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The fierce winds from the South Atlantic, rain, hands and feet and water that froze, needed great dedication to combat, but despite all this, morale remained reasonably strong according to Private Juan Carlos Bortol from B/RI 25. <ref>“Relatos de Malvinas” Capítulo 2, Triple Media Info (available on You Tube)</ref> Discipline was never really a problem in the 25th Regiment, as each soldier knew how much each depended on the other. Nevertheless, trench life had its pressures and stealing and other perceived infractions were dealt with immediately. Private Víctor Antonio Ventura from A/RI 25 says the soldiers in his company received a bowl of hot lentils in the morning and another serving of the same thing in the afternoon and recalls witnessing two soldiers in his company that were caught stealing provisions from the C-130 transports in Stanley Airbase, being staked out in the freezing ground for a long period.<ref>Víctor Antonio Ventura / Relatos de Malvinas (available on YouTube)</ref>
 
The fierce winds from the South Atlantic, rain, hands and feet and water that froze, needed great dedication to combat, but despite all this, morale remained reasonably strong according to Private Juan Carlos Bortol from B/RI 25. <ref>“Relatos de Malvinas” Capítulo 2, Triple Media Info (available on You Tube)</ref> Discipline was never really a problem in the 25th Regiment, as each soldier knew how much each depended on the other. Nevertheless, trench life had its pressures and stealing and other perceived infractions were dealt with immediately. Private Víctor Antonio Ventura from A/RI 25 says the soldiers in his company received a bowl of hot lentils in the morning and another serving of the same thing in the afternoon and recalls witnessing two soldiers in his company that were caught stealing provisions from the C-130 transports in Stanley Airbase, being staked out in the freezing ground for a long period.<ref>Víctor Antonio Ventura / Relatos de Malvinas (available on YouTube)</ref>
   
Private Nolberto Eduardo Filippi from Captain Raúl Sevillano's E Company remains highly critical of the officers and NCOs in the 25th Regiment and says that although the soldiers in his company got a can of tinned meat each day, apart from the lentils that Private José Luis Salina says were served, he often went hungry and got caught and punished several times for stealing food and for shooting and butchering a horse with the Regimental Commander even threatening to have him court-martialed and shot on the spot for desertion and that when he was last caught stealing in his new post as a mortarman in First Lieutenant Rafael Bitti's Heavy Mortar Platoon from the Headquarters & Support Company, he was forced to sit for a long period in the freezing water on a nearby beach as punishment for which he ended up in hospital for several weeks suffering from numb feet and not evacuated to the Argentinian mainland as expected but forced to return to the Heavy Mortar Platoon upon recovering.<ref>Nolberto Eduardo Filippi / Relatos de Malvinas (available on You Tube)</ref>
+
Private Nolberto Eduardo Filippi from Captain Raúl Sevillano's E Company remains highly critical of the officers and NCOs in the 25th Regiment and says that although the soldiers in his company got a can of tinned meat each day, apart from the lentils that Private José Luis Salina says were served, he often went hungry and got caught and punished several times for stealing food and for shooting and butchering a horse with the Regimental Commander even threatening to have him court-martialed and shot on the spot for desertion and that when he was last caught stealing in his new post as a mortarman in First Lieutenant Rafael Bitti's Heavy Mortar Platoon from the Headquarters & Support Company, he was forced to sit for a long period in the freezing water on a nearby beach as punishment for which he ended up in hospital for several weeks suffering from numb feet and not evacuated to the Argentinian mainland as expected but forced to return to the Heavy Mortar Platoon upon recovering probably as a form of punishment.<ref>Nolberto Eduardo Filippi / Relatos de Malvinas (available on You Tube)</ref>
   
 
Private Jorge Antonio Urteaga from D Company says that he was fortunate to have served in RI 25 and that the Regimental Commander that he much admired, ''"turned me into a very good soldier and made me a much better person".''<ref>Jorge Antonio Urteaga / Relatos de Malvinas (available on YouTube)</ref>Private José Adrián Luna maintains that Lieutenant-Colonel Seineldín had no special privileges and slept beside the soldiers in the airbase and that if you had a chocolate bar you would take a nible and share it with your comrades regardless of rank and that the officers and NCOs'' "for us were like parents the way they would take care of us"'' although he says he did witness case of field punishments being carried out against some soldiers.<ref>José Adrián Luna / Relatos de Malvinas / Relatos de Malvinas (available on YouTube)</ref>
 
Private Jorge Antonio Urteaga from D Company says that he was fortunate to have served in RI 25 and that the Regimental Commander that he much admired, ''"turned me into a very good soldier and made me a much better person".''<ref>Jorge Antonio Urteaga / Relatos de Malvinas (available on YouTube)</ref>Private José Adrián Luna maintains that Lieutenant-Colonel Seineldín had no special privileges and slept beside the soldiers in the airbase and that if you had a chocolate bar you would take a nible and share it with your comrades regardless of rank and that the officers and NCOs'' "for us were like parents the way they would take care of us"'' although he says he did witness case of field punishments being carried out against some soldiers.<ref>José Adrián Luna / Relatos de Malvinas / Relatos de Malvinas (available on YouTube)</ref>

Revision as of 05:14, 22 June 2022

During the Argentinian build-up in the Falklands, the 10th 'Lieutenant-General Nicolás Levalle' Mechanized Infantry Brigade's was sent to establish a series of strongpoints around the capital (Port Stanley) before the Army's 3rd (Jungle) Infantry Brigade (2nd Army Corps) arrived to help complete the defence of Goose Green and West Falkland. The 10th Brigade came into being on 20 October 1880 and, under Brigadier-General Oscar Luis Jofré, proved to be a capable formation in the 'Malvinas'. Its teeth were the 3rd, 6th and 7th Infantry Regiments each with three reinforced rifle companies, and one support company, all backed up by the 601st Air Defence Artillery Regiment, 601st Combat Aviation Battalion, 181st Armoured Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron and 181st Military Police Company. The Marine Corps also provided strong reinforcements including the Rio Grande-based 5th Marine Infantry Battalion, and later 1st Marine Anti-Aircraft Regiment and a Dog platoon from Puerto Belgrano . Main infantry weapons were the 7.62mm FAL automatic rifle, 7.62mm FAP and MAG machine-guns, 88.9 mm Instalaza M65 and M20 Super Bazookas and Thompson-Brandt 81mm mortars and in the support companies, 120mm Thompson-Brandt mortars and and 105mm Czekalski recoilles rifles.

Brigadier-General ÓscarLuis Jofré , was awakened at 0100 on 9 April by a telephone call from Major-General Cristino Nicolaides, commanding 1st Army Corps that was responsible for defending the Buenos Aires coastline from seaborne invasion: "In the past week I had been warned for the possible defence of the whole of the I Corps area. This new order came as a complete surprise, but I had been hoping like mad that we would have the chance to go."[1]

Within a week Jofré had issued recall orders and between Tuesday 13 and Thursday 15 April the 7th Regiment deployed to the Falklands. The 2nd Marine Battalion having retaken the Malvinas had left behind a reinforced rifle platoon under Lieutenant Alfredo José Imboden to guard Mount Longdon and Wireless Ridge, returned to Port Stanley that Thursday and began handing over to the 7th Regiment.

Lieutenant Horacio Alejandro Mones-Ruiz, a rifle platoon commander in the 3rd Mechanized infantry Regiment, describes how he heard the news: "We were out with the Regiment in the forests of Pereyra Iraola, carrying out military training for the recently incorporated soldiers. In the early hours of 2 April, together with the mortar officer, Lieutenant José Luis Dobroevic, we were surprised by the news that we had recovered the Malvinas Islands. We felt the same hubbub and emotion that the entire Argentinian nation experienced. From that moment we couldn't stop listening to the news in order to follow the developments. That is until 9 April, the date when, after the political decision to deploy more forces in the Islands to confront the British, we got the news that we had so much wanted 'Our unit would go to Malvinas'.' We hurried off to the barracks where the discharged soldiers of the old class had already been summoned back and we began to reorganize the unit to leave by air on 11 April for Río Gallegos and from there to Puerto Argentino."[2]

Training in the 10th Brigade

Throughout 1981, 10th Brigade found itself building up and training for war with Chile and it was "rather a hectic time" as Juan Manuel Villegas, a former sergeant in the 3rd Mechanized Infantry Regiment recalls.[3] There were trips to the field-firing area at Ezeiza, and the senior soldiers were given specialist weapons courses, MAG machine-gun, FAP light-machine-guns, 120-mm and 81-mm mortars , radios and RASIT ground-surveillance radar.

At the end of their forty-five days of basic training, Private Vicente José Bruno was one of the 1981 intake regarded as the best soldiers. Forty-five of the conscripts and half a dozen NCOs in the 7th Regiment were selected to form a Commando platoon within the 7th Regiment.[4] During 1981, a Commando course had been introduced in the 10th Brigade. Brigadier Oscar Jofré had decided that an airlanding special operations platoon would be formed for each of his regiments. Major Oscar Ramón Jaimet, the Operations Officer of the 6th Regiment, took over the formation of these helicopter-borne platoons of hand-picked conscripts and NCOs. Jaimet, a dedicated professional soldier had served behind People's Revolutionary Army guerrilla lines as a Commando in the Tucumán Province in 1975.

