Military Wiki
No edit summary
Tag: Visual edit
No edit summary
Tag: Visual edit
 
Line 106: Line 106:
   
 
=== November 2023 ===
 
=== November 2023 ===
  +
On november 11th 2023, the shambat bridge was destroyed amidst heavy fighting.<ref>https://english.alarabiya.net/News/middle-east/2023/11/11/Sudan-fighting-destroys-strategic-Shambat-Bridge-in-Khartoum</ref>
   
 
=== December 2023 ===
 
=== December 2023 ===

Latest revision as of 01:24, 8 July 2024

Question book-new

The factual accuracy of this article may be compromised due to out-of-date information

Battle of Khartoum
Part of the 2023 Sudan conflict
2023 Sudan clashes
Date15 April 2023 – present (2023-04-15 – present)
(1 year, 3 months and 1 week)
LocationKhartoum, Omdurman and Bahri, Khartoum State, Sudan[1][2][3]
Status

Ongoing

  • Rapid Support Forces capture the Khartoum International Airport, the presidential residence of Omar al-Bashir, and several military bases, and claim to control 90% of strategic buildings.[4]
  • The RSF capture a bridge over the White Nile, advancing into the neighboring city of Omdurman.[2]
Belligerents
Insignia of the Sudanese Armed Forces Sudanese Armed Forces Emblem of the Rapid Support Forces Rapid Support Forces
Commanders and leaders
Flag of Sudan Abdel Fattah al-Burhan Flag of Sudan Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo
Casualties and losses
Insignia of the Sudanese Armed Forces 27 killed, 183 wounded [5][6] Unknown
500+ civilians killed, including 1 Indian, 1 American, 1 Iraqi, 1 Egyptian and 9 Eritreans[7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]


The Battle of Khartoum is an ongoing battle for control of Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, between the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF), and the Sudanese Armed Forces. The battle began on 15 April 2023, after the RSF allegedly captured Khartoum International Airport, several military bases, and the presidential palace, starting an escalating series of clashes.

It was initially reported that tensions rose in Khartoum and Merowe on 13 April 2023, when RSF forces mobilized.[17] In response, the SAF issued a statement saying "There is a possibility of confrontation between SAF and RSF forces" introducing fears of a wider conflict.[18] In the evening of 14 April 2023, RSF forces assaulted the Khartoum International Airport, a military base, and the presidential palace. The fighting spread from Khartoum into its suburbs, primarily Omdurman where its bridge on the White Nile was largely captured by the RSF forces.[19]

By 28 April, there had been more than 500 civilian deaths in Khartoum, including an Indian citizen, an Iraqi citizen, an Egyptian civilian, and a Sudanese-American man travelling with his family.[20][21]

Battle

April 2023

Khartoum Airport and the street of Africa

The Khartoum International Airport where the first attacks were reported on 15 April 2023, currently occupied by the RSF forces.

In the early hours of the morning of 15 April 2023, Pro-RSF forces started a series of assaults on key buildings in Khartoum, primarily the Khartoum International Airport. During their attack on the airport, the RSF reportedly attacked a Saudi plane which was arriving at the airport, but no casualties have been reported among the passengers and crew.[22][23] The RSF also captured the presidential palace, the residence of the former Sudanese president Omar al-Bashir, and attacked a military base.[24][25] Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, commander of the RSF, claimed that the RSF controlled most of the city's government buildings; however, this was disputed by General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, the de facto leader of the Sudanese government.[26]

The same day, several aerial attacks towards the RSF targets were conducted by the SAF. Users on Facebook Live and Twitter documented the Sudanese Air Force flying above the city, and striking the RSF targets.[27]

On 16 April, the Armed Forces claimed to have re-captured the presidential palace; this was disputed by the RSF, who posted a video on Twitter of their continued presence in the palace amidst ongoing fighting. The RSF also disputed claims that several buildings had been captured by the Armed Forces.[28] Al Jazeera and Outlook India also reported large-scale combat in Omdurman, the sister city of Khartoum.[29] The World Food Programme also declared its withdrawal from Khartoum, due to the deaths of three WFP staffers during the fighting in the city.[30]

On 17 April, the Sudanese government announced the closure of Sudan's entire airspace, initially limited solely to that of Khartoum.[31][32] Aidan O'Hara, the European Union ambassador to Sudan, was assaulted at his Khartoum home where he had been sheltering.[33] The EU declared the attack, "a gross violation of the 1961 Vienna Convention."[34] General al-Burhan declared the Rapid Support Forces a "rebel group", and ordered their nationwide dissolution.[35] RSF forces also besieged and shelled a large hospital in the city.[36][37]

