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Capture of Baguio
Part of World War II and the Allied Liberation of the Philippines
Date21 February - 26 April 1945[1]
LocationBaguio City, Luzon, Philippines
Result Allied victory, Allied forces liberate Baguio.
Belligerents

United States United States

Japan Empire of Japan

  •  Second Philippine Republic
Commanders and leaders
General Walter Krueger
Major General Innis P. Swift[2]
Major General Percy W. Clarkson[3]
Major General Robert S. Beightler[4]
Colonel Russell W. Volckmann[5][6]
General Tomoyuki Yamashita[2]
Lieutenant General Fukutaro Nishiyama[7]
Major General Noakata Utsunomiya[2]
Major General Bunzo Sato[7]
Units involved

United States United States Army

United States Commonwealth of the Philippines United States Army Forces in the Philippines - Northern Luzon [2]

  • 11th Infantry Regiment, USAFIP-NL[2]
  • 66th Infantry Regiment, USAFIP-NL[2]

War flag of the Imperial Japanese Army.svg Imperial Japanese Army

Casualties and losses
Over 2,000[2]


The Battle of Baguio occurred between late February 1945 and late April 1945, and was part of the greater Luzon campaign.[2]

Background

Prior to World War II, Baguio was the summer capital of Commonwealth of the Philippines, as well as the home of the Philippine Military Academy.[11] In 1939 the city had a population of 24,000 people, most of whom were Filipinos, along with other nationalities, including about 500 Japanese.[12] Following the Japanese invasion of the Philippines, the Japanese used Camp John Hay as a military base.[12] In October 1944, American Soldiers landed on Leyte, beginning the liberation of the Philippines.[13]

General Yamashita transferred his headquarters to Baguio in December 1944, planning to fight a delaying action against the Americans to give time for Japan to defend itself.[5] By early January 1945, American forces landed at Lingayen Gulf.[7] Afterwards America's Sixth Army conducted two campaigns, one against the forces east of Manila, and the second against Yamashita in northern Luzon.[6]

Campaign

Advancement by Allied forces, primarily consisting of the United States Army's 33rd Infantry Division, with assistance from regiments of the guerrilla force United States Army Forces in the Philippines - Northern Luzon, occurred between late February to the beginning of April.[2] By late March, Baguio was within range of American artillery.[7] President José P. Laurel of the Second Philippine Republic, having moved to Baguio from Manila in December 1944, departed Baguio on 22 March, reaching Taiwan on 30 March;[14] the remainder of the Second Republic government that remained in the Philippines, along with Japanese civilians, were ordered to evacuate Baguio on 30 March.[2] Yamashita, and his staff, relocated to Bambang.[7][15] A major offensive to capture Baguio did not occur until mid April, when United States Army's 37th Infantry Division, minus 145th Infantry Regiment, was released from garrisoning Manila to launch a two division assault into Baguio from the West and South.[2]

A significant battle of the drive towards Baguio, lasting six days, from the West, was the battle at Irisan Gorge and near the Irisan River.[2][16] During this battle, one of the last tank verse tank engagements, between the U.S. Army's Company B, 775th Tank Battalion and the IJA's 5th tank Company, 10th Tank Regiment, in the Philippines occurred.[17]

In mid-April, 7,000 civilians, including foreign nationals made their way to American lines;[18] among them were five cabinet members of the Second Republic, Brigadier General Manuel Roxas was "freed",[18] the other four were captured.[19] On 22 April, Major General Utsunomiya, having been left in command of the defense of Baguio by Yamashita, ordered a withdrawal from Baguio, and on 24 April the first Allied forces (a patrol of 129th Infantry Regiment) entered Baguio.[2]

Aftermath

General Yamashita at the surrender ceremony on 3 September.