Private Santiago Fabian Gauto, a soldier of Guarani Indian heritage, was selected to be part of the Commando platoon (under First Lieutenant Mario Gabriel Dotto) for the 7th Regiment that included learning how to stop enemy reinforcements arriving by train:

"We had instructions at night in all weathers. It was freezing in winter. We were taught how to make and plant booby-traps, we did lots of extra shooting and had to strip and assemble weapons while blindfolded. They even taught us how to stop an electric train, which was really weird to us. Maybe one day I'll go to the station and stop one!"[5]

Many regulars and conscripts in the 10th Brigade were sons of Italian migrants, patriotic and adventurous young men fired up by patriotism and stories of the Second World War. In an interview with Fernando Calles from Radio Las Fores (AM 1210), Private Vicente Bruno revealed in 2022, that his father had a brother that had been captured in the North African Campaign.[6][7]

During this time the 7th Mechanized Infantry Regiment was selected to take part in a helicopter-borne exercise with the 601st Combat Aviation Battalion. This was a great opportunity to work with the helicopter pilots and it was of excellent value. Private Jorge Alberto Altieri: "I was issued with a FAL 7.62 rifle. Other guys were given FAP light machineguns – and others got PAMS [sub-machineguns]. The main emphasis in shooting was making every bullet count. I was also shown how to use a bazooka, how to make and lay booby-traps, and how to navigate at night, and we went on helicopter drills, night and day attacks and ambushes."[8]

Service was not always harsh though, with the local soldiers of the 10th Brigade permitted to return to their homes for dinner and weekends during quiet periods. Private Omar Anibal Brito (KIA, killed in action) from the 7th Regiment's B Company would not be so lucky, having several run ins with his superiors and even going AWOL (absent without leave), he would miss out on the rewards for good behaviour and even spend time in the lock-up cell.[9] Private Ricardo Daniel Inocente (WIA, wounded in action) from the 3rd Regiment would also present a number of problems to the regulars because of his rebellious nature, but would prove to be an outstanding soldier in A Company in the Falklands.[10]

There was a nearby school and to this the 7th Regiment provided skilled labour in the form of Private Antonio Francisco Belmonte and others with Belmonte recalling, "They also had a system where conscripts with certain trades - painters, electricians, builders and the like - were sent outside to help on civilian projects such as repairing and decorating schools. For some reason they sent me to work on a school and I missed a lot of training, particularly the big manoeuvres, because of it. One one occasion a big exercise was coming up which I very much wanted to attend, but the headmistress of the school told our authorities she wanted her work finished and we were ordered to stay and do it and miss the exercise."[11]

October 1981 was the start of large exercises in the General Acha Desert in La Pampa Province. The emphasis was on endurance and the ability of soldiers being able to advance as a company over long distances on foot, in many cases carrying 105mm recoilless rifles and 81mm and 120mm mortars. Private Claudio Alberto Carbone from the 7th Regiment recalls the major exercise that also involved the 1st Armoured Cavalry Brigade:

"Halfway through my service there was a really big exercise involving the 10th Brigade. I don't know what the top brass had in mind at the time - whether it was a rehearsal for the Malvinas or not - but it was big. There were at least 10,000 troops involved and I had to drive a vehicle with a big cannon on it. I couldn't find the exercise area at first, then I got lost trying to find the regiment and then I got lost trying to find my company. I got there in the end and they sent me off to get a truck out with a field kitchen and drive that around delivering food to the infantry. When I got to the front line all the big guns were firing and the heat was unbelievable. They were holding this exercise in a desert. If it was a practice for the Malvinas, they were holding it in a very strange place. The infantry soldiers were in a very bad way. They were in a dreadful state from hunger and thirst. They were so bad with thirst they even tried to get water from the radiator of my truck. I'll never forget the dreadful state they were in!"[12]

Although the brigade had carried out extensive exercises, there were also many ceremonial activities including Argentinian Independence Day, cordon and search operations and general activities such as sporting tournaments with the 7th Regiment Commando Platoon taking part in the 10th Brigade marathon competition and coming second .[13]The 3rd Regiment at this time had a terrific football team, in which all those involved had the privilege to see future football star, Private Omar Osvaldo De Felippe play. The year gave all ranks a very broad brush of all types of soldiering activities in peacetime.

As the year neared to the end, the 10th Brigade had produced extremely capable, competent and professional 'Soldados Dragoneantes' (Private First Class or Temporary Corporals), who could look after their sections in isolation and who became the machine-gunners, bazookamen, radio operators, ground-surveillance-radar operators, pathfinders and combat medics. Private Tomás Szumilo of the 7th Regiment says: "The preparation we got before we arrived (in the islands) was good and had lasted about a month and a half, it was quite rigorous because the Regiment was very demanding of us. We were able to operate weapons and handle soldiering. In my case, due to my experience in the health industry, I became a combat medic."[14]

Prior to their discharge, the Commando-trained soldiers in the 7th Regiment were required to do a guard duty for Brigadier-General Jofré because of the terrorist threat from Montoneros guerrillas still operating in Buenos Aires:

"One time Brigadier-General Jofre, who commanded X Brigade and was also Land Forces Commander in the Malvinas, came to visit us and see something at the nearby theatre. All thirty of us were ordered to escort him and guard him. We lost our leave to look after him."[15]

General Óscar Luis Jofré

Brigadier-General Óscar Luis Jofré, a "big, bluff man" was born in Buenos Aires on 2 April 1929. He would become one of Latin America's best-known generals. Throughout his boyhood and early education, he had one big ambition - to become a soldier. Entering the National Army Academy at El Palomar, Buenos Aires, in 1947, he was commissioned two years later into the Infantry. In 1979 he was promoted to brigadier-general and given command of the 10th Mechanized Infantry Brigade in December 1980. Aged 53 when the Falklands War broke out, he had converted his brigade into a well-drilled formation and was respected by his soldiers, most of whom had European backgrounds.

Colonel Félix Roberto Aguiar, the 10th Brigade Chief-of-Staff, had a reputation for being "tough minded and spontaneous" and would prove to be popular with the Argentinian Army Green Berets. Lieutenant-Colonel Norberto Ricardo Villegas, the Intelligence Officer, was "stout-hearted and energetic" and would remain so. The Operations Officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Eugenio Alfredo Dalton would be seen during the predawn darkness of 14 June, "driving around in a jeep marshalling tired, panicky and dazed soldiers" from the 3rd and 7th Regiments into a company formation and would lead them into Stanley's western outskirts under heavy shellfire to form a blocking position.

Puerto Argentino Army Grouping

In mid-April the entire 10th Brigade was airlifted by the Argentinian Air Force and Aerolíneas Argentinas from Buenos Aires to Stanley airfield, outside Port Stanley. Transporting the men was simple but their armoured personnal carriers had to be left behind. The brigade then began to Stanley Common as part of the defences, The 10th Brigade, 4th Regiment, 25th (Ranger-type) Regiment and 5th Marines were joined on 17 April to form the Puerto Argentino Army Grouping, commanded by Brigadier-General Jofré. By the end of April, the Argentinians had established a ground force equivalent to an infantry division, supported by three anti-aircraft units with 25mm and 35mm radar-guided guns as well as Tigercat and Roland missiles and two Special Forces units with 100 Army Green Berets (601st Commando Company) and Air Force Blue Berets (Special Operations Group).

Under the orders of Brigadier-General Mario Menéndez, the Argentine Military Governor at Port Stanley, the army engineers (under Colonel Manuel Dorrego) in the Falklands capital built field showers for the 10th Brigade, that allowed the 3rd, 6th, 7th and supporting 4th, 25th Regiments and 5th Marine Battalion before the British landings, to send companies into town on a rotating basis to get a hot shower.[16]

The deployment of the main Argentinian units was as follows:

Puerto Argentino Army Grouping under Brigadier-General Oscar Luis Jofre of 10th Brigade

3rd, 4th, 6th, 7th and 25th Regiments (approximately 800 men each)

5th Marine Battalion (about 700 men)

3rd Artillery Regiment (18 x 105mm, 4 x 155mm guns)

10th Armoured Reconnaissance Squadron with 12 Panhard vehicles

181st Military Police and Intelligence Company

601st Anti-Aircraft Regiment

601st Combat Aviation battalion with 2 x Chinook, 9 x Huey, 2 x Augusta gunship and 3 Puma helicopters

Task Force Mercedes at Goose Green under Lieutenant-Colonel Italo Angel Piaggi

12th, 25th Regiments (C Company)

Elements of 601st Air Defence Regiment and 1st Anti-Aircraft Group

3 x 105 mm guns

Air Force elements

On West Falkland under Brigadier-General Omar Edgardo Parada

5th Regiment (at Port Howard)

8th Regiment (at Fox Bay)

9th Engineer Company

120 Marines on Pebble Island

With regards to the number of night vision rifle scopes and head-mounted goggles that Battle Group Puerto Argentino had for the coming battles, it was later established that contacts in the United States had managed to find a firm that agreed to sell 100 night vision scopes and 100 pairs of night vision goggles, all this under the very noses of the various US intelligence agencies and they were sent to the Falkland Islands before the start of the ground battles. Rear-Admiral Edgardo Otero from the Malvinas Joint Command, who commanded the Marines deployed in Stanley and Pebble Island, received these sophisticated items of equipment and ordered that the Marines were to keep half of them and the other half would be distributed among the various Argentinian Army units.[17]

Regimiento de Infantería Mecanizado 3 'General Belgrano'

The first elements of Regimiento de Infantería Mecanizado (3rd Mechanized Infantry Regiment or RI Mec 3) arrived in Port Stanley on 9 April and from 13-21 April would spend their time digging in Sector Cobre (Copper) covering the southern beaches. The Commanding Officer of the 3rd Regiment, Lieutenant-Colonel David Ubaldo Comini attended his first briefing inside the ex-Royal Marine Barracks on 10 April[18] with Comini that night giving a patriotic speech in the presence of Brigadier-General Mario Benjamin Menéndez that welcomed the new arrivals with a giant chocolate easter egg and bottles of French wine seized from the cellars of the Royal Marine Barracks in Moody Brook, a televised event that Argentine war correspondent Eduardo Rotondo claims he captured on film.[19]

The 3rd Infantry Regiment was allocated two warehouses in Port Stanley for the drying of wet clothes left hanging inside and to get some proper sleep, 200 men per night; this luxury of course ended, with the British San Carlos landings and an increase of British air activity and naval shelling.[20]

First Lieutenant Víctor Hugo Rodríguez-Pérez in the book Así lucharon written by Carlos M. Túrolo (Editorial Sudamericana, 1982) says his rifle platoon as part of A Company 3rd Regiment carried out several simulated counterattacks against the expected incursion in the Golden Sector. The regiment remained facing the sea throughout the campaign and was subjected to much naval shelling and simulated seaborne landings. R&R in Port Stanley was somewhat limited. Cigarettes and chocolate were rationed but each soldier had a rat pack delivered to them once per week.