On 18 April, as a ceasefire was announced to begin later in the day, heavy fighting in Khartoum continued with warplanes flying through the capital, launching strikes against what appeared to be RSF targets.[38] The RSF used air defense systems and heavy artillery to repel the attacks. Reporters said armed personnel had entered several hospitals in Khartoum. Medical facilities have also reported a shortage of medical personnel, electricity and water.[39]

On 19 April, battles continued in Khartoum near the army headquarters, the presidential palace and the airport, with heavy weapons used. The Sudanese Army said it was attacked by the RSF at its general command headquarters, but had repelled the attack, inflicting "heavy losses" on the RSF, which had reportedly abandoned 24 land cruisers, and calling on them to surrender, promising pardons to members who did so.[40][41] Observers determined that the army was controlling access to Khartoum and trying to cut off supply routes to RSF fighters. Witnesses said the army reinforcements were brought in from near the eastern border with Ethiopia.[42][43]

When another ceasefire was announced to begin at 18:00 local time,[44] fighting was reported to have mostly subsided around Khartoum airport, but continued to be intense around the Presidential Palace, Army Headquarters and in the Jabra neighborhood in western Khartoum, where houses belonging to RSF leader Dagalo and his family were located. Fighting was reported to have continued several minutes after the start of the ceasefire.[45]

On 20 April, the RSF said it repelled a SAF attack on its positions in Omdurman in the morning despite an ongoing ceasefire, shooting down two helicopters in the process. RSF forces approaching Khartoum were reportedly blocked by the Sudanese army's air and ground forces.[46] Thousands of Khartoum civilians were reported to have left the city, mainly for Chad where an estimated 20,000 refugees from all over the country were reported to have crossed into.[47]

On 21 April, a Eid al-Fitr ceasefire was declared by both armies after a number of countries had proposed so,[48][49][50] The ceasefire was reported to have been broken after street battles were reported.[51][52][53] Several attacks were also reported in Khartoum North (Bahri) by Al Jazeera expanding the battle even further.[3]

Clashes continued into 22 April, and indiscriminate shelling was reported in the Ombada and Karari neighborhoods of Khartoum. Fighting spread out of the heart of the capital, into the neighborhoods of Hillat Hamad, Khojaly, and Arkaweet. The SAF was reportedly preparing for intensified urban warfare in Khartoum.[54] The RSF claimed that the SAF attacked its positions in Bahri (also known as Khartoum North), supposedly killing dozens.[55] Heavy fighting was also reported near the presidential palace and airport where RSF Forces fought against the Sudanese military for control of the two sites, evacuations of several diplomats and nationals from several different countries were made in Khartoum.[56][57][58]

On 23 April, clashes and explosions occurred around the military headquarters and presidential palace in Khartoum,[59] amid reports of evacuation efforts of foreign diplomats including France, which their convoy was shot at and had to turn back to their embassy.[60] Sudan also reported internet outage all across the country worsening the humanitarian crisis. Also on the same day. The SAF announced that it was launching massive airstrikes in an effort to flush out the RSF from Khartoum and Omdurman. at the same time fierce street fighting was continuing between the Rapid Support Forces and the Sudanese military, The presidential palace was reportedly contested despite claims that the army had secured it from the rebels that had occupied it.[citation needed]

On 25 April, Nima Saeed Abid, the WHO representative in Sudan, said that one side in the Sudan conflict had seized control of a national health lab in Khartoum that held biological materials including polio, measles, and cholera isolates, and that the group had ejected all of the technicians. WHO officials did not say which group had taken over the lab.[61][62][63]

May 2023

On 9 May, the RSF accused the SAF of carrying out an air strike that destroyed the Old Republican Palace,[64][65] which the latter denied.[66] Pictures sent to the BBC by a Khartoum resident appeared to contradict the RSF's claims of the destruction of the old Presidential Palace but showed the offices in the New Republican Palace appearing to have been severely damaged by a fire.[67] On 10 May, residents in Omdurman said that artillery shells struck The Mahdi's tomb and that widespread looting took place at the Libyan Souq.[67] The RSF tried to advance towards the Wadi Seidna Air Base, north of the capital. RSF fighters in about 20 trucks positioned east of the Nile were trying to cross a bridge to reach the airfield, but were met by heavy artillery from the SAF.[68]

