|Battle of Yungay|
|Part of the "War of the Confederation"|
Planning map for the Battle of Yungay
|Peru-Bolivian Confederation||United Chilean-Peruvian Restoration Army|
|Commanders and leaders|
Andrés de Santa Cruz|
José Trinidad Morán
José María Pérez de Urdininea
José María de la Cruz
Juan Bautista Eléspuru†
Juan Francisco de Vidal
|Casualties and losses|
|3,000 casualties||664 casualties|
The Battle of Yungay (or Yungai) effectively destroyed the Peru-Bolivian Confederation created by Bolivian Marshal Andrés de Santa Cruz in 1836. On January 20, 1839, the alliance formed Chilean Army led by Chilean General in Chief Manuel Bulnes and force of Peruvians opposed to Santa Cruz, decisively defeated the Confederate Army commanded by Santa Cruz after six hours of combat in the battlefield of Yungay, in northern Peru, 200 km north of Lima.
The Chilean victory at Yungay effectively brought the Peru-Bolivian Confederation to an end, and Andrés de Santa Cruz exiled himself in Guayaquil, Ecuador.
The Peruvian government paid the debt contracted with Chile due to Chilean aid on the restoring campaign, also giving decorations and awards to Chilean and Peruvian officials. Also, Peruvian officers who served under the Confederation - among them Guillermo Miller, Mariano Necochea, Luis José Orbegoso, Domingo Nieto – were banned from the Peruvian army.
The victory of Yungay is remembered by the Chilean Army with the "Hymn of Yungay", and by Peru with the creation of the Ancash Department.
Lead by Rear Admiral Manuel Blanco Encalada the first Chilean incursion into Peruvian territory, during the war between Chile and the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, this incursion was defeated at the Battle of Paucarpata by Andrés de Santa Cruz forces, Blanco ans Santa Cruz signed the Treaty of Paucarpata on November 17, 1837. By signing this pact, Chile agreed to resume the commercial trade and the Confederation would recognise and pay the Chilean efforts in the Peruvian independence war.
Upon Blanco Encalada's return, however, the Chilean Parliament and the public opinion rejected the treaty and organised a second expedition of 5,400 soldiers under General Manuel Bulnes, along with 600 expatriate Peruvians under General Agustín Gamarra serving as reinforcements.
Andrés de Santa Cruz, the Bolivian Marshal, responded immediately reinstating the hostilities. The second Chilean campaign had more success than the first one as the Restoring Army marched into Lima, after defeating confederate General Orbegoso at the battle of Portada de Guías on August 21, 1838. Also, the Chilean Fleet secured sea domination in the Battle of Casma.
Despite this victory, and forced by the lack of supplies and disease, the Restoring Army marched to Huacho in the North Peruvian territory abandoning the capital city by November 1838, as news arrived indicating that Santa Cruz was closing with an outnumbering army to Lima. Afterwards, Santa Cruz entered into the city under popular ovation, then proceeded to follow Bulnes' forces.
Both armies engaged in the Battle of Buin, on January 6, 1839, in the confluence of the Buin and the Santa rivers, with indecisive results, since Bulnes continued marching north and Santa Cruz resumed the persecution seeking to deliver a final blow to the Chilean expedition to cement Confederation's dominance in the region.
Thus, Santa Cruz advanced to capture and occupy Yungay, intending to cut the Chilean supply lines and strangle the Chilean Expedition. His intention wasn't to obliterate the Restoring Army, but rather to force Bulnes to sue for peace, and surrender to a superior Peruvian force. Bulnes had other plans however, knowing that returning empty-handed was not an option after the failure of the previous force under Blanco Encalada.
Both armies had approximately 6,000 men, although the numbers favoured slightly the side of the Confederation and Santa Cruz. The Chilean Expedition, on the other hand, suffered the decimation of some battalions by plagues during its occupation of Lima, the capital of the North-Peruvian Republic. Comparably equipped, the main difference was in the preparation of the troops, the knowledge of the terrain, and the obvious differences between invaders and defenders.
