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{{Infobox military conflict | conflict = Battle of Kunovica | width = | partof = the Ottoman wars in Europe
Ottoman-Hungarian Wars | image = | caption = | date = 2 or 5 January 1444 | place = Kunovica between Niš and Pirot, Ottoman Empire (modern-day Serbia) | coordinates = 43°10′49″N 22°10′34″E / 43.18028°N 22.17611°E / 43.18028; 22.17611Coordinates: 43°10′49″N 22°10′34″E / 43.18028°N 22.17611°E / 43.18028; 22.17611 | map_type = | map_relief = | latitude = | longitude = | map_size = | map_marksize = | map_caption = | map_label = | territory = | result = Severe defeat of the Ottoman forces[1] | status = | combatants_header = | combatant1 = Coa Hungary Country History (15th century).svg Kingdom of Hungary
POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland]]
[[File:SLazarevic Coat of Arms.png|20px Serbian Despotate | combatant2 = Fictitious Ottoman flag 1.svg Ottoman Empire | combatant3 = | commander1 = POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Władysław III of Poland
Coa Hungary Country History (15th century).svg John Hunyadi
SLazarevic Coat of Arms.png Đurađ Branković | commander2 = Mahmud Çelebi  (POW) | commander3 = | units1 = | units2 = | units3 = | strength1 = | strength2 = | strength3 = | casualties1 = | casualties2 = | casualties3 = | notes = | campaignbox = }}



The Battle of Kunovica or Battle at Kunovitsa (Serbian language: Битка на Куновици)[2] was the battle between crusaders led by John Hunyadi and armies of the Ottoman Empire which took place on 2 or 5[3] January 1444 near mountain Kunovica (Suva Planina) between Pirot and Niš.[4] The Battle of Niš was part of Hunyadi's expedition known as the long campaign.

Battle[]

The Christian contingent began their retreat on 24 December 1443,[5] after the Battle of Zlatica. The Ottoman forces followed them across the rivers Iskar and Nišava and in the Kunorica pass attacked (some sources say ambushed by) the rear flanks of the retreating armies composed of armies of the Serbian Despotate under command of Đurađ Branković. The battle took place during the night, under the full moon. Hunyadi and Władysław who were already through the pass left their supplies guarded by infantry and attacked Ottoman forces near the river on the eastern side of the mountain.[3] The Ottomans were defeated and many Ottoman commanders, including Mahmud Çelebi of Çandarlı family (in some earlier sources referred to as Karambeg),[6] were captured.[4] The Ottoman defeat in the Battle of Kunovica and capture of Mahmud Bey, the Sultan's son-in-law, created the impression of an overall victorious campaign.[7]

Aftermath[]

Four days after this battle Christian coalition reached Prokuplje. Serbian despot presented to Władysław III of Poland and John Hunyadi to stay in Serbian fortified towns during the winter and continue their campaign against Ottomans in Spring 1444. They rejected his proposal and retreated ending this campaign of crusaders.[8] By the end of January 1444 forces of Władysław and Hunyadi reached Belgrade[9] and in February they arrived to Buda where they were greeted as heroes.[3] During 1444 ambassadors of Christian forces were sent to Edirne and organized signing of ten-years long peace treaty known as Peace of Szeged.[10]

Contemporary Ottoman sources blame rivalry between the commanders Kasim and Turahan for the defeat at Kunovica, while some claim that the Serbian Despot Đurađ Branković bribed Turahan not to participate in the battle.[11][12][13] Turahan fell from favour as a result and was banished by the Sultan to a prison in Tokat.[14][15]

This battle is commemorated in Serbian epic song Blow, Wind (Serbian language: Подухни ветре).[16]

References[]

Sources[]

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