On 31 May, the Sudanese Doctors' Union said that at least 18 people were killed and more than 100 others were wounded after rockets hit a market in Mayo [ar], south of Khartoum.[69]

June 2023

On 1 June, shelling killed 27 people in a poor area of Khartoum.[70] On 5 June, the battle reached its eighth week, with clashes in southern Khartoum.[71] Looting has also been common.[72] That day, a massive fire engulfed an arms factory amid intense fighting.[73] On 17 June, an airstrike in Khartoum destroyed multiple houses and killed at least 17 civilians, including 5 children.[74][75]

On 18 June, a 72-hour ceasefire took effect, reportedly bringing "a lull" in fighting in Khartoum. The two sides have said they would refrain from military action and allow for delivery of humanitarian aid, according to mediators from Saudi Arabia and the United States.[76]

On 20 June, the headquarters of the Sudanese intelligence agency caught fire. The SAF accused the RSF of shelling the building, while the RSF said its destruction was the result of an SAF drone attack on an RSF position.[77]

On 25 June, the RSF claimed to have seized the headquarters of the Police Central Reserve Forces. The SAF said the RSF lost 400 men in the battle, while activists said 14 civilians were killed.[78]

July 2023

On july 2nd 2023 the Second jeddah ceasefire expired, resulting in a massive RSF assault on a SAF base which took 5 SAF soldiers. The RSF also began the Siege of alia military hospital, the El-Mohandesin garrison which had been under siege since april was subjugated to bombardment. Bakri Hassan Saleh, the former vice-president of sudan under bashir, was overseeing defenses at alia hospital. The RSF denied they were besieging alia hospital, instead claiming they were only targeting El Mohandesin base, The El Mohandesin base was the last stronghold of the SAF's presence in central Omdurman, with the rest of the neighborhood being under RSF control.

The SAF responded to the attacks with heavy airstrikes on RSF positions surrounding El Mohandesin, with ground battles also taking place around the garrison. The RSF claimed to have shot down a Sudanese fighter jet as well. At least twenty-four people had been killed and over a hundred injured in the battles, although it was unknown whether these were civilians or soldiers.

Between 22 and 31 people was killed in a district in omdurman on july 8th, UN secretary general General António Guterres condemned the attack.

On 13 July 34 civilians were killed in during artillery duels in the city. They were reportedly killed when the Sudanese army shelled a market in Omdurman. Three neighbourhoods of the city were shelled.

August 2023

September 2023

October 2023

November 2023

On november 11th 2023, the shambat bridge was destroyed amidst heavy fighting.[79]

December 2023

January 2024

February 2024

March 2024

April 2024

In April the front lines was mostly stable and the main cause of death in the Khartoum state would be starvation.

May 2024

On may 2nd 2024, Khartoum state declared a state of emergency that was approved by Abdel Fattah al-Burhan.[80] On may 19th 2024 a video emerged showing the RSF executing Mohamed Siddiq, a famous lieutenant in sudan who gained prominence during the 2019 sudanese revolution.[81] The conflict in khartoum really re-ignited on may 31st 2024 with heavy fighting restarting, It was reported that the SAF had crossed a bridge into khartoum north. [82]

"The armed forces carried out a successful special mission at dawn today, destroying a large number of enemy vehicles and causing numerous casualties among the leaders and members of the daglo militia. Our forces managed to penetrate deep into enemy territory in Khartoum north and halfaya." -Sudanese army spokesmen, Nabil Abdallah.[83]

Furtherly, an RSF spokesperson replied to the situation by saying that the rapid support forces had shot down a plane of the sudanese air force while the army tried attacking khartoum north.[83]

June 2024

On june 2nd 2024, the Al-Jili Oil Refinery was bombed by the sudanese air force. Few days later on june 5th 2024 the sudanese tribune confirmed the RSF killing of sudanese journalist Muawiya Abdel Razzaq and his family in khartoum north, Violence has continued in the area with large shelling on june 7th 2024 by the RSF killing 40 people in Omdurman.[84] On june 22nd 2024 the RSF accused the SAF of bombing the Bahri thermal power station and causing a massive fire.[85]