There were the normal 'out-of-bounds' area in Stanley which were clearly local stores and signposted, and were mainly ignored by the young soldiers. Many soldiers soon began to compliment their meals with snacks bought in the Port Stanley shops. Private Horacio Javier Benítez from A/RI Mec 3 in an interview with British journalists recalled: "And the other thing that I never tried in Argentina was the Aero Mint Chocolate, which I love. I once bought twenty bars. So I realised that I was trying a type of food that wasn't mine, but it wasn't easy, although it helped us to get by."[21]

Mail, as always was enormously important to the soldiers. Private José Luis Cerezuela in A Company 3rd Mechanized Infantry Regiment (A/RI Mec 3) who received no mail had this problem sorted in a unique way when his platoon sergeant Manuel Ángel Villegas organized for his soldiers to get a young female related to them to write a personal letter to Cerezuela that helped restore his morale.[22]

While on sentry duty facing the southern beaches, Private Sergio Ariel Vainroj, a keen paino player, from C Company 3rd Regiment was caught reading music sheets. But the officer that caught him, Lieutenant José Luis Dobroevic, let him get off scot-free refusing to punish Vainroj for as he later confessed during a veterans barbecue get-together in 2016, he had also a sister at the time like Vainroj that was studying music and would play the piano.[23]

Surrounded by retreating and demoralized companies during the Battle of Wireless Ridge, A/RI Mec 3 kept its head. It stood and fought, during a nocturnal counterattack on the night of 13/14 June, when retreat and rumours were rampant in RI Mec 7. Surrender was a mix of relief, hurt pride and great sadness. Private Patricio Gustavo Pérez from A Company 3rd Regiment recalls: "People greeted the surrender with relief. They were all crying. That wasn't how I reacted. I had been fighting for many hours and I was not prepared to give up my rifle until forced to do so. It's different for those who had been in actual combat. I couldn't give my rifle back until they took it away from me, and when I did give it back I made sure it was completely unusable."[24]

Regimiento de Infantería 4 'Monte Caseros''

On 27 April, Lieutenant-Colonel Diego Alejandro Soria's 4th (Jungle) Infantry Regiment (Regimiento de Infantería 4 'Monte Caseros' or RI 4) arrived at Stanley Airbase and joined the 10th Brigade, now redesignated 'Agrupación de Ejército Puerto Argentino' (Puerto Argentino Army Grouping) RI 4 was soon preparing a defensive west of Murrell River, some 18 kilometres from Stanley. And, as the regiment dug in, C Company provided stevedoring parties from the 2nd Rifle Platoon (Second Lieutenant Jorge Pérez-Grandi) to help unload the various ships which brought in heavy equipment and stores to Port Stanley.[25]

The 4th Regiment's Operation Officer, Captain Carlos Alfredo López-Patterson, who Carlos M. Túrolo and Héctor Rubén Simeoni interviewed for their books 'Así Lucharon' (Editorial Sudamericana, 1982) and 'Malvinas: Contrahistoria' (Editorial Inédita, 1984), found the regiment to be in good heart, though some thought that they were being sidelined by 10th Brigade Headquarters. By all accounts,the soldiers in the 3rd Rifle Platoon (under Second Lieutenant Marcelo Alberto Llambías-Pravaz from C/RI 4 really did perform well. Constant patrolling[26][27], extremes of temperature (down to -12 degrees Fahrenheit), the terrain, heavy shelling and protracted periods on largely American-style C Rations were a strain.

The half a dozen officer or so cadets from the El Palomar Army Academy in Buenos Aires granted emergency commissions, becoming Second Lieutenants in the 4th Regiment, had a remarkable relaxing influence on the young soldiers, who were naturally very tense and anxious at the prospect of combat in the Monte Caseros Line.

Occasionally the opportunity to bathe arose. Second Lieutenant Llambías-Pravaz, one of the officer cadets, can clearly remember walking his platoon down from Mount Challenger in mid-May to have a bath and get some proper food and rest[28]and which allowed the platoon commander to make a quick telephone call to his father.[29]

On 27 May, Second Lieutenant Marcelo Alberto Llambías-Pravaz, Sergeant Ramón Valdez, Corporal Walter Ariel Pintos and Private Nicomedes Daniel Castillo from the 3rd Rifle Platoon C Company on Mount Challenger, where patrolling the western slopes of Mount Kent under the cover of darkness and heavy rain, when overflown by a British helicopter. After radioing this information to Regimental Headquarters, the small rifle section soon after detected a British hide and opened fire. The next day, they closely inspected the hide and soon found empty British rations that had to be dug out of the ground.[30]

On 28 May, Brigadier-General Jofre ordered Lieutenant-Colonel Soria to reposition the 4th Regiment on Two Sisters Mountain and Mount Harriet, but it was too late to build proper positions as Soria explains:

"So, on 28 May, we were given a new task; we had to move and prepare new positions. We were forced to improvise our defences under the pressure of imminent action. We had no barbed wire; we asked for some, but nothing came. We had no timber with which to construct bunkers. The most serious problem was that the men had no individual spades; we only had a few for the whole regiment. But we tried to do the best we could. On 31 May the British started their artillery fire." [31]

Private Dacio Dario Agretti, who manned a Czekalski 105mm anti-tank gun in the Support Platoon (under Lieutenant Luis Carlos Martella) from C/RI 4, questioned the move to abandon Mount Challenger and Wall Mountain: "There we had hot food, built excellent positions and were quite ready for when the British attacked. Then around the 27th May we were suddenly told that we were to abandon Wall Mountain and that we would have to defend Dos Hermanas instead. Nobody explained why, we were just ordered to move. Some walked to the mountain and some of us were taken by truck. It was a crazy decision because we never really had time to build good positions on Dos Hermanas, also we did not have a Field Kitchen so we never had any hot food anymore. We had to eat from our ration packs and it was terrible having no hot food day after day".[32]

At 11 am on 30 May, Royal Air Force Harrier fighter-bombers appeared over the Mount Kent zone in support of D Squadron 22nd Special Air Service Regiment battling the 602nd Commando Company. Upon discovering them, the soldiers in the 3rd Rifle Platoon C Company covering the Argentinian withdrawal to new positions on Mount Harriet and Two Sisters Mountain, opened fire with rifles and machine guns. Second Lieutenant Marcelo Llambías-Pravaz later learned that his platoon in the form of Private Nicomedes Castillo, a machine-gunner, had hit one Harrier XZ-963, forcing the pilot, Squadron-Leader Jerry Pook, to ditch his aircraft into the sea off Port Stanley.[33]

On 1 June, Lieutenant-Colonel Diego Soria had removed all restrictions on the use of cold-weather ration packs (tinned provisions) in his regiment, which helped raise morale and keep hunger under control among the conscripts.[34]

Corporal Antonio Gómez from B/RI Mec 7 on Longdon, recalls catching up with his younger brother, Private Martiniano Gómez (KIA) from B/RI 4 on Harriet in June, and being a non-smoker swapping his cigarette packets for the miniature whisky bottles in the ration packs issued to both of them only to discover once inside his tent that his cheeky brother had drank all the whisky and filled up the bottles with water in order to trick him.[35]

The 4th 'Monte Caseros' Regiment took the main brunt of the fighting in the position dubbed Monte Caseros Line against strong British Commando night-fighting-patrols. Argentinian attempts to improve their positions were disrupted by British artillery which killed Privates Luis Orlando Aguilera[36]and Ramón Orlando Palavecino[37]on Two Sisters and damage beyond immediate repair the RASIT ground-surveillance-radar on Harriet in early June.[38]

There was a steady build-up of casualties. The regimental medical officer, Lieutenant Rubén Juan Cucchiara, reported cases of battle fatigue. Though sick, Second Lieutenant Llambías-Pravaz carried on in his imperturbable manner, winning the admiration of Captain López-Patterson.

On 8 June, the Mount Harriet defenders discovered the presence of the Reconnaissance Platoon (under Sergeant Ian Allum) from the 2nd Battalion The Scots Guards (2SG) in and around Port Harriet House. Corporal Carlos Cortéz along with several hand-picked men from the Reconnaissance Platoon and Heavy Mortar Platoon on Harriet, including a paratroop officer (First Lieutenant Francisco Pablo D'Aloia) from 4th Regimental Headquarters, received orders to clear the Scots Guards at bayonet-point and as the British platoon withdrew with their two wounded from the ensuing Argentinian mortar bombardment, the Argentinian force very nearly opened fire on two Argentinian Marine Special Forces returning from reconnoitering San Carlos.[39]

During the Battle for Two Sisters Mountain, the commander of the 2nd Rifle Platoon (Second Lieutenant Jorge Daniel Pérez-Grandi) from C/RI 4 was badly wounded with Private Andres Avelino Barosso refusing to abandon his platoon commander despite repeated orders from Pérez-Grand to do so, keeping him warm and conscious long enough to allow Corporal Nicolás Urbieta with Private Aldo Adolfo Leiva (future Member of the Chamber of Deputies of Argentina) to return with a stretcher and rescue the young officer. [40]

Regimiento de Infantería Mecanizado 6 'General Viamontes'

Between 13 and 14 April, troops from 6th Mechanized Infantry Regiment (Regimiento de Infantería Mecanizado 6 'General Viamontes' or RI Mec 6) arrived in Stanley Airbase and dug in beside the Stanley-Airport road protecting the southern beaches on both sides of Rookery Bay with B Company 6th Regiment as part of the helicopter-borne reserve occupying The Saddle at the foot of Mount Kent.

To bring 6th Mechanized Infantry Regiment in the 'Malvinas' to full strength there were drafts from 1st 'Patricios' Regiment.

In 2013, when questioned if he was sufficiently prepared to go to war, Walter San Martin who arrived as a corporal with the regiment explained in an interview with Grupo Feedback: "Yes I felt prepared because I had enrolled in the NCO School aged 16 and was mobilized aged 18 to the Chilean border during the Beagle Channel Crisis and with all the training and military exercises I felt very much prepared."[41]

There were of course advantages to being a soldier in 1982. The 6th Regiment being relatively close to Stanley Town, enjoyed postal, telephone, telegram and bank cheques sent by family members that could be cashed in the Port Stanley Post Office. Corporal San Martin kept all letters sent him and produced one dated 25 May that his family had sent to him and a telegram he had sent to his parents back telling them all was well, in the interview granted to Grupo Feedback.

