Military Wiki
m (Remove some templates. interwiki links, delink non military terms and cleanup)
m (Remove some templates. interwiki links, delink non military terms, add link to Wikipedia and cleanup)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
 
[[Image:Armand Louis de Gontaut (1747-1793), French nobleman.jpg|thumb|right|Armand Louis de Gontaut]]
 
[[Image:Armand Louis de Gontaut (1747-1793), French nobleman.jpg|thumb|right|Armand Louis de Gontaut]]
 
'''Armand Louis de Gontaut''', '''[[Duc de Lauzun]]''', later duc '''de Biron''', and usually referred to by historians of the [[French Revolution]] simply as '''Biron''' (13 April 1747 – 31 December 1793) was a French soldier and politician, known for the part he played in the [[American War of Independence]] and the [[French Revolutionary Wars]].
 
'''Armand Louis de Gontaut''', '''[[Duc de Lauzun]]''', later duc '''de Biron''', and usually referred to by historians of the [[French Revolution]] simply as '''Biron''' (13 April 1747 – 31 December 1793) was a French soldier and politician, known for the part he played in the [[American War of Independence]] and the [[French Revolutionary Wars]].
Line 9: Line 8:
   
 
===American Revolution service===
 
===American Revolution service===
After, for a while, spending his fortune in various parts of Europe, he attracted attention by an essay on the military defences of [[Kingdom of Great Britain|Great Britain]] and her [[Evolution of the British Empire|colonial empire]] (''État de defense d'Angleterre et de toutes ses possessions dans les quatres parties du monde''). This led to his appointment to a command against the British in 1779, in which he gained several successes. In February he commanded the troops that captured [[Saint-Louis, Senegal|Fort St Louis]], in Senegal, from the British. In 1781, he took an important part in the [[American War of Independence]] by being the advance party of the main French army of [[Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau|Rochambeau]] sent to reinforce General [[George Washington]] at the [[Siege of Yorktown]] in 1781. [[Lauzun's Legion]] left their winter quarters in [[Lebanon, Connecticut]] on 9 June 1781 and marched south through Connecticut known as the [[Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route]]. Their main function was to be an advance party but also to remain ten to fifteen miles south of the main army to protect the flank against any British located in the many [[Loyalist (American Revolution)|Tory]] towns in lower [[Fairfield County, Connecticut|Fairfield County]]. While in Connecticut, the French made camps in Middletown, Wallingford, North Haven, Ripton and North Stratford. They arrived at North Stratford, now [[Nichols Farms Historic District|Nichols]] on 28 June and stayed for two days.<ref>Life and Letters of Samuel Holden Parsons, Major General in the Continental Army and Chief Judge of the Northwestern Territory 1737 — 1789, Charles S. Hall 1905, page 364 [http://books.google.com/books?id=mc4EAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA364&dq=lauzun+revolution+north+stratford+ct]</ref> From the hilltop in North Stratford, now Abraham Nichols Park, one could easily see for seventy miles past [[Long Island Sound]] to New York and beyond. The French used this time to spy on British ships in New York harbor. After the successful campaign at Yorktown and subsequent British surrender, Lauzun returned to France a hero and was made ''[[maréchal de camp]]''.
+
After, for a while, spending his fortune in various parts of Europe, he attracted attention by an essay on the military defences of [[Kingdom of Great Britain|Great Britain]] and her [[Evolution of the British Empire|colonial empire]] (''État de defense d'Angleterre et de toutes ses possessions dans les quatres parties du monde''). This led to his appointment to a command against the British in 1779, in which he gained several successes. In February he commanded the troops that captured [[Saint-Louis, Senegal|Fort St Louis]], in Senegal, from the British. In 1781, he took an important part in the [[American War of Independence]] by being the advance party of the main French army of [[Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau|Rochambeau]] sent to reinforce General [[George Washington]] at the [[Siege of Yorktown]] in 1781. [[Lauzun's Legion]] left their winter quarters in [[Lebanon, Connecticut]] on 9 June 1781 and marched south through Connecticut known as the [[Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route]]. Their main function was to be an advance party but also to remain ten to fifteen miles south of the main army to protect the flank against any British located in the many [[Loyalist (American Revolution)|Tory]] towns in lower Fairfield County. While in Connecticut, the French made camps in Middletown, Wallingford, North Haven, Ripton and North Stratford. They arrived at North Stratford, now [[Nichols Farms Historic District|Nichols]] on 28 June and stayed for two days.<ref>Life and Letters of Samuel Holden Parsons, Major General in the Continental Army and Chief Judge of the Northwestern Territory 1737 — 1789, Charles S. Hall 1905, page 364 [http://books.google.com/books?id=mc4EAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA364&dq=lauzun+revolution+north+stratford+ct]</ref> From the hilltop in North Stratford, now Abraham Nichols Park, one could easily see for seventy miles past [[Long Island Sound]] to New York and beyond. The French used this time to spy on British ships in New York harbor. After the successful campaign at Yorktown and subsequent British surrender, Lauzun returned to France a hero and was made ''[[maréchal de camp]]''.
   