Humanitarian impact

Civilian evacuations and warnings

230424-M-DP650-0002 - MSGs evacuate, return from Khartoum

MSG evacuations from Khartoum who arrived on 24 April 2023

Hours after the clashes began, evacuation orders were issued for civilians, politicians, and embassy workers.[86] The US Embassy in Sudan urged US citizens in Sudan to seek shelter, as no plan of evacuation had been detailed.[87] The Sudanese Air Force advised the millions of citizens to seek shelter immediately or stay at home.[88] On 16 April 2023, a water crisis emerged in Khartoum, which worsened after the RSF urged civilians to evacuate the city.[89] On 21 April, Indonesia evacuated 43 of its citizens to its embassy in Khartoum after an Indonesian citizen was injured by a bullet.[90]

On 23 April, the United States managed to evacuate fewer than 100 of its citizens from Khartoum by three Chinook helicopters which landed near the US embassy. The operation included 100 US troops from the Navy SEALs and Army Special Forces who flew from Camp Lemonnier in Djibouti to Ethiopia and then into Sudan.[60] On the same day, the Department of Foreign Affairs of the Philippines announced the suspension of all flights to Sudan to ensure the safety of its citizens and raised alerts to level 3 after a Filipino had been hit by a stray bullet in Khartoum.[91] The Greek Orthodox Church of the Annunciation was used as shelter for civilians.[92]

Civilian deaths

As of 16 April 2023, at least 45 deaths had been reported in Khartoum.[93] Two Sudanese civilians at Khartoum International Airport were among the first reported,[94] with 38 more deaths later reported during clashes in the city.[95]