Fighting in northern Luzon continued until the end of hostilities.[7][20] Yamashita, along with 50,500 men of Shobu Group, held out in northern Luzon until 15 August 1945.[15][20] On 3 September 1945, Yamashita formally surrendered Japanese Forces in the Philippines at The American Residence in the presence of lieutenant generals Percival & Wainwright.[21]

References

  1. "33d Infantry Division". United States Army. 20 May 2011. http://www.history.army.mil/html/forcestruc/cbtchron/cc/033id.htm. Retrieved 2 October. "Baguio and Camp John Hay fell on 26 April, under the concerted attack of the 33d and the 37th Divisions." 
    "37th Infantry Division". United States Army. 20 May 2011. http://www.history.army.mil/html/forcestruc/cbtchron/cc/037id.htm. Retrieved 2 October. "After garrison duty in Manila, 5–26 March, the Division shifted to the hills of Northwest Luzon, where heavy fighting culminated in the capture of Baguio, 26 April." 
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 Smith, Robert Ross (1993). "Chapter XXV: The Collapse of the Baguio Front". Triumph in the Philippines. Department of the Army. pp. 468–490. ISBN 9780160238109. Archived from the original on 21 March 2011. http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USA/USA-P-Triumph/USA-P-Triumph-25.html. Retrieved 23 September 2014. 
  3. "Maj. Gen. Percy W. Clarkson". United States Army. http://www.usarpac.army.mil/history2/dcgClarkson.asp. Retrieved 24 September 2014. 
  4. "37th Infantry Division". U.S. Army. 20 May 2011. http://www.history.army.mil/html/forcestruc/cbtchron/cc/037id.htm. Retrieved 24 September 2014. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Morison, Rear Admiral Samuel Eliot (2002). History of United States Naval Operations in World War II: The Liberation of the Philippines - Luzon, Mindanao, The Visayas, 1944 - 1945. University of Illinois Press. p. 196. ISBN 9780252070648. http://books.google.com/books?id=nICvzYNBKiUC&lpg=PA196&dq=Yamashita%20evacuates%20Baguio&pg=PA196#v=onepage&q=Yamashita%20evacuates%20Baguio&f=false. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
    Barnett, Louise (21 January 2010). Atrocity and American Military Justice in Southeast Asia: Trial by Army. Routledge. p. 138. ISBN 9781135172367. http://books.google.com/books?id=ASyMAgAAQBAJ&lpg=PA138&dq=Yamashita%20evacuates%20Baguio&pg=PA138#v=onepage&q=Yamashita%20evacuates%20Baguio&f=false. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Leary, William M. (1 May 2004). We Shall Return!: MacArthur's Commanders and the Defeat of Japan, 1942-1945. University Press of Kentucky. p. 83. ISBN 9780813191058. http://books.google.com/books?id=uoVjgw1zkCkC&lpg=PA83&dq=Yamashita%20Baguio%20Shobu%20Group&pg=PA83#v=onepage&q=Yamashita%20Baguio%20Shobu%20Group&f=false. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 MacArthur, General of the Army Douglas (2006). "Chapter XV: Battle on Luzon". Reports of General MacArthur. Center of Military History. pp. 467–527. ISBN 9781782660378. http://www.history.army.mil/books/wwii/MacArthur%20Reports/MacArthur%20V2%20P2/ch15.htm. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  8. Salecker, Gene Eric (2008). Rolling Thunder Against The Rising Sun. Mechanicburg, PA: Stackpole Books. p. 260. ISBN 9780811703147. http://books.google.com/books?id=VlfMQk-wekkC&lpg=RA1-PT260&ots=6fvNJtXdAj&dq=Battle%20of%20Baguio%201945%2037th%2033rd&pg=RA1-PT260#v=onepage&q=Battle%20of%20Baguio%201945%2037th%2033rd&f=false. Retrieved 23 September 2014. 
  9. "Toward Baguio". 33rd Infantry Division Association. 2008. http://www.33rdinfantrydivision.org/document_baguio.htm. Retrieved 23 September 2014. 