 
===French Revolution service===
 
===French Revolution service===
Line 55: Line 54:
 
[[Category:French people of the American Revolution]]
 
[[Category:French people of the American Revolution]]
 
[[Category:Dukes of Biron]]
 
[[Category:Dukes of Biron]]
  +
  +
{{Wikipedia|Armand Louis de Gontaut}}

Revision as of 07:28, 19 December 2013

Armand Louis de Gontaut

Armand Louis de Gontaut, Duc de Lauzun, later duc de Biron, and usually referred to by historians of the French Revolution simply as Biron (13 April 1747 – 31 December 1793) was a French soldier and politician, known for the part he played in the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary Wars.

Biography

Early titles

Born in Paris, he bore the title of Duc de Lauzun, which had passed, on the death of Antoine Nompar de Caumont, duc de Lauzun (1633–1723), to his niece, the wife of Charles Armand de Gontaut, duc de Biron (1663–1756). In 1788, he succeeded to the duchy of Biron on the death of his uncle, Louis Antoine de Gontaut, duc de Biron (1700–1788)

American Revolution service

After, for a while, spending his fortune in various parts of Europe, he attracted attention by an essay on the military defences of Great Britain and her colonial empire (État de defense d'Angleterre et de toutes ses possessions dans les quatres parties du monde). This led to his appointment to a command against the British in 1779, in which he gained several successes. In February he commanded the troops that captured Fort St Louis, in Senegal, from the British. In 1781, he took an important part in the American War of Independence by being the advance party of the main French army of Rochambeau sent to reinforce General George Washington at the Siege of Yorktown in 1781. Lauzun's Legion left their winter quarters in Lebanon, Connecticut on 9 June 1781 and marched south through Connecticut known as the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route. Their main function was to be an advance party but also to remain ten to fifteen miles south of the main army to protect the flank against any British located in the many Tory towns in lower Fairfield County. While in Connecticut, the French made camps in Middletown, Wallingford, North Haven, Ripton and North Stratford. They arrived at North Stratford, now Nichols on 28 June and stayed for two days.[1] From the hilltop in North Stratford, now Abraham Nichols Park, one could easily see for seventy miles past Long Island Sound to New York and beyond. The French used this time to spy on British ships in New York harbor. After the successful campaign at Yorktown and subsequent British surrender, Lauzun returned to France a hero and was made maréchal de camp.

French Revolution service

In 1789, he was returned as deputy to the Estates-General by the noblesse of Quercy, and affiliated with the Revolutionary cause. In 1791, he was sent by the National Constituent Assembly to receive the oath of the army of Flanders, and subsequently was appointed to its command. In July 1792, on the wake of the revolutionary conflict, he was named commander of the army of the Rhine, with the duty of watching the movements of the Habsburg Monarchy troops.

In May 1793, he was transferred to the command of the French Revolutionary Army on the La Rochelle front, operating against the Vendéan insurgency. He gained several successes, among them the capture of Saumur and the victory of Parthenay, but the insubordination of his troops and the suspicions of his political supervisors made his position intolerable and he sent in his resignation.

Execution

He was thereupon accused by the notorious Jean-Baptiste Carrier of incivisme ("lack of civic virtue", the equivalent of treason[citation needed] under the Reign of Terror) and undue leniency to the insurgents, deprived of his command (July), imprisoned in the Abbaye, sentenced to death by the Revolutionary Tribunal and guillotined. His wife, Amélie de Boufflers, was herself executed on 27 June 1794.

Works

His Memoires, which come down to 1783, were published under his name in 1822 (and reprinted in a new edition of 1858), and letters were published in 1865, said to have been written by him in 1789 to friends in the country, describing the Estates-General.

Legacy

  • The Duc de Lauzun, was portrayed in the book, Mistress of the Revolution by Catherine Delors. He also is portrayed as the main character in the play Fortuna by Marina Tsvetaeva.

Notes

  1. Life and Letters of Samuel Holden Parsons, Major General in the Continental Army and Chief Judge of the Northwestern Territory 1737 — 1789, Charles S. Hall 1905, page 364 [1]

References

  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911) "Biron, Armand de Gontaut, Baron de" Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.) Cambridge University Press 
  • Hall, Charles S., Life and Letters of Samuel Holden Parsons, Ostenigo Publishing Co., Binghamton, NY, 1905

External links

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).