References

  1. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-17). "Sudan hospitals struggle with casualties, damage in fighting" (in en). https://apnews.com/article/sudan-fighting-hospitals-db1a36308e64f46e7d64de75b4a19598. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-17). "What sparked the violent conflict to control the future of Sudan?" (in en-us). https://www.pbs.org/newshour/world/what-sparked-the-violent-conflict-to-control-the-future-of-sudan. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Uras, Usaid Siddiqui,Umut. "Sudan updates: Fighting continues in Khartoum despite truce" (in en). https://www.aljazeera.com/news/liveblog/2023/4/21/sudan-fighting-live-news-burhan-says-committed-to-civilian-rule. 
  4. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (15 April 2023). "Fighting between Sudan military rivals enters a second day, with dozens dead". https://www.cnn.com/2023/04/15/africa/sudan-presidential-palace-intl/index.html. 
  5. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£. "Archived copy". https://twitter.com/AsharqNewsBrk/status/1647395620229922818. 
  6. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£. "Sudan's army and rival force battle, killing at least 56". https://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/sustained-firing-heard-sudanese-capital-amid-tensions-98603891. 
  7. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-15). "Sudan: Army and RSF battle over key sites, leaving 56 civilians dead" (in en-GB). BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-65284945. 
  8. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£. "Civilian toll rises in Sudan as military, rivals fight for control" (in en-US). ISSN 0190-8286. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/04/16/sudan-conflict-rapid-support-forces-military/. 
  9. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (20 April 2023). "1 American dead in Sudan as U.S. readies troops for potential embassy evacuation amid heavy fighting" (in en-US). https://www.cbsnews.com/news/sudan-american-dead-us-troops-embassy-evacuation-khartoum/. 
  10. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-16). "Stray bullet kills 48-yr-old man from Kerala in Sudan" (in en). https://indianexpress.com/article/india/indian-national-dead-sudan-clashes-stray-bullet-8558938/. 
  11. AfricaNews (2023-04-17). "Fighting intensifies in Sudanese capital Khartoum with over a 100 civilians dead" (in en). https://www.africanews.com/2023/04/17/fighting-intensifies-in-sudanese-capital-khartoum-with-over-a-100-civilians-dead/. 
  12. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-20). "Community mourns after learning Denver father killed in Sudanese warfare" (in en-US). https://kdvr.com/news/abubaker-abumasha-denver-man-killed-sudanese-warfare/. 
  13. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£. "Foreign Ministry: One Iraqi Killed in Sudan Amid Clashes" (in en). https://english.aawsat.com/home/article/4290061/foreign-ministry-one-iraqi-killed-sudan-amid-clashes. 
  14. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-24). "Egypt's foreign ministry says embassy staff killed in Khartoum" (in en). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/world/africa/egypts-foreign-ministry-says-embassy-staff-killed-khartoum-2023-04-24/. 
  15. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (29 April 2023). "As battle for Sudan rages on, civilian deaths top 500" (in en-US). https://www.cbsnews.com/news/as-battle-for-sudan-rages-on-civilian-deaths-top-500/. 
  16. Salih, Zeinab Mohammed (2023-05-07). "Eritrea accused of forcibly repatriating civilians caught up in Sudan fighting" (in en-GB). The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2023/may/07/eritrea-accused-of-forcibly-repatriating-civilians-caught-up-in-sudan-fighting. 
  17. Abdelaziz Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£, Khalid; Eltahir, Nafisa; Eltahir, Nafisa (2023-04-14). "Sudan's army says paramilitary mobilisation risks confrontation" (in en). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/world/africa/sudans-army-warns-rsf-movements-khartoum-other-cities-2023-04-13/. 
  18. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£. "Sudan's military warns of RSF deployment in Khartoum, other cities" (in en). https://www.trtworld.com/africa/sudan-s-military-warns-of-rsf-deployment-in-khartoum-other-cities-67025. 
  19. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-17). "Sudan hospitals struggle with casualties, damage in fighting" (in en). https://apnews.com/article/sudan-fighting-hospitals-db1a36308e64f46e7d64de75b4a19598. 
  20. AfricaNews (18 April 2023). "Fighting intensifies in Sudanese capital Khartoum with over a 100 civilians dead" (in en). https://www.africanews.com/2023/04/17/fighting-intensifies-in-sudanese-capital-khartoum-with-over-a-100-civilians-dead/. 
  21. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£. "Denver man killed rescuing family from violence in Sudan" (in en-US). https://www.cbsnews.com/colorado/news/denver-man-killed-rescuing-family-violence-sudan/. 
  22. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£. "Sudan unrest: RSF captures presidential palace as violence rages" (in en). https://www.geo.tv/latest/482255-sudan-unrest-rsf-captures-presidential-palace-as-violence-rages. 
  23. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-15). "Saudi airline says plane came under fire at Khartoum International Airport" (in en). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/world/saudi-national-carrier-says-aircraft-had-an-accident-khartoum-airport-2023-04-15/. 