In late May, B Company now occupying anti-tanks positions near Two Sisters Mountain, received reinforcements in the form of a 120mm mortar section under Sergeant Ramón Antinori. Private Carlos Roberto Varela from the section recalled in 2012, "In general, we felt much pride to go defend the Fatherland in the Malvinas. We were very young, but the majority of us behaved well, like men and not like many like to say that we were just kids with no chance. We really had to learn and grow up fast and we fought well against the British which proved to be a valuable experience."[42]

Towards the end of the first week in June, air reconnaissance in the form of Pucaras checking on the targets of those earlier Canberra strikes in the area of Mount Kent reported that there were a number of British tents in the vicinity of Murrell Bridge.[43]

About this time Second Lieutenant Aldo Eugenio Franco, a platoon commander in B/RI Mec 6 had the opportunity of observing the commando-trained Major Oscar Jaimet go about his duties as the overall commander of the helicopter-borne reserve and decided to become himself a Green Beret after the war. A very keen NCO, Corporal Juan Antonio Barroso, on the other hand would clash with his platoon commander Second Lieutenant Guillermo Enrique Corbella (in charge of the heavy mortars) and the B Company commander First Lieutenant Raúl Daniel Abella, also an Army Commando, and would quit the Army in disgust in 1983 after having had several run ins with Corbella, Abella and an Air Force officer in the fighting in the Falklands.[44]

Major Jaimet would later point out that during this period, he and the platoon commanders in his company out in Stanley Common shared the same wartime privations of the ordinary soldiers:

"Over there, everyone took the same risks, shared the same privations and tasks, suffered from the cold and shared the same foxholes that would fill with water. There has been a tendency to create differences - or make us believe - in the experiences of the officers, NCOs and privates. My platoon commanders would sleep alongside the privates. I slept among the privates in our position." [45]

On 8 June, Second Lieutenant Augusto Esteban La Madrid, the commander of the 3rd Rifle Platoon from B Company saw a Huey helicopter that was bringing supplies forward land in the vicinity of Two Sisters. He went to see if he could scavenge any items of use for his platoon. The Company Sergeant-Major Jorge Edgardo Pitrella had beaten him to the punch and informed him that someone had written to the second lieutenant. La Madrid recalls, "I received a telegram from my father, a Professor of History, telling me to fight on to the end -'Victory or Death' - your father will bless you.' I thought, with that blessing, I was ready to die."[46][47]

On the night of 9/10 June, a patrol clash occurred when Lieutenant Andy Shaw's night-fighting patrol (5 Troop Yankee Company) was required to penetrate through B/RI Mec 6 dug on the valley between Longdon and Two Sisters and destroy the four Thompson-Brandt 120mm mortars of Second Lieutenant Guillermo Enrique Corbella's Heavy Mortar Platoon . There was an unfortunate mistake made in the dark and fire was exchanged, resulting in four dead Royal Marine Commandos.

45 COMMANDO were assigned to attack Two Sisters Mountain, and decided on a silent approach through what turned out to be a frozen minefield. The soldiers from B/RI Mec 6 were alerted by the attack on Mount Longdon by 3 PARA on the night of 11/12 June. Second Lieutenant La Madrid: "My Litton night binoculars were very good, and I could see British troops in the Murrell Bridge area firing on Longdon; it was possibly a mortar or a missile detachment. I could even hear their commands ... so I moved one of my machine-guns further to the right, so as not to reveal its main position, and it opened fire on the British." [48]

Soon the 1st Rifle Platoon from C/RI 4 were in trouble on northern Two Sisters. Their platoon commander wounded early in the Battle for Two Sisters Mountain. Initially Second Lieutenant Aldo Eugenio Franco 2nd Rifle Platoon had word they would have to counterattack in conjunction with the Panhard armoured cars from Esc Expl C Bl 181.[49]

About 5.00 am communications were re-established with the news that C/RI 4 had completely abandoned the mountain. B Company was now dangerously exposed. The 1st (Second Lieutenant Guillermo Robredo-Venencia) and 3rd (Second Lieutenant Augusto Esteban La Madrid) Rifle Platoons and Heavy Mortar Platoon (Guillermo Enrique Corbella) in turn were receiving attention from the British light cruiser HMS Glamorgan as they tried to reach B/RI Mec 6 with naval gunfire and cut off their escape route.[50]

B/RI Mec 6 reassembled some distance back and commenced preparations for the complete break in contact that was to take them to Tumbledown. The orders puzzled and dispirited Corporal Juan Barroso, because it was so different to military doctrine he had been brought up to believe. Barroso looked on the big break of contact as running away and did not like it at all. He chose to stay along with Private Mario Javier Romero and others to help cover the Argentinian retreat in order to see some action.[51]

The 2nd Rifle Platoon B Company fought Yankee Company 45 COMMANDO to a standstill forcing the light cruiser HMS Glamorgan to come to the assistance of 5 Troop (under Lieutenant Andy Shaw) that as the British spearhead was trying to exploit onto Tumbledown.[52] Second Lieutenant Franco's men eventually disengaged, covered in great part by Private Oscar Poltronieri who suffered two near-misses[53]from British 84mm and 66mm anti-tank rockets. Having run out of machine gun ammunition at one point he held off the Royal Marines with an abandoned rifle.[54]

Not content with his last stand on Two Sisters, Private Poltronieri took up new positions later that morning between Longdon and Tumbledown and opened long-range fire again in the daylight hours with a machine gun forcing 3 Platoon (under Lieutenant David Wright from A Company 3 PARA to abandon the eastern summit of Longdon.[55]

It was during their time on Tumbledown that the 10th Brigade Commander visited B Company under heavy shellfire. He came round and spoke to each of the officers, promising them more ammunition and warm clothing for their men, and even giving his leather gloves to Private Poltronieri,[56] winning the admiration of Second Lieutenant Augusto La Madrid in the process. Brigadier-General Óscar Jofré reminded them of the reputation the Argentinian Army had enjoyed in previous campaigns and enjoined them to "fight hard and avenge their earlier defeat."[57]

Regimiento de Infantería Mecanizado 7 'Coronel Conde'

Between 13-14 April, Lieutenant-Colonel Omar Giménez's 7th Mechanized Infantry Regiment (Regimiento de Infantería Mecanizado 7 'Coronel Conde' or RI Mec 7) was flown to Stanley Airbase to relieve the 3rd Rifle Platoon (Lieutenant Héctor Edgardo Gazzolo) from Delta Company 2nd Marine Infantry Battalion (D/BIM 2) and 3rd Rifle Platoon (Lieutenant Alfredo José Imboden) from Hotel Company 3rd Marine Infantry Battalion (H/BIM 3) holding Mount Longdon and Wireless Ridge in Sector Plata (Silver). The next day, they moved to Sector Silver overlooking Murrell River and Moody Brook Barracks and the bulk of the regiment were to spend the next 62 days of the war in this sector of the Stanley front. Private Vicente Bruno recalls Second Lieutenant Juan Domingo Baldini commandeering a truck in order to help get his 1st Rifle Platoon from B Company 7th Regiment (B/RI Mec 7) to Mount Longdon.[58]1st Platoon (Lieutenant Hugo Aníbal Quiroga) and 2nd Platoon (Second Lieutenant Diego Carlos Arreseigor ) from the 10th Mechanized Engineer Company were assigned for sapper support. Dismounted cavalry troops and Panhards were in support from Reserva Z. GA 3 was on call via 10th Mechanized Infantry Brigade Headquarters (Brigada de Infantería Mecanizada X or Cdo/Br I Mec X).

At Port Stanley in April and May before the British landings, the 7th Regiment companies were fortunate in they had access to hot showers which were available to them every fortnight before the British landings on 21 May. At first, the 7th Regiment on Wireless Ridge was relatively comfortable, shooting sheep and roasting them on old bed frames the soldiers had found nearby, according to Anglo-Argentinian Private Miguel Savage from the Mortar Platoon (under First Sergeant Mario Ricardo Alcaide) of C Company who was interviewed by the Scotsman in 2002.[59]

Private Savage says he received minimal training for as he explains in his book 'Malvinas, Viaje al Pasado' his father had arranged with the Regimental Commander for his son to largely sit out. along with five other conscripts. their military service as handymen at a shooting range in Buenos Aires, but that it all backfired when Savage found himself incorporated into C/RI Mec 7 and sent to defend Wireless Ridge.

Lieutenant-Colonel Giménez had selected a quiet and secluded part of Stanley Hospital for his companies to rest, but the weary soldiers found it difficult to unwind. The nervous tension of being subjected to constant bombardment and possible air attack for a long period was taking its toll. Private Jorge Alberto Andreeta from B/RI Mec 7, in an interview with the Argentinian 'Clarín' newspaper in April 2012, reported that rough punishment was indeed meted out in his unit to those caught stealing provisions or hunting sheep, but admitted that his platoon got a chance to visit this sanctuary fitted with colour tv and video cassette player, "One day they took us to the hospital, we showered and they got us to watch a film, it turned out to be a horror movie." [60] There was a strict ration of one ration pack per soldier per week and stealing and going absent without leave (AWOL) attracted fairly harsh physical retribution.

Vicente Bruno from the 1st Rifle Platoon, in an interview in 2022 with former Argentinian war correspondent Nicolas Kasanzew, says that Second Lieutenant Juan Baldini was a good officer that allowed him and others to shoot and butcher sheep and that Baldini would eat the same food and share his cigarettes despite claims to the contrary.[61]Private Guillermo Alberto Vélez from the 7th Regiment's Headquarters & Support Company maintains that he personally shot and killed 50 sheep to feed a substantial part of the Wireless Ridge defenders.[62]

In the week prior to the Battle for Mount Longdon, a mortar post under Private Felix Guillermo Álvarez from the 1st Rifle Platoon B Company spotted a Close-Target-Reconnaissance Patrol from D Company 3 PARA and opened fire forcing the four British Paratroopers involved to go to ground. [63]

Corporal Jorge Daniel Arribas from the 1st Rifle Platoon C Company on Wireless Ridge, would explain that when the moment came to execute a nocturnal counterattack in support of the Mount Longdon defenders, the men in his rifle platoon would certainly be up to the task, "When the time came to fight, despite the loss of weight, despite having not had any real sleep we fought so hard like as if we were these really tough Commandos, Elite Soldiers but we did it all for love of the Fatherland, for each other and for our families."[64]

On the night of 13/14 June, The British SAS reportedly tried to infiltrate the regiment by mingling with the fleeing RI Mec 7 soldiers, making it very difficult for the 181st Military Police Company to differentiate between the two in the dark.[65] After the Argentinian surrender, after a bitter street brawl with the British soldiers from 3 PARA[66], the 7th Regiment soldiers were taken back to Argentina on board the British cruise liner 'Canberra'.