  10. Williams, Mary H. (1999). Special Studies, Chronology, 1941-1945. Government Printing Office. p. 501. ISBN 9780160018763. http://books.google.com/books?id=f0jKaqSLP5QC&lpg=PA482&ots=GpFLbnxPRP&dq=Battle%20of%20Baguio%201945&pg=PA501#v=onepage&q=Battle%20of%20Baguio%201945&f=false. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  11. Sakakida, Wayne S.; Kiyosaki (3 July 1995). A Spy in Their Midst: The World War II Struggle of a Japanese-American Hero. Madison Books. p. 165. ISBN 9781461662860. http://books.google.com/books?id=MAMu80z3wvkC&lpg=PA165&ots=62TcOV7lIv&dq=Baguio%20summer%20capital%20Commonwealth%20Philippine%20Military%20Academy&pg=PA165#v=onepage&q=Baguio%20summer%20capital%20Commonwealth%20Philippine%20Military%20Academy&f=false. Retrieved 24 September 2014. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 "Flowers, new song for 72nd year of Baguio war bombings". 9 December 2013. http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/543421/flowers-new-song-for-72nd-year-of-baguio-war-bombings. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  13. "60th Anniversary Battle of Leyte Gulf". United States Department of Defense. 20 October 2004. http://www.defense.gov/home/features/Leyte/. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
    "U.S. forces land at Leyte Island in the Philippines". A&E Television Networks, LLC.. http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/us-forces-land-at-leyte-island-in-the-philippines. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  14. Jose, Ricardo T.. "Government in Exile". http://www.smc.org.ph/administrator/uploads/apmj_pdf/APMJ1999N1-2ART8.pdf. Retrieved 24 September 2014. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 Zeiler, Thomas W. (2004). Unconditional Defeat: Japan, America, and the End of World War II. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 134. ISBN 9780842029919. http://books.google.com/books?id=2gst1FpsWZQC&lpg=PA134&ots=SmhX7gtO6f&dq=Yamashita%20evacuates%20Baguio&pg=PA134#v=onepage&q=Yamashita%20evacuates%20Baguio&f=false. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  16. Mathias, Frank F. (1999). GI Jive: An Army Bandsman in World War II. University Press of Kentucky. p. 170. ISBN 9780813127859. http://books.google.com/books?id=oGxGCxTsohkC&lpg=PA170&ots=33lBa9lY7K&dq=Irisan%20Gorge&pg=PA170#v=onepage&q=Irisan%20Gorge&f=false. Retrieved 24 September 2014. 
    Spector, Ronald H. (11 December 2012). Eagle Against the Sun: The American War with Japan. Simon and Schuste. p. 561. ISBN 9781476727424. http://books.google.com/books?id=3ObzQvjrsPwC&lpg=PT561&ots=udebgp2Zan&dq=Irisan%20Gorge&pg=PT561#v=onepage&q=Irisan%20Gorge&f=false. Retrieved 24 September 2014. 
    Ohl, John Kennedy (2001). Minuteman: The Military Career of General Robert S. Beightler. Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 202. ISBN 9781555879235. http://books.google.com/books?id=4F-qtvhO5ewC&lpg=PA202&ots=tQUCyfsxFD&dq=Irisan%20Gorge&pg=PA202#v=onepage&q=Irisan%20Gorge&f=false. Retrieved 24 September 2014. 
    Caluza, Desiree (28 April 2009). "Gratitude, roses for liberators of Baguio". http://services.inquirer.net/mobile/09/04/28/html_output/xmlhtml/20090427-201795-xml.html. Retrieved 24 September 2014. 
    Nalty, Bernard C. (1999). War in the Pacific: Pearl Harbor to Tokyo Bay : the Story of the Bitter Struggle in the Pacific Theater of World War II, Featuring Commissioned Photographs of Artifacts from All the Major Combatants. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 222. ISBN 9780806131993. http://books.google.com/books?id=Cd3fql_JoO4C&lpg=PA222&ots=7j_0rjJ_y4&dq=Irisan%20Gorge&pg=PA222#v=onepage&q=Irisan%20Gorge&f=false. Retrieved 24 September 2014. 