  24. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£. "Sudan: Paramilitary group says it controls palace, Khartoum airport" (in en-US). https://www.jpost.com/breaking-news/article-739293. 
  25. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-15). "Sudan's RSF say it seized presidential palace, Khartoum airport in apparent coup bid" (in en). https://english.alarabiya.net/News/middle-east/2023/04/15/Heavy-gunfire-heard-south-of-Sudan-s-capital-of-Khartoum. 
  26. Sudan, Rob Picheta, Mostafa Salem, Sahar Akbarzai (2023-04-15). "Fighting between Sudan military rivals enters a second day, with dozens dead" (in en). https://www.cnn.com/2023/04/15/africa/sudan-presidential-palace-intl/index.html. 
  27. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-15). "Fighting between Sudan military rivals enters a second day, with dozens dead" (in en). https://www.cnn.com/2023/04/15/africa/sudan-presidential-palace-intl/index.html. 
  28. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£. "Khartoum has exploded into open warfare". ISSN 0013-0613. https://www.economist.com/middle-east-and-africa/2023/04/16/khartoum-has-exploded-into-open-warfare. 
  29. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£. "Sudan's army and rival force clash, wider conflict feared". https://www.newindianexpress.com/world/2023/apr/15/sudans-army-and-rival-force-clash-wider-conflict-feared-2566247.html. 
  30. Conger, George (2023-04-17). "Factional fighting between the army and paramilitaries paralyzes the Sudan" (in en-US). https://anglican.ink/2023/04/17/factional-fighting-between-the-army-and-paramilitaries-paralyzes-the-sudan/. 
  31. Kaminski-Morrow2023-04-16T18:45:00+01:00, David. "Sudanese airspace closed as armed conflict erupts" (in en). https://www.flightglobal.com/air-transport/sudanese-airspace-closed-as-armed-conflict-erupts/152865.article. 
  32. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£. "Sudan battles intensify on 3rd day; civilian deaths reach 97" (in en). https://www.opb.org/article/2023/04/17/sudan-fighting-khartoum-army/. 
  33. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-17). "Sudan fighting: EU ambassador assaulted in Khartoum home" (in en-GB). BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-65306695. 
  34. Liboreiro, Jorge (2023-04-18). "EU Ambassador to Sudan assaulted at his home amid country's infighting" (in en). https://www.euronews.com/my-europe/2023/04/18/eu-ambassador-to-sudan-assaulted-at-his-home-in-gross-violation-of-international-law. 
  35. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-17). "Sudan's generals battle for 3rd day; death toll soars to 185" (in en-US). https://www.conchovalleyhomepage.com/news/sudan-battles-intensify-on-3rd-day-civilian-deaths-reach-97/. 
  36. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (17 April 2023). "Sudan Hospitals Struggle with Casualties, Damage in Fighting" (in en). https://www.voanews.com/a/sudan-hospitals-struggle-with-casualties-damage-in-fighting-/7054489.html. 
  37. Alkhaldi, Nima Elbagir,Tamara Qiblawi,Mick Krever,Celine (2023-04-17). "'We left behind children in incubators.' Witnesses describe hospital shelled in Sudan's clashes" (in en). https://www.cnn.com/2023/04/17/africa/sudan-clashes-intl-afr/index.html. 
  38. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (18 April 2023). "Fighting continues in Sudan despite 'ceasefire'" (in en). https://www.countytimes.co.uk/news/national/23464557.fighting-continues-sudan-despite-ceasefire/. 
  39. Tétrault-Farber Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£, Gabrielle; Mahobe, Raghav (2023-04-18). "WHO warns Sudan's hospitals running out of supplies, staff" (in en). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/world/africa/who-says-all-parties-sudan-conflict-must-provide-access-medical-facilities-2023-04-18/. 
  40. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£. "Sudan is sliding towards civil war". ISSN 0013-0613. https://www.economist.com/middle-east-and-africa/2023/04/20/sudan-is-sliding-towards-civil-war. 
  41. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£. "2 Sudan generals are at war with each other. Here's what to know." (in en-US). https://www.cbsnews.com/news/sudan-war-fighting-2023-crisis/. 
  42. Burke Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£, Jason; Salih, Zeinab Mohammed; correspondent, Jason Burke Africa (2023-04-19). "Thousands flee Khartoum as Sudan ceasefire fails to hold" (in en-GB). The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2023/apr/19/sudan-civilians-flee-khartoum-ceasefire-fails-to-hold. 
  43. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£. "Thousands flee as new ceasefire attempt fails in Sudan" (in en). https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2023/4/19/thousands-try-to-flee-sudan-as-truce-fails. 
  44. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-19). "Sudanese army, its rivals announce another cease-fire" (in en-us). https://www.pbs.org/newshour/world/sudanese-army-its-rivals-announce-another-cease-fire. 
  45. Kaufman and Al-Tawy, Ayat Al-Tawy and Ellie Kaufman. "Dead bodies line the streets amid fighting in Sudan; American confirmed among fatalities" (in en). https://abcnews.go.com/International/dead-bodies-line-streets-sudans-capital-fighting-enters/story?id=98730461. 
  46. Akbarzai, Rob Picheta,Mostafa Salem,Sahar (2023-04-20). "'We saw corpses in the street:' People flee Sudan's capital as violence torments city" (in en). https://www.cnn.com/2023/04/20/africa/sudan-violence-thursday-hospitals-crisis-intl/index.html. 
  47. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-20). "U.N. chief calls for three-day ceasefire in Sudan as thousands flee" (in en). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/sudan-politics-idCAKBN2WH0HF. 