Regimiento de Infantería 'Especial' 25

Lieutenant-Colonel Mohamed Alí Seineldín's 25th Infantry Regiment (Regimiento de Infantería 25 or RI 25) was part of the 9th Infantry Brigade (Brigada de Infantería IX or Br I IX), and based in Colonia de Sarmiento in the Chubut Province. At the time the regiment consisted of two rifle companies and a Headquarters & Support Company. Private José Luis Salina joined the 25th Regiment on 3 February 1982 and recalls that during the training, Second Lieutenant Horacio Enrique Calderón would warn the soldiers in advance that they were being prepared to fight in an actual war.[67]

Under the influence of 'Halcón 8' instructors, Special Forces techniques were implemented. The regiment was unofficially named Regimiento de Infantería 'Especial' 25. RI 25 were overjoyed to be selected to take part in Operation Rosario, and a third company was formed followed by a fourth and fifth company comprising reservists that had completed their training in 1981 with Private Carlos Hever Torres with E Company (under Captain Raúl Sevillano) arriving on Thursday 8 April.[68]Private Aníbal Omar Zanatto from B/RI 25, says he never really believed it would come to war, but that his company commander, First Lieutenant Miguel Angel Machi, would warn Zanatto and others that war was imminent and to take the situation seriously.[69]

Private Alejandro Marcelo Corso who had completed his service in 1981 remembers that Lieutenant-Colonel Seineldín would warn the soldiers every morning that they were being prepared for war and that Corso would laugh to himself only to suspect something real was in the making as the exhausting training under Commando-trained Lieutenant Roberto Néstor Estévez intensified, including the use of explosives.[70]

On 2 April, 'Gato' Rifle Platoon (under Second Lieutenant Roberto Oscar Reyes) was ferried ashore in the second wave by Batallón de Vehículos Anfibios Nº 1's amphibious assault vehicles, cleared Stanley Airport and occupied York Bay Lighthouse. Two hours later the remainder of RI 25 was flown in and took up pre-planned positions around the airport. A small parade was held to celebrate the recovery of the 'Malvinas'. On 4 April, First Lieutenant Carlos Daniel Esteban's C/RI 25 were flown to garrison the Darwin Isthmus, where, contrary to the official policy of appeasement, a strict regime was imposed on the settlement. By 12 April, C/RI 25 came under command of the Argentinian Air Force, then establishing 'Condor' Military Airbase at Goose Green, reverting in late April, to Army control when RI 12 (under Lieutenant-Colonel Ítalo Ángel Piaggi) arrived.

1 May 1982 was a real eye-opener for the soldiers in the 25th Regiment with with Private Alejandro Corso waking up early and unzipping his warm-up tent only to be greeted with the blasts and huge orange fireballs of 21 1,000-pound bombs dropped by a Royal Air Force Vulcan bomber hitting Stanley Airbase that threw him back inside the tent.[71] Stanley Airbase was attacked again by Sea Harriers in the morning and Royal Navy warships in the afternoon with the Regimental Commander playing the trumpet from a hill under naval gunfire in order to steady the nerves of his men.[72]

That day, a Sea Lynx assisting the Royal Navy ships in the correction of fire was taken by surprise by Second Lieutenant Guillermo Eduardo Laferriere's rifle platoon from RI 25 on Beagle Ridge and hit by machine-gun fire and a Wessex scared off by a Tigercat missile fired from the 601st Air Defence Artillery Regiment.[73][74]

That night, as part of the Heavy Mortar Platoon (under First Lieutenant Rafael Francisco Bitti) from RI 25's Headquarters & Support Company, Private José Luis Salina and the other fellow mortarmen in his platoon opened long-range fire with their 120mm Thompson-Brandt mortars on the British warships shelling the Stanley defences.[75]

On 15 May, Equipo de Combate Güemes (Combat Team Eagle), established a small garrison at Port San Carlos. On 21 May, the outpost on Fanning Head was abandoned, the retiring Argentinians in the form of 'Gato' Rifle Platoon extricating themselves from an SBS ambush. In Port San Carlos, EC Güemes in the form of the A/RI 12 Heavy Weapons Platoon (under Second Lieutenant José Alberto Vázquez) broke contact with 3 PARA, shooting down two Gazelle helicopters armed with SNEB rockets and damaging a third. The RI 12 platoon reached Stanley via helicopters with the men under Second Lieutenant Reyes captured on 11 June after having taken refuge at New House and Moss Side House.

In Stanley Airbase, RI 25 fretted, contemptuous of the British advance and the Argentinian conduct of the campaign with Private José Adrián Luna from the Headquarters & Support Company tuning to Radio Carve from Uruguay in order to get the truth about the progress of the war.[76]

The fierce winds from the South Atlantic, rain, hands and feet and water that froze, needed great dedication to combat, but despite all this, morale remained reasonably strong according to Private Juan Carlos Bortol from B/RI 25. [77] Discipline was never really a problem in the 25th Regiment, as each soldier knew how much each depended on the other. Nevertheless, trench life had its pressures and stealing and other perceived infractions were dealt with immediately. Private Víctor Antonio Ventura from A/RI 25 says the soldiers in his company received a bowl of hot lentils in the morning and another serving of the same thing in the afternoon and recalls witnessing two soldiers in his company that were caught stealing provisions from the C-130 transports in Stanley Airbase, being staked out in the freezing ground for a long period.[78]

Private Nolberto Eduardo Filippi from Captain Raúl Sevillano's E Company remains highly critical of the officers and NCOs in the 25th Regiment and says that although the soldiers in his company got a can of tinned meat each day, apart from the lentils that Private José Luis Salina says were served, he often went hungry and got caught and punished several times for stealing food and for shooting and butchering a horse with the Regimental Commander even threatening to have him court-martialed and shot on the spot for desertion and that when he was last caught stealing in his new post as a mortarman in First Lieutenant Rafael Bitti's Heavy Mortar Platoon from the Headquarters & Support Company, he was forced to sit for a long period in the freezing water on a nearby beach as punishment for which he ended up in hospital for several weeks suffering from numb feet and not evacuated to the Argentinian mainland as expected but forced to return to the Heavy Mortar Platoon upon recovering probably as a form of punishment.[79]

Private Jorge Antonio Urteaga from D Company says that he was fortunate to have served in RI 25 and that the Regimental Commander that he much admired, "turned me into a very good soldier and made me a much better person".[80]Private José Adrián Luna maintains that Lieutenant-Colonel Seineldín had no special privileges and slept beside the soldiers in the airbase and that if you had a chocolate bar you would take a nible and share it with your comrades regardless of rank and that the officers and NCOs "for us were like parents the way they would take care of us" although he says he did witness case of field punishments being carried out against some soldiers.[81]

As part of A/RI 25, Private Miguel Ángel González remained defending Stanley Airbase along with B, D and E Companies of the 25th 'Special' Infantry Regiment, and with his colleagues watched the tracer rounds, star-shells and artillery explosions of the night battle of 11/12 June and British softening up fire fall on the 7th Regiment and 5th Marine Battalion throughout the afternoon of 13 June.[82]

On a bitter, icy cold morning of 14 June, after the frustration of a false start earlier in the night, Privates Zanatto, Urteaga, Salina and Filippi as part of a 120-strong combat team comprising elements of B and D Companies and Heavy Mortar Platoon from Support Company, all under First Lieutenant Machi, deployed to defend a hillock overlooking Felton Stream at Moody Brook. The soldiers were told to hold it for the withdrawal of the 7th Regiment, reportedly overrun in several places, and the dismounted cavalrymen from the 10th Brigade, who had gone to help. An Argentinian Skyhawk strike with napalms bombs from Rio Gallegos was in progress, which was hardly a good sign, but was fortunately cancelled along with the planned counterattack on part of the 25th Regiment reinforcements. Private Zanatto recalls that the company formation reassembled some distance back and commenced preparations for house-to-house combat[83]but urban combat in Stanley Town was aborted with the 10th Brigade's Operation Officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Dalton reportedly stopping his jeep beside First Lieutenant Machi and updating him and telling him, "I have just saved your company from sure destruction."[84]

After the Argentinian surrender, Private Nolberto Filippi was given the opportunity to help a British soldier retrain and save two German Shepherd Dogs that only understood Spanish but Filippi soon ditched that job in order to stuff himself silly from the liberated food depots.[85]All the captured dogs in Argentinian service in the end had to put down.[86]

Escuadrón de Exploración de Caballería Blindado 181

The 181st Armoured Cavalry Exploration Squadron (Escuadrón de Exploración de Caballería Blindado 181 or Esc Expl C Bl 10) was an armoured car unit based in Esquel, Chubut Province. Equipped with 12 French-built Panhard AML-90 armoured cars, it was deployed to the Falklands on 7 April. It was soon joined by the 10th Armoured Cavalry Exploration Squadron from the 10th Brigade minus their vehicles.

The problems of mechanized and mobile warfare in a primitive landscape also quickly became apparent, it being found that the roads and tracks as marked on the maps were impassable. On 8 June, a strong detachment from the Regimiento de Granaderos a Caballo 'General San Martín' (Regiment of Mounted Grenadiers or RGC) arrived with six 7.62mm belt-fed machine-guns. On arrival it was detached to RI 4 and saw action on Mount Harriet, where 16 of its cavalrymen were captured.

On the night of 11/12 June, the 181st Squadron prepared to counterattack 45 COMMANDO and moved forward along the Stanley-Estancia track, but the armoured cars were recalled with the collapse of the Two Sisters strongpoint.