  17. Zaloga, Steven J. (2012). M4 Sherman Vs Type 97 Chi-Ha: The Pacific 1945. Osprey Publishing. p. 73. ISBN 9781849086387. http://books.google.com/books?id=WDKkAwAAQBAJ&lpg=PA73&ots=90fDN-XzH8&dq=Irisan%20Gorge&pg=PA73#v=onepage&q=Irisan%20Gorge&f=false. Retrieved 24 September 2014. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 "M'Arthur Frees 7,000 Civilians In Luzon Drive: Troops Reach Edge of Baguio". Manila. 18 April 1945. http://archives.chicagotribune.com/1945/04/18/page/5/article/marthur-frees-7-000-civilians-in-luzon-drive. Retrieved 3 October 2014. 
  19. Harris, Reg (19 April 1945). "Secret Trek Saves 7000". Brisbane. http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/48967927. Retrieved 3 October 2014. 
    Dexter, Frank (19 April 1945). "7,000 Rescued From Baguio - "Puppet" Ministers Seized". Melbourne. http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/1093486. Retrieved 3 October 2014. 
    Chapman, Abraham (2001). "Notes on the Philippine elections". In Krotaska, Paul H.. South East Asia, Colonial History: Peaceful transitions to independence (1945-1963). Taylor & Francis. p. 376. ISBN 9780415247849. http://books.google.com/books?id=yookbQZ-0yUC&lpg=PA376&dq=Baguio%201945%20Roxas&pg=PA376#v=onepage&q=Baguio%201945%20Roxas&f=false. Retrieved 3 October 2014. 
    Rovere, Richard Halworth (1992). General MacArthur and President Truman: The Struggle for Control of American Foreign Policy. Transaction Publishers. p. 83. ISBN 9781412824392. http://books.google.com/books?id=vhN7MmdcGCsC&pg=PA83. Retrieved 3 October 2014. 
    Karnow, Stanley (24 November 2010). In Our File: America's Empire in the Philippines. Random House Publishing Group. p. 626. ISBN 9780307775436. http://books.google.com/books?id=VbwogbQ3l8UC&lpg=PT626&dq=Roxas%20Baguio%201945&pg=PT626#v=onepage&q=Roxas%20Baguio%201945&f=false. Retrieved 3 October 2014. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 "Luzon 1944-1945". United States Army. 3 October 2003. http://www.history.army.mil/brochures/luzon/72-28.htm. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  21. General Staff of General of the Army Douglas MacArthur (1966). "Chapter XIV: Japan's Surrender". Reports of General MacArthur: The Campaign of MacArthur in the Pacific, Volume I. United States Army. p. 464. ISBN 9781782660354. http://www.history.army.mil/books/wwii/MacArthur%20Reports/MacArthur%20V1/ch14.htm. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
    "The American Residence in Baguio". United States Department of State. http://manila.usembassy.gov/about-us/american-residence-in-baguio.html. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
    Farrell, Brian; Hunter, Sandy (15 December 2009). A Great Betrayal: The Fall of Singapore Revisited. Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd. p. 163. ISBN 9789814435468. http://books.google.com/books?id=vQWJAAAAQBAJ&lpg=PA163&dq=Japanese%20Surrender%20Baguio%20Yamashita&pg=PA163#v=onepage&q=Japanese%20Surrender%20Baguio%20Yamashita&f=false. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
    Tucker, Spencer (21 November 2012). Almanac of American Military History, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 1727. ISBN 9781598845303. http://books.google.com/books?id=TO2mx314ST0C&lpg=PA1727&dq=Japanese%20Surrender%20Baguio%20Yamashita&pg=PA1727#v=onepage&q=Japanese%20Surrender%20Baguio%20Yamashita&f=false. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 

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