  48. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£. "Countries call for Eid ceasefire in Sudan as fighting continues" (in en). https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2023/4/20/un-chief-calls-for-eid-ceasefire-as-fighting-enters-sixth-day. 
  49. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-21). "Sudan's paramilitary RSF agrees to 72-hour ceasefire over Eid Al-Fitr holiday" (in en). https://www.france24.com/en/africa/20230421-sudan-s-paramilitary-rsf-agrees-to-72-hour-ceasefire-on-humanitarian-grounds. 
  50. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£. "Sudan's top general says military committed to civilian rule - Region - World". https://english.ahram.org.eg/News/496245.aspx. 
  51. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-22). "Street battles in Sudan capital as Eid ceasefire calls ignored" (in en). https://www.hindustantimes.com/world-news/street-battles-in-sudan-capital-as-eid-ceasefire-calls-ignored-101682115692591.html. 
  52. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-21). "Eye on Africa - Street battles in Sudan capital as Eid ceasefire calls ignored" (in en). https://www.france24.com/en/tv-shows/eye-on-africa/20230421-street-battles-in-sudan-capital-as-eid-ceasefire-calls-ignored. 
  53. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-21). "Violence persits in Sudan as requests for Eid ceasefire ignored" (in en). Le Monde.fr. https://www.lemonde.fr/en/le-monde-africa/article/2023/04/21/violence-erupts-in-sudan-as-requests-for-eid-ceasefire-ignored_6023743_124.html. 
  54. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-22). "War continues in Khartoum streets despite Eid truce". https://sudantribune.com/article273246/. 
  55. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-22). "تصدت قوات الدعم السريع المتمركزة في مواقعها بشرق النيل اليوم إلى هجوم غادر من قوات الانقلابيين والفلول.". https://twitter.com/RSFSudan/status/1649769812858486784. 
  56. Siddiqui, Mersiha Gadzo,Usaid. "Sudan updates: Army says foreign evacuations to begin" (in en). https://www.aljazeera.com/news/liveblog/2023/4/22/sudan-fighting-live-news-army-says-foreign-evacuations-to-begin. 
  57. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-22). "Sudan fighting: Army says foreign nationals to be evacuated" (in en-GB). BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-65358069. 
  58. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-22). "UK, US and others prepare to evacuate nationals from Sudan" (in en-GB). The Observer. ISSN 0029-7712. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2023/apr/22/uk-us-and-others-prepare-to-evacuate-nationals-from-sudan. 
  59. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (23 April 2023). "France begins evacuation of embassy staff, French and 'allied' citizens from Sudan". CNN. https://edition.cnn.com/2023/04/23/europe/france-evacuates-citizens-sudan-hnk-intl/index.html. 
  60. 60.0 60.1 Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (23 April 2023). "Sudan fighting: Special forces airlift US diplomats from Sudan". BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-65363586. 
  61. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-25). "WHO says 'huge biological risk' after Sudan fighters occupy lab" (in en). https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2023/4/25/more-foreigners-flee-sudan-fighters-seize-labouratory. 
  62. Field, Matt (2023-04-25). "WHO: biological hazard brewing in Sudan as fighters overtake a central public health lab". https://thebulletin.org/2023/04/who-biological-hazard-brewing-in-sudan-as-fighters-overtake-a-central-public-health-lab/. 
  63. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-25). "Sudan crisis: WHO warns of biological hazard at seized lab" (in en-GB). BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-65390285. 
  64. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£. "السودان اليوم.. "الدعم السريع" تتهم الجيش بقصف وتدمير القصر الجمهوري وإحصائية جديدة للقتلى والنازحين" (in ar). https://www.aljazeera.net/news/2023/5/9/%d8%aa%d8%b7%d9%88%d8%b1%d8%a7%d8%aa-%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%b3%d9%88%d8%af%d8%a7%d9%86-%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%af%d8%b9%d9%85-%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%b3%d8%b1%d9%8a%d8%b9-%d8%aa%d8%aa%d9%87%d9%85. 
  65. Abdulahe (2023-05-09). "استمرار المعارك واتهامات بتدمير القصر الجمهوري" (in ar). https://www.dabangasudan.org/ar/all-news/article/%D9%84%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%88%D9%85-%D8%A7%D9%84-25-%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%AA%D9%85%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%B9%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%83-%D9%88%D8%A7%D8%AA%D9%87%D8%A7%D9%85%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D8%A8%D8%AA. 
  66. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£. "Sudan's RSF accuses army of bombing old presidential palace". BBC. https://www.bbc.com/news/live/world-africa-65361159. 
  67. 67.0 67.1 Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£. "Unprecedented battles and looting in Sudan - residents". BBC. https://www.bbc.com/news/live/world-africa-65361159. 
  68. Salih, Zeinab Mohammed (2023-05-21). "Sudan conflict: Army fights to keep Wadi Saeedna airbase, residents say" (in en). BBC. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-65662939. 
  69. Ross, Will (2023-06-01). "Sudan conflict: Rockets hit Khartoum market as talks collapse" (in en). BBC. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-65777311. 