On the night of 13/14 June, Esc Expl C Bl 10 provided dismounted reinforcements for RI Mec 7. During the fighting for Wireless Ridge the platoons of Lieutenant Luis Ernesto Bertolini and Warrant Officer Diego Bianchi-Harrington engaged the British light tanks in "the only armour-versus-armour-engagement of the war".[87]It was near suicide, the cavalry unit suffering 5 killed and 50 wounded.

Compañía de Ingenieros Mecanizada 10

Major Carlos Roberto Matalón's 10th Mechanized Engineer Company (Compañía de Ingenieros Mecanizada 10 or Ca Ing Mec 10) arrived around 2.00 am on 14 April and began preparing field defences and laying minefields for Sector La Plata. 1st Platoon (under Lieutenant Hugo Aníbal Quiroga) was sent to Mount Longdon, where it laid 1,500 mines and formed part of the local reserve. 2nd Platoon (under Second Lieutenant Diego Carlos Arreseigor) was sent to Wireless Ridge where it laid a similar number of mines, and also later fought in the infantry role). 3rd Platoon (under Second Lieutenant Hector Rene Aguirre) and 4th Platoon (under Second Lieutenant Gustavo Manuel Salvadores) were left in Stanley Town to help maintain it clean[88]and beef up patrols that Argentinian Army Green Berets conducted in the town in search of saboteurs and British Special Forces believed to be hidden among the local population.[89]Under the orders of Brigadier-General Mario Menéndez, the Argentine Military Governor at Port Stanley, the 5th Platoon (under Second Lieutenant Luis Alberto Inocente) in the Falklands capital built field showers for the 10th Brigade, that allowed the 3rd, 6th, 7th and supporting 4th, 25th Regiments and 5th Marine Battalion before the British landings, to send companies into town on a rotating basis to get a hot shower.

Major Matalón would reportedly commandeer Kawasaki motorbikes from the 601st Commando Company in order to get family correspondence from the Argentinian mainland delivered to his men out in the field.[90]

On the night of 11/12 June, Lieutenant Hugo Aníbal Quiroga carried out a counterattack in support of B/RI Mec 7 suffering half a dozen wounded or injured with the Platoon Sergeant Juan Carlos Insaurralde badly wounded in the chest, Corporal Walter Calderon wounded in the hand, Private Claudio Jesús Hefner wounded in the arm and Private Jorge Alejandro Lezcano badly wounded in the hand. The Platoon Commander and Corporal Julio César Oviedo were tossed into the air and knocked unconscious by an explosion with Quiroga only recovering his wits after been given some whisky in the freezing night. The engineers having taken up positions near the heavy machinegun operated by Marine Corporal Domingo Lamas clashed with the platoon of Lieutenant Jonathan Shaw from B Company 3 PARA that was pinned down and unable to advance any further for several hours.[91]The men of Lieutenant Quiroga, having been subjected to a heavy naval bombardment, were eventually forced to fall back to the command bunker of Major Carlos Carrizo-Salvadores on the eastern summit of Longdon where they prepared to launch another counterattack under the cover of the early morning mist, but the Carrizo-Salvadores, reported that he had new orders from 10th Brigade HQs to fall back to Wireless Ridge. On Wireless Ridge, Quiroga attempted to obtain more ammunition for the 25 or so men he had left but Captain Guillermo Santiago Grau from the 7th Regiment told him there was none left that could be spared. Faced with this situation, Lieutenant Hugo Quiroga and the platoon of engineers linked up with Captain Eduardo López-Astore and the survivors from B/RI Mec 7 in Stanley Gymnasium where they were given cups of Mate herbal tea and bread buns and enjoyed calefaction a hot showers for a change.[92]

In summing up his experiences in the war, Hugo Quiroga who reached the rank of lieutenant-colonel before retiring said: "We went with a group of well-trained soldiers, nothing to do with 'The Boys of War'. About those who said that 'they sent them without training'... the British say the opposite to that, that they found themselves against warlike troops, with soldiers with great disregard for their lives, as long as they fulfilled their oath to defend the Faltherland even if you lost your life. They were not kids of the war, but gentlemen warriors, trained for such a purpose."[93]

Ca Ing Mec 10 lost 2 killed in the Falklands campaign, Privates José Domingo Curima and Sergio Sinchicay, both killed in air attacks.

Compañía de Policía Militar 181

Compañía de Policía Militar 181 (181st Military Police Company or Ca PM 181) was a 65-strong unit based in Buenos Aires. The military police unit arrived very early on in the Argentinian occupation, and escorted some of the captured Royal Marines to Argentina. Its mission was to maintain law and order in the capital and to maintain military discipline. Ca PM 181 was based in Stanley Police Station. The unit was involved in several operations, including mounting a cordon around the Falkland Islands Company warehouse, where it was suspected that a resistance meeting was being held. They were also involved in the arrest of several Falkland Islanders.

Incorporated into Ca PM 181 was a canine unit complete with German Shepherd dogs. When these were captured the British wanted to keep the dogs, until it was realized they only understood Spanish.

Leftist anti-war veterans from the Buenos Aires-based 'Centro Ex-Combatientes Islas Malvinas' (Malvinas Islands Ex-Combatants Centre or CECIM) tell of being tied and pinned to the frozen ground with tent pegs for hours or punched and kicked for stealing from the Stanley food depots or shooting and killing sheep for food in Stanley Common. In a 2019 interview with ‘Radio Noticias’, former Private Gustavo Alberto Placente from the 181st Military Police Company explained that the field punishments were absolutely necessary to keep the conscript soldiers in line.[94]

Batallón de Infantería de Marina 5

Batallón de Infantería de Marina 5 (5th Marine Infantry Battalion or BIM 5) arrived in the Falklands on Thursday 8 April 1982 and deployed straight to 'Sector Bronze' (Bronze) covering Mount William and Tumbledown Mountain and the southern beaches. Based in Rio Grande in Tierra del Fuego Province the battalion was well suited to the cold of the approaching South Atlantic winter. The battalion under the command of Commander Colonel Carlos Hugo Robacio, a believer in a fight to the finish, was admirably led and full of dash. Robacio, aged 49, had readied his battalion with speed and enthusiasm. He had wanted a Falkland assignment. It was Robacio who suggested upon arrival in the Stanley sector that his battalion be made the helicopter-borne reserve and rushed in helicopters to screen off 3 Commando Brigade whenever the British landings took place.[95]

The day after Robacio arrived, the BIM 5 set out to their assigned positions. M Company (under Captain Rodolfo Cionchi)5th Marine Battalion dug in on Sapper Hill, just in front of Port Stanley. N Company (under Captain Eduardo Villarraza) 5th Marine Battalion was dug in on Tumbledown Mountain and Mount William. Lieutenant Daniel Vazquez's 4th Platoon N Company and Lieutenant Héctor Miño's 5th Platoon 1st Amphibious Engineer Company were on the centre of Tumbledown. On the north-east shoulder of Tumbledown was First Sergeant Jorge Lucero's 3rd Platoon.

On the saddle between Tumbledown and William was Second Lieutenant Marcelo Oruezabala's 2nd Platoon, with Second Lieutenant Carlos Bianchi's 1st Platoon on Mount William. Captain Ricardo Quiroga's 'O' Company dug in on Mount William. 'O' Company, reinforced by Army Commandos and elements of Major Luis Menghini's 1st Amphibious Engineer Company would later be in a blocking position between Mount William and Pony Pass. Behind these companies, near Felton Stream, the 5th Marine Battalion Headquarters and the 1st Amphibious Engineer Company was based.

On 14 June, during the final Argentinian withdrawal, M/BIM 5 acted as a rearguard at a position on the slopes of Sapper Hill, allowing troops of N/BIM5 and B/RI Mec 6 to move through to Stanley Town.

Compañía de Ametralladoras 12,7 mm IM

Compañía de Ametralladoras 12,7 mm IM (Marine Heavy Machine-Gun Company) was a 136-strong heavy machine-gun company drawn from Batallón Comando (Marine Infantry Headquarters Battalion or BICO) based in Puerto Belgrano. Its main task was to reinforce BIM 5 in order to cover possible helicopter landing sites with long-range machine-gun fire in Sector Bronce (Bronze). It was organized into three platoons each with seven Browning M2 0.50 (12.7mm) heavy machine-guns and protecting rifle teams.

British landings

On D-Day and the following week, Argentinian fighter-bombers sank a total of four British ships and damaged six others, but the focus of operations switched to ground warfare.

On 26 May, a highly critical cable was sent to Brigadier-General Menéndez. It called into question the effectiveness of the Argentinian Army. It spoke of the Argentinian Navy as having "contributed its quota of blood already" and pointed out that the Argentinian Air Force risked its "men and material on a daily basis", whereas: "The Army seems to have only an attitude of static defence which, should it continue indefinitely, will make the men wilt in their positions even before being able to engage in combat with the mass of enemy troops."[96]

Menéndez was told that he should strive to eject Brigadier Julian Thompson's 3 Commando Brigade from San Carlos before the arrival of Brigadier Tony Wilson's 5th Infantry Brigade, which the Argentinians expected to arrive between 28 and 30 May. He suggested using Combat Team Solari in probing attacks, which was guarding Mount Kent. But Brigadier-General Omar Parada, who had responsibility for the areas outside Stanley Common, was not prepared to risk the company. Brigadier-General Jofre, a "more flexible and imaginative brigade commander", offered his helicopter-borne reserve and warned Major Oscar Jaimet to be prepared to move B Company 6th Regiment to Mount Simon to mount raids at San Carlos.[97]

On 26 May, Brigadier Thompson gave his orders for the British breakout from the beachhead. Two battalions, 45 COMMANDO (Lieutenant-Colonel Andrew Whitehead) and 3 PARA (Lieutenant-Colonel Hew Pike), would march overland to secure the shores of Teal Inlet, the Royal Marines 'yomping' to Douglas Settlement and the Paras 'tabbing' to Teal Inlet Settlement. While these battalions marched to Stanley, 2 PARA (Lieutenant-Colonel Herbert Jones) would march south to the Darwin Isthmus to screen or attack the Argentinian garrison at Goose Green.