The Confederacy Army was made up of veterans of internal battles from both Peru and Bolivia. It was generally supported by the population of Peru and possessed strong supply lines thanks to the site of the battle. Its commanding officer, General Andrés de Santa Cruz; was regarded as a resourceful tactician and a capable leader. His army had about 6,000 men divided into three divisions, adding up nine infantry battalions and two cavalry regiments.
The Chilean Expedition had the experience of Gen. Manuel Bulnes. On the other hand, it was not popular with the locals and was hampered due to disease, bad morale, and some less experienced units. This army of 5,400 soldiers was conformed by nine infantry battalions and three cavalry regiments grouped into four divisions.
Both armies marched under the rain, with the restoring force establishing near Tarar from where it marches towards San Miguel, while Santa Cruz after detaining in Tarhuaz, occupied the town of Yungay on January 13.
On the night of January 19, Santa Cruz sent Colonel Rodriguez Margariños to observe the Chilean positions. Besides, ordered to Bolivian Colonel Anselmo Quiroz with 600 soldiers to assume positions on the Pan de Azúcar hill top, while Colonel Fructuoso de la Peña advanced to the Punyan summit with another 200 soldiers.
On January 20, with the sunrise, Gen Bulnes marched with his four divisions to Yungay, whilst Santa Cruz deployed his army by the Ancash river, with Herrera's division on the right wing, in the middle was set the artillery and behind it the cavalry led by General Perez de Urdinea. Finally, Moran's division was stationed on the left flank.
Both forces were separated by a short valley formed by the Santa river and the mountains, with the Punyan, Ancash and Pan de Azúcar hill at the far end of this site, behind these highs lies the deep Ancash glen, followed by the confederate trenches.
Confrontation on the Punyan and Pan de Azúcar hills
Bulnes decided to start attacking the Punyan confederate positions. In order to do so, the Aconcagua Battalion was dispatched to clear out the hill, who climbed and forced Peña's confederate companies to retreat. After them, Bulnes sent on the Portales, Valdivia and Huaylas battalions.
At 09:00, a column of 400 soldiers under Jeronimo Valenzuela and formed by companies of the Carampangue, Santiago, Valparaíso and Cazadores de Peru battalions, were sent to the Pan de Azúcar hill to assail Col. Quiroz' positions. The restoring troops began the slowly climbing of the hill slope under heavy confederate fire.
With the Carampangue Battalion company led only by a sergeant - a female officer, Candelaria Perez - because the unit had all its officers down, and with the other battalion companies decimated, finally the Chilean soldiers reached the summit and bayoneted the confederates out of the Punyan hill, annihilating Quiroz' forces. All of the confederate soldiers and officers were killed, including Quiroz himself. Valparaíso Battalion Sergeant Jose Alegria raised the Chilean flag on the Pan de Azúcar summit.
Manoeuvres on the Ancash Glen
Marshall Santa Cruz sent Col. Deheza's battalion to reinforce Quiroz at Punyan hill, marching through the Ancash glen, but in their route encountered and engaged the Colchagua Battalion led by Col. Urriola, forcing the Chileans to refold with a bayonet charge. Bulnes ordered the Portales Battalion to aid Urriola, manoeuvre that obliged the Bolivians to pull away from the glen to Herrera's positions with a third of it initial soldiers dead.
With the Pan de Azúcar and Punyan hills conquered, Gen. Bulnes planned a frontal attack on Santa Cruz army, arranged in a line of trenches on the opposite side of the Ancash river. So, the Chilean forces converged on the river edge, and the Colchagua and Valdivia battalions were dispatched to engage the confederate right flank guarded by Herrera's division, while the Portales, Cazadores de Perú and Huaylas battalions were ordered to onset Col. Moran's division. The five cannon battery of Col. Marcos Maturana allocated on the Punyan heights began to fire and slowly to dismantle the confederate trenches. Due to the bridge over the Ancash had been destroyed, the restoring forces had to descend to the river shore and march across it.