  70. Salih, Zeinab Mohammed (2023-06-01). "Sudan: 27 reported killed in shelling of market in poor area south of Khartoum" (in en-GB). The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2023/jun/01/sudan-19-killed-in-shelling-of-market-in-poor-area-south-of-khartoum. 
  71. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (5 June 2023). "Further clashes in Sudan's capital as military factions battle for eighth week". https://www.rte.ie/news/world/2023/0605/1387548-sudan-clashes/. 
  72. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-06-05). "Shelling, Looting in Sudan's Capital as Military Factions Battle for 8th Week" (in en). https://www.voanews.com/a/shelling-looting-in-sudan-s-capital-as-military-factions-battle-for-8th-week/7123954.html. 
  73. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-06-07). "Massive fire as Sudanese factions battle for control of arms factory" (in en). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/world/africa/sudan-military-factions-battle-over-weapons-fuel-depots-2023-06-07/. 
  74. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-06-17). "Sudan crisis: Five children among 17 killed in air strikes" (in en-GB). BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-65938868. 
  75. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£. "Sudan’s warring sides agree to new 72-hour ceasefire" (in en). Al Jazeera. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2023/6/17/air-raid-kills-17-in-sudans-capital-khartoum. 
  76. Abdelaziz, Khalid (2023-06-18). "Start of truce period brings lull in fighting to Sudan's capital" (in en). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/world/africa/start-truce-period-brings-lull-fighting-sudans-capital-2023-06-18/. 
  77. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-06-21). "Sudan’s warring sides resume fighting after latest ceasefire ends" (in en). Aljazeera. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2023/6/21/sudans-warring-sides-resume-fighting-after-latest-ceasefire-ends. 
  78. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (26 June 2023). "Battle For Key Police Base Kills At Least 14 Sudan Civilians" (in en). Barron's. https://www.barrons.com/news/sudan-civilians-killed-in-battle-for-khartoum-police-hq-585abefb. 
  79. https://english.alarabiya.net/News/middle-east/2023/11/11/Sudan-fighting-destroys-strategic-Shambat-Bridge-in-Khartoum
  80. https://sudantribune.com/article285101/
  81. https://sudantribune.com/article285834/
  82. https://sudantribune.com/article286414/
  83. 83.0 83.1 https://sudantribune.com/article286414/
  84. https://www.barrons.com/news/sudan-activists-say-about-40-dead-in-shelling-near-khartoum-423e9b9d
  85. https://www.msn.com/en-xl/africa/top-stories/rsf-accuses-saf-of-criminal-act-as-khartoum-bahri-power-station-burns/ar-BB1oM1o8?ocid=BingNewsVerp
  86. Hendawi, Hamza (2023-04-15). "Sudan's army and paramilitary fight street battles in Khartoum amid conflicting claims" (in en). https://www.thenationalnews.com/mena/2023/04/15/sudans-rsf-says-headquarters-under-attack-by-military/. 
  87. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-16). "Sudan's army clashes with paramilitary forces in Khartoum" (in en). https://abc7ny.com/sudans-army-clashes-with-paramilitary-forces-in-khartoum/13134290/. 
  88. Badshah Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£, Nadeem; Abdul, Geneva; Mackay, Hamish; Badshah (now), Nadeem; Mackay (earlier), Hamish (2023-04-15). "Sudanese air force urges people to stay indoors as doctors union says at least 25 dead – as it happened" (in en-GB). the Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. https://www.theguardian.com/world/live/2023/apr/15/sudan-fighting-khartoum-latest-news-updates. 
  89. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£. "Artillery fire heard in Sudan as three-hour ceasefire ends" (in en). https://www.aljazeera.com/news/liveblog/2023/4/16/sudan-unrest-live-news-dozens-dead-as-fighting-enters-second-day. 
  90. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (21 April 2023). "Sudan Clash: 43 Indonesians Evacuated to Khartoum Embassy". Jakarta Globe. https://jakartaglobe.id/news/sudan-clash-43-indonesians-evacuated-to-khartoum-embassy. 
  91. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (23 April 2023). "DFA to OFWs in Sudan: Evacuate voluntarily". RPN Radio. https://rpnradio.com/dfa-to-ofws-in-sudan-evacuate-voluntarily/. 
  92. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-18). "15 Greeks Trapped inside Greek Orthodox Church in Sudan | Parikiaki Cyprus and Cypriot News" (in en-US). https://www.parikiaki.com/2023/04/15-greeks-trapped-inside-greek-orthodox-church-in-sudan/. 
  93. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (16 April 2023). "At least 56 killed, 595 wounded in Sudan fighting, doctor group says" (in en). https://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/sudan-violence-khartoum-army-paramilitary-tensions-omar-al-bashir-rcna79855. 
  94. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-15). "Sudan unrest: UN workers among those killed in country's military clashes" (in en-US). https://www.fox2detroit.com/news/sudan-unrest-un-workers-among-those-killed-in-countrys-military-clashes. 
  95. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£ (2023-04-16). "Man from Kerala killed by stray bullet amid clashes in Sudan" (in en). https://indianexpress.com/article/india/indian-national-dead-sudan-clashes-stray-bullet-8558938/. 
All or a portion of this article consists of text from Wikipedia, and is therefore Creative Commons Licensed under GFDL.
The original article can be found at Battle of Khartoum (2023) and the edit history here.