The Battle for Goose Green started in the early hours of the morning of 28 May and continued until the evening. day. It is not intended to recount the action in detail, but rather to note a number of the features of the battle. The Argentinians occupied five hillocks, and stiff fighting ensued to clear them of them. Communications between 12th Regiment Headquarters and A Company were severed early after a British hand grenade destroyed the radio First Lieutenant Jorge Antonio Manresa had mounted in the back of his jeep.[98] The soldiers in the 2nd Rifle Platoon (under Second Lieutenant Gustavo Adolfo Malacalza) on Burntside Hill and 3rd Rifle Platoon (under Second Lieutenant Marcelo Martin Bracco) on Coronation Ridge from A/RI 12 were mopped up by the Paras, in a manner which 2 PARA's second-in-command (Major Chris Keeble) likened to "gutter fighting"[99]with B Company forced to use L84 White phosphorus (WP) grenades to silence the Argentinian machine-gunners and protecting riflemen.[100]The fighting was so severe that a reinforced rifle platoon (under Lieutenant Roberto Nestor Estévez) of the 25th (Ranger) Regiment was dispatched at 07.30 am to help restore the situation.

There were soon two battles going on in the Gorse Line-one in front of Darwin Cemetery, and an equally fierce in front of Boca Hill. The fight here was so severe that Tactical Headquarters Group 2 PARA was dispatched at 09.30 am to help restore the situation, resulting in the death of the British battalion commander at the hands of an Argentinian Army Green Beret sniper identified in 1996 as Corporal Osvaldo Faustino Olmos from C/RI 25.[101] [102][103]

Now D Company moved to the assistance of B Company, who had taken casualties in their attempts take Boca Hill. The new plan called for the Paras to attack Condor Military Airbase, adjacent to Goose Green Settlement, which they did on the afternoon of 28 May. Lieutenant-Colonel Piaggi recalled the situation:

"The battle had turned into a sniping contest. They could sit well out of range of our soldiers' fire and, if they wanted to, raze the settlement. I knew that there was no longer any chance of reinforcements from 6th Regiment's B Company and so I suggested to Wing-Commander Wilson Pedrozo that he talk to the British. He agreed reluctantly".[104]

Lieutenant-Colonel Ítalo Ángel Piaggi, knowing that he would be crucified by military and civilian courts for surrendering Goose Green, made a personally painful and professionally difficult decision to surrender rather than send "any more boys to their death."[105]

During the Battle for Port Darwin and Goose Green Settlement, 2 PARA lost 15 killed and 64 wounded. Two hundred and fifty Argentinian dead were reportedly counted and 1,400 taken prisoner, but the real number was revealed to be 47 killed and 140 wounded with 961 captured. The fighting had lasted fourteen hours, longer than expected and against determined Argentinian opposition.

There were stories of Argentinian soldiers defecating in houses but on closer closer look this tended to be troops suffering from diarrhea or sleeping in beds with dirty clothes and muddy boots.[106]

By the end of May, British Special Forces had conquered Mount Kent whilst 3 PARA and 45 COMMANDO had begun to arrive after walking across half of East Falkland from San Carlos.

In the meantime, intelligence reports advised 3 Commando Brigade that the 2nd Airborne Infantry Regiment was attempting to move from Comodoro Rivadavia in C-130s and F-27s troop transports to drop behind British lines but was being held up by the presence of Sea Harrier combat air patrols, British warships and strong winds. Brigadier Thompson left 40 COMMANDO in the San Carlos area to further frustrate this enemy regiment's move.

At the Gates of Stanley

The Falklands campaign had entered the early stages of the battle for 'No-Man's-Land' which would last for a week and a half. This was a hard, monotonous period of trench warfare of a First World War nature. It was a life of patrolling and raids, wiring, mining, of being constantly shelled and mortared and fighting off British night-fighting patrols which persisted until the night of 10/11 June.

In general terms, the 4th and 7th Regiments facing the British were thoroughly entrenched about 6,000 metres across a No-Man's-Land. Positions were mined and patrolled heavily. Both sides were able to call in artillery and mortar fire quickly and accurately. Good patrolling called for well-conceived, imaginative planning, thorough briefings and rehearsal and determined, skill-full execution. In some areas (The Saddle, Wall Mountain and Murrell Bridge) the British established forward posts, close to the Argentinian units.

On 3 June, a small rifle section (under Corporal Nicolás Víctor Odorcic) from the 3rd Rifle Platoon B Company on Mount Harriet made contact with a British force well concealed in abandoned Argentinian positions on Wall Mountain. The force, later learned to be the Reconnaissance Troop (under Lieutenant Chris Marwood) of 42 COMMANDO; directed rocket, sniper, machine-gun and rifle fire from very close range, with the Argentinian patrol suffering two killed, Privates Celso Páez and Roberto Ledesma, and one injured, the patrol commander. Although suffering a head injury from a sniper round that impacted his helmet, Odorcic nevertheless skillfully poured covering fire onto the British position.[107]Corporal Walter Ariel Pintos with a rifle section patrolling west of Murrell River then moved south to initiate the counterattack. With Odorcic having extricated the remainder of his section from the British ambush, Second Lieutenant Daniel Alberto Monetti directed the mortar bombardment from his Support Platoon on Harriet. During the withdrawal of the British force the Royal Marines came under rifle grenade fire from Corporal Pintos and his section, but with skillful use of fire and movement, Marwood was able to withdraw his platoon as well although forced to abandon much equipment.[108]

To help secure the initiative, the 601st Commando Company did some patrolling in support of the Mount Longdon defenders, the most significant being a deep patrol in strength (2nd Assault Section under Captain Rubén Teófilo Figueroa and four National Gendarmerie Commandos: Second Lieutenant Miguel Ángel Puente, Drill Sergeant Natalio Jesús Figueredo and Corporals Agustín Jara and Luis Alberto Kovalski[109]) on the night of 6/7 June which made contact near Murrell Bridge, capturing a PRC-351 radio and several rucksacks from 3 PARA's D Company, and putting a lot of well-directed artillery fire the next day into a platoon of Royal Marines attempting to retrieve the supplies in an abandoned Land Rover jeep.[110]

During the night of 5/6 June, Major Aldo Rico sent out a strong patrol under Captain Tomás Victor Fernández to establish a protective night ambush for Marine Captain Carlos Alberto Calmels' O Company from BIM 5 that was moving forward from Mount William and taking up new positions on Pony Pass. The Army Green Berets heard voices from a British party (under Sergeant Michael Collins) and reported back to Rico.


At 6.00 pm on 8 June, Lieutenant Mark Townsend's rifle platoon from 42 COMMANDO left Mount Challenger and patrolled into a concealed enemy position on the northern slopes of Mount Harriet. A three-hour firefight and bunker-busting battle ensued. Towsend's men employed 66mm rockets and machine-guns with devastating effect against the 3rd Rifle Platoon (under Second Lieutenant Lautaro Jiménez-Corbalán) from B Company 4th Regiment. However, his principal mission was to capture an Argentinian for intelligence purposes. His platoon (1 Troop Kilo Company) was too small to destroy and defend the captured positions against the ensuing counterattack that Sergeant Héctor Carlos Montellano from the 3rd Logistic (Truck) Battalion had organized using 10 hand-picked riflemen from the 'Ghost/Lost Platoon' under Lieutenant Pablo Andrés Oliva on the southern slopes . Townsend withdrew his force to Challenger under the cover of close artillery support without suffering any casualties.

That same night, a large raiding force from 3 PARA and 45 COMMANDO was detected by the RASIT ground-surveillance radar (operated by Sergeant Roque Antonio Nista and Private Pablo Di Meglio) on Mount Longdon and fired upon by the 3rd Artillery Regiment after they had crossed the Murrell River to raid Longdon and Two Sisters. The force had to withdaw, but miraculously took no casualties.[111][112][113][114]

Two days later, at about 2.30 am on 10 June, the British attacked the 4th Regiment again. Lieutenant David Stewart's reinforced rifle platoon from X-Ray Company 45 COMMANDO began its assault with a 66 mm rocket and 81 mm mortar barrage supported by illumination rounds and a foray on the part of a section of Recce Troop against the defenders of the southern peak of Two Sisters. However, the strong British force that included a section of Mortar Troop and a section of Marine Sappers, armed with plastic explosives to inflict maximum damage, ran into Major Aldo Rico's 602nd Commando Company on the western side of Murrell River. This gun-battle lasted for about half an hour and was finally defeated with machine-gun, sniper fire, rifle-grenades, and artillery support. The Royal Marines withdrew, leaving equipment on the battlefield, and two Argentinian Commandos (Sergeant Mario Antonio Cisnero and Ramón Gumercindo Acosta) lay dead within the perimeter.[115]

While maintaining pressure on the 4th Regiment on the Monte Caseros Line, the British shelled Harriet on the evening of 11 June, dropping over 1,000 rounds onto the defences, and killing two members of B Company and wounding twenty-five as well as further damaging the defensive works. [116]

Fall of Port Stanley

3 PARA attacked Mount Longdon, which was defended by B Company (Captain Eduardo López-Astore) 7th Regiment, a local reserve in the form of a 10th Engineer Company platoon (under Lieutenant Hugo Aníbal Quiroga) and a platoon of Marine heavy-machine-gunners and protecting riflemen. The Argentinians were well entrenched, and fought hard and well.