When the Restoring Army crossed the river, the battle was joined on the entire front line, with the restoring army in the open and the confederates firing upon them from the trenches. From this protected position, the confederate divisions thwarted the restoring attack.
At 14:30, Gen. Pedro Bermudez drove his 3rd of Bolivia Battalion in a bayonet charge upon the Portales Battalion, which started to cede under the Bolivian pressure, breaking the restoring line. Following, the cavalry was sent to cut the Chilean retreat while the infantry forwarded from their protecting positions to attack the restoring troops in the open field.
Having witnessed the Chilean retreat, Gen. Bulnes took command of the Valparaíso Battalion and crossed the Ancash heightening Col. Garcia's unit. Likewise, the Santiago and half Huaylas battalions strengthened the Chilean right wing, allowing the relieved units to gather up and resume the attack. A few confederate battalions managed to return to their trenches.
Perez de Urdinea's cavalry crossed the river and collided with Baquedano's Cazadores a Caballo Cavalry Regiment. As a result of this clash, taking place near the confederate line, Baquedano was wounded and forced to retreat, only to attack again now with five cavalry squadrons, making Perez de Urdinea to regroup with the confederate infantry trying to retreat to their trench line. On a third massive charge, Baquedano broke Santa Cruz' left flank and the entire confederate front collapsed.
With both armies now engaging in the gap between the trenches and the water, the confederates tried to resist but were outflanked and completely vanquished. The disbanded troops were persecuted by the Chilean cavalry and killed. According to Gonzalo Bulnes, 277 confederate troops were found dead on the road between Manco and Yungay. Santa Cruz, followed by his generals Riva Agüero, Cerdeña and Miller, left the battlefield around 15:00.
This was a harsh defeat for the Peru-Bolivian Confederation. Santa Cruz had around 3,000 casualties, including 2 generals, 9 colonels, 100 officers and 2,500 soldiers, equivalent to a 50% of its effective force. The Restoring Army lost 1 general, 39 officers and 622 soldiers.
The Battle of Yungay brought as a consequence the end of the Peru-Bolivian Confederacy, with the Chilean Expedition reoccupying Lima in April. On August 25, 1839 General Agustín Gamarra assumed the Presidency of Peru, officially declaring the dissolution of the Confederation and the Union of the North and South Peru. Santa Cruz was exiled, first to Guayaquil, Ecuador, then to Chile and finally to Europe, where he died in Beauvoir, France, on September 25, 1865. He was 72.
- Battle formations at Yungay
- Santa Cruz el condor indio
- Peruvian condecorations awarded to Chilean Army
- Carlos López Urrutia (2007). Historia de la Marina de Chile. El Ciprés Editores.
- Both sides consider this encounter as a victory for their armies
- El Gran Capitan. "La Batalla de Yungay". http://www.elgrancapitan.org/portal/index.php/articulos/historia-militar/903-la-batalla-de-yungay. Retrieved 2008.
- Ejército de Chile. "Batalla de Yungay". http://www.ejercito.cl/historia/combates_yungay.php. Retrieved 2008.
- Biografía de Andrés de Santa Cruz en Biografías y Vidas
- (Spanish) The Birth of the Confederation
- (Spanish) Chilean Army
- (Spanish) Basadre, Jorge; La segunda campaña restauradora de Guía a Yungay
- (Spanish) Bulnes, Gonzalo (1878). Historia de la Campaña del Perú en 1838. Impr. Los Tiempos.
- (Spanish) Santa Cruz: El Cóndor indio
- (Spanish) Reyno, Manuel; González, Edmundo (1985). Historia del Ejército de Chile, Vol III. Estado Mayor del Ejército de Chile.
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