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Trans-Mississippi Army
Active September 28, 1862 - May 26, 1865
Country  Confederate States of America
Branch  Confederate States Army

The Army of the Trans-Mississippi was the major Confederate field army for the Department of the Trans-Mississippi during the American Civil War. It was the last major Confederate command to be surrendered and the site of the post-war Battle of Palmito Ranch—a Confederate victory fought in late May 1865 — several weeks after the war had actually ended.

Overview[]

The Department of the Trans-Mississippi had been separated from the Western Department on May 26, 1862. It primarily consisted of the four Confederate states west of the Mississippi: Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Missouri; as well as the two Confederate territories: Indian Territory and Confederate Arizona (roughly corresponding to the present-day states of Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Arizona). The command of the area was given to Major-General T. H. Holmes.[1]

Trans-Mississippi was the operational theater for many quasi-independent forces, including Quantrill's Raiders, and the Missouri Bushwhackers.

The army[]

The Army of the Trans-Mississippi was the major Confederate field army for the Department of the Trans-Mississippi during the American Civil War.[2] The army originally numbered well over 50,000 troops, but less than 43,000 were mustered at the war's conclusion.[1][3] Major campaigns fought in this department included Sibley's New Mexico campaign, Banks' Red River campaign, and Price's Missouri campaign.

Additionally, the Army of the Trans-Mississippi was the last major Confederate command to surrender. General E. Kirby Smith did so on May 26, 1865, although many of his troops had already "gone home."[4]

It was in Trans-Mississippi that the post-war Battle of Palmito Ranch was fought on May 12–13, 1865. A victory for the Confederate forces, the battle was actually fought several days after the war had ended. Although the war in Trans-Mississippi was officially over, the declaration of the end of hostilities could not yet be counted on. The last remaining Confederate land-combat force of the war, the 1st Cherokee Mounted Rifles (led by Cherokee Nation leader, and Confederate Brigadier-General, Stand Watie) surrendered on June 23, 1865.

Organization[]

  • Trans-Mississippi Army, I Corps (Headquartered at Shreveport, Department of Louisiana)
This corps was organized under the command of Simon Bolivar Buckner[3]
  • Trans-Mississippi Army, II Corps (Department of Arkansas and Missouri)
This corps was organized on August 4, 1864 under the command of John B. Magruder.[2][3]
  • Trans-Mississippi Army, III Corps (Headquartered at Galveston, Department of Texas)
This corps was organized on August 4, 1864 under the command of John George Walker.[2][3]
  • Trans-Mississippi Army, Cavalry Corps
The Cavalry Corps was organized on August 4, 1864 under the command of Sterling Price.[2]
  • Trans-Mississippi Army, Reserve Corps
The Reserve Corps was established on September 10, 1864 to support the Trans-Mississippi Army.

References[]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Southern Army- Trans-Mississippi Army; article at civilwarhome.com; retrieved March 2013.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Eicher, John H. (2001). Civil War High Commands. Stanford University Press. pp. 891–892. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 REBEL TRANS-MISSISSIPPI ARMY.; Strength of the Rebels, What they are Doing, Affairs in Texas; & c. Forrest and Dick Taylor Whipped.; April 9, 1865 article (transcribed); NY Times; retrieved March 2013.
  4. The Break-up of the Confederate Trans-Mississippi Army, 1865; treatise; Clampitt, Brad R; University of North Texas publisher; Denton, Texas; 2001.


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