva
أمير لواء
Major general
Miralay
أمير آلاي
Brigadier
Kaymakam
قائم مقام
Colonel
Binbaşı
بكباشي
Lieutenant colonel
Kolağası
(Sağ Kolağası / Sol Kolağası)
قول أغاسي
Major
Yüzbaşı
يوزباشي
Captain
Mülâzım-ı Evvel
ملازم أول
First lieutenant
Mülâzım-ı Sani
ملازم ثاني
Second lieutenant
Non-commissioned officers
Çavuş
شاويش
Sergeant
Onbaşı
أونباشي
Corporal
Soldiers
Nefer
نفر
Private
Military ranks of Egypt
Turco-Egyptian
ranks
(until 1958)
Modern
Egyptian ranks
Western
equivalents
Officers
Mushir
مشير
General of the army/
field marshal
Sirdar
سردار
Fariq awwal
فريق أول
General
Fariq
فريق
Lieutenant general
Liwa
لواء
Major general
Amiralay
أمير آلاي
Amid
عميد
Brigadier
Qaimaqam
قائم مقام
Aqid
عقيد
Colonel
Bimbashi
بكباشي
Muqaddam
مقدم
Lieutenant colonel
Sagh
صاغ
Raid
رائد
Major
Yuzbashi
يوزباشي
Naqib
نقيب
Captain
Mulazim awwal
ملازم أول
First lieutenant
Mulazim thani
ملازم ثاني
Mulazim
ملازم
Second lieutenant
Non-commissioned officers
Shawish
شاويش
Raqib
رقيب
Sergeant
Ombashi
أونباشي
Arif
عريف
Corporal
Soldiers
Askari
عسكري
Jundi
جندي
Private

Birinci Ferik or Ferik-i evvel (corresponding to the earlier Ottoman rank of Serdar) was a military rank of the Ottoman Army. It is translated as General (modern Turkish Orgeneral). The title means "First Ferik" and was senior to a Ferik and junior only to the Müşir (equivalent to Field Marshal).

The collar mark (later shoulder mark) and cap of a Birinci Ferik had three stripes and three stars during the early years of the Turkish Republic. The Ottoman Army and pre-1934 Turkish Army had three general ranks (similar to the British ranking system), while the current Turkish Army has four general ranks (similar to the American ranking system), with the inclusion of Brigadier General (Tuğgeneral) as the fourth and most junior general rank.

The title of Birinci Ferik was abolished with Act No. 2590 of 26 November 1934 on the Abolition of Titles and Appellations such as Efendi, Bey or Pasha.

Sources

See also

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