B Company (under Major Mike Argue) gained the western summit after a long approach march, and was soon involved in an intense firefight with the 1st Rifle Platoon on Longdon who were in greater strength than expected having reached a maximum strength of 75 men after the fall of Mount Kent.[117]Argentinian sentries challenged Argue's company and all surprise was lost with Private Aldo Omar Ferreyra rushing back to his 2nd Rifle Platoon (under First Sergeant Raúl Roberto González) B Company to warn them all.[118]The platoon commander with Privates Ramón Daniel Pujado and Enrique Alfredo Sáez rushed forward and greeted the Paras with their hand grenades.[119]Corporal Gustavo Osvaldo Pedemonte's section from the 2nd Rifle Platoon reacted vigorously, and 4 Platoon (Lieutenant Ian Bickerdike) and 5 Platoon (Lieutenant Mark Cox) quickly found themselves under heavy machine-gun fire from Sergeant Benito Sabino Avaca from the 2nd Rifle Platoon and Private Vicente José Bruno from the 1st Rifle Platoon.[120][121]

The British Paratroopers nevertheless, gained a firm foothold on the western slopes with the Paras taking out with phosphorus grenades Privates Marcelo Daniel Massad (KIA) and Ricardo Horacio Herrera (KIA) from the ground-surveillance radar section[122] and badly wounding Private Pablo Dimeglio, the RASIT operator'assistant.[123]

A British report on the action on the western end of Longdon noted that "Some of them were very disciplined firing moving back into cover then coming out again and firing again or throwing grenades."[124]First Lieutenant Enrique Eneas Neirotti proved particularly effective at pinning down with machinegun and rifle fire the Paratroopers in Lieutenant Jonathan Shaw's 6 Platoon.[125]Eventually, Lieutenant-Colonel Omar Giménez despatched First Lieutenant Raúl Fernando Castañeda's 1st Rifle Platoon from the 7th Regiment's C Company on Wireless Ridge to the eastern summit of Mount Longdon to help out and Captain Alejandro Rodrigo Soloaga moved the dismounted cavalry men in Esc Expl C Bl 10 into blocking positions to the south and and east of Longdon. Much of the resistance of the remainder of the night came from First Lieutenant Castañeda's men that very nearly overran and captured some 20 British wounded in the Regimental Aid Post from 3 PARA. Thirteen of the attacking Paras became fatalities, and as heavy Argentinian fire intensified from the Argentinian reinforcements advancing along the sheep track on the northern slopes, the British company withdrew. During the Argentinian counter-attack, Private Gustavo Jorge Luzardo reportedly captured a British Self-Loading-Rifle (SLR) which he gave to First Lieutenant Raúl Castañeda as a present.[126]

Longdon was finally retaken from the defiant members of the 1st Rifle Platoon C Company by A Company (Major David Collett) 3 PARA in the half light of dawn on the morning of 12 June with Corporal Jorge Daniel Arribas reporting a total of six killed in Castañeda's platoon[127]and eighteen wounded.[128][129]Throughout the battle for Longdon, Captain Guillermo Santiago Grau in his jeep is able to evacuate 67 Argentinian wounded, undoubtedly saving many lives. [130]Sergeant Rolando Mario Spizuoco had displayed great heroism by rescuing most of the 1st Platoon wounded conscripts in the forward tents and carrying them back through a nightmare of shot and shell to a place of safety for which he would win the Gallantry In Combat Medal.[131]

Although the 3rd Battalion The Parachute Regiment had killed around 30 Argentinians in taking and securing the ridgeline, they had lost 23 dead and 70 wounded and injured in the attacking companies with Private Michael Southall reporting there were only 30 men left standing in Major Mike Argue's company after taking and securing Longdon.[132]Among the Argentinian dead was Pedro Alberto Orozco, a former conscript that elected to stay in the 7th Regiment and was promoted to the rank of corporal in 1981 and Private Omar Anibal Brito (KIA) who had to be taken out with a sniper round to the head after refusing to abandon his firing position.[133]

The next morning, Lieutenant-Colonel Hew Pike visited the abandoned enemy positions on Mount Longdon and he wrote afterwards: "The misty scene as dawn broke will perhaps be the most haunting memory of this long, cold fight. The debris of battle was scattered along the length of the mountain, encountered round every turn in the rocks, in every gully. Weapons, clothing, rations, blankets, boots, tents, ammunition, sleep bags, blood-soaked medical dressings, web equipment, packs - all abandoned, along with the 105mm RCLs, 120 mm mortars and .50 Brownings that had given us so much trouble during the darkness. The enemy dead lay everywhere victims of shell, bullet and bayonet."[134]

The survivors in B Company 7th Regiment now went into divisional reserve for the Port Stanley Battle Group, its place of recovery being Stanley Gymnasium where they got proper hot food and much needed rest.

"Our own officers were our greatest enemies"[135], claimed former Private Ernesto Alonso of 1st Rifle Platoon B Company in 2012, who became the president of Malvinas Islands Ex-Combatants Centre (Centro Ex-Combatientes Islas Malvinas or CECIM), an anti-war leftists veterans group founded by Rodolfo Carrizo another former conscript of the 7th Regiment. And added,"They supplied themselves with whiskey from the pubs, but they weren’t prepared for war. They disappeared when things got serious."[136]

Private Santiago Dionel Mambrin would defend the conduct of the officers and NCOs that was questioned by some veterans and members of the Argentinian press: "I served and fought in B Company. You should have seen how we fought. You would have thought we were very experienced soldiers with a couple of wars under our belts. And more so, when we found out that the British had shattered the 1st Rifle Platoon ... We went berserk. We wanted to kill them all! They had killed several of our mates! ... And we had good officers and NCOs, like Corporal Eduardo Farías, Captain Eduardo López and Major Carlos Carrizo-Salvadores. So many brave men, like First Sergeant Pedro López who would raise our spirits and say things like, 'Come on lads, bring me The Beatles right now, I'll sort them out" ... And who can forget First Sergeant Rolando Spizuoco ... he showed real guts."[137]

In 2013, Ernesto Alonso would reveal he did not fight on Mount Longdon spending the night of battle in the psychiatric ward of Stanley Hospital, a victim of shell-shock requiring evacuation on Friday 11 June during the British softening up bombardments of the frontlines.[138]

At the same time 3 PARA was attacking Longdon, 45 COMMANDO (under Lieutenant-Colonel Andrew Whitehead) crossed Murrell River to attack the Argentinian strongpoint on Two Sisters Mountain. Two Argentinian companies were dug in and around the slopes of the hill, C Company (Major Ricardo Mario Cordón) 4th Regiment defended the southern and northern peaks while the local reserve in the form of B Company (Major Oscar Ramón Jaimet) 6th Regiment defended the valley between Longdon and Two Sisters. The brunt of Whitehead's attack fell on Major Cordón' C Company, commencing at 11.00 pm. The rifle sections under Corporals Raúl Héctor Peña, Raúl Ramos, Walter Ariel Pintos and Jorge Omar Valdez from the 3rd Rifle Platoon of Second Lieutenant Marcelo Alberto Llambías-Pravaz on the southern peak fiercely defended their positions with rifles, machine-gun fire and bazooka rounds while evacuating their wounded and shouting their old Guarani war-cry of 'Sapukay!'. It soon became apparent that, one rifle company in the form of X-Ray Company was not enough to penetrate the Argentinian defences. Another company was required which deployed around midnight to help their comrades battling the southern peak defenders but Zulu Company also came under heavy fire from the northern peak defenders and was soon pinned down.

The Royal Marine Commandos's 66mm and 84mm rockets gave him effective support, and bayonet attacks were a feature of his tactics, as was the placing of BREN light machine-guns on his flank and MILAN missiles in the rear in support in the case of X-Ray Company. [139]In this way, C/RI 4 suffered heavy casualties, including the loss of four platoon commanders killed or wounded. Communications between C/RI 4 and B/RI Mec 6 failed early, in large part thanks to the British artillery, which fired 1,500 rounds of high explosive, and contact was maintained between Majors Cordón and Jaimet through foot messengers.

Both 1st (Miguel Mosquera-Gutierrez, WIA) and 2nd Rifle Platoons (Second Lieutenant Jorge Pérez-Grandi, WIA) C Company 4th Regiment defending the northern peak withdrew completely from Two Sisters around 0445 local time with their casualties under the cover of fire of Second Lieutenant Aldo Eugenio Franco's 2nd Rifle Platoon[140] with Franco's men having "fought Yankee Company to a standstill in some rugged fighting,"[141] therefore preventing 45 COMMANDO from exploiting onto Tumbledown and forcing the British light cruiser HMS Glamorgan to stay behind and assist Lieutenant Andy Shaw's 5 Troop dislodge Franco's men. [142]The Foreward Observation Officer, Second Lieutenant Eduardo Ramón Gavier-Tagle from GA Aerot 4, Private Oscar Ismael Poltronieri armed with a 7.62mm machine-gun, Corporal Juan Antonio Barroso and Private Mario Javier Romero armed with a heavy mortar and Corporal Mario Marvil Pacheco from the 10th Communications Company fighting as a rifleman, in turn covered the retreat of 2nd Rifle Platoon B Company. Major Oscar Ramón Jaimet: "We were a short distance from the English, no more than 40 meters. I went through the positions and protected myself as best I could. A second before an artillery shell fell nearby, I dove into a cave in the mountain and miraculously saved my life. The English were climbing a cliff and so I asked for support from the artillery. Due to those errors typical of the chaos of war, a blast hit some of my men. I spotted a nest of machine guns, started firing at them with my rifle, and managed to suppress the fire. But not the fire of hell that we were living: that continued. I appointed Second Lieutenant Franco, with 45 men, as head commander of the rearguard. And in that group there was the heroic performance of Private Oscar Poltronieri, who stayed behind with a machine gun resisting enemy fire so that we could fall back."[143]

X-Ray Company (under Major Ian Gardiner) subjected the 3rd Rifle Platoon from C/RI 4 to mortar, rocket and machine-gun fire for nearly four hours before the defenders reluctantly withdrew to Tumbledown Mountain where they another soldier killed on the night of 13/14 June, Private Orlando Aylan.

Brigadier-General Oscar Jofré remembers the loss of the twin peaks:"And all of a sudden, we got some really bad news. It was 0445 hours when we got this report from Major Jaimet telling us that the defenders on Two Sisters could no longer resist the enemy attack and would initiate their withdrawal to the rear, communication that he got via a foot messenger."[144]

Lieutenant-Colonel Andrew Whitehead, commanding 45 COMMANDO, spoke to British war correspondent Max Hastings after inspecting the abandoned strongpoint and said, "With 120 men I could have died of old age holding these hills." [145] British war correspondents Patrick Bishop and John Witherow were of the opinion that, "The feature was too long for the Argentinians to defend seriously without committing a couple of battalions".[146]Lieutenant Andy Shaw would later condemn the Argentinian defenders for defecating in their positions, forgetting that the Afrika Korps did the same thing in the North African Campaign when pinned down for days by Allied softening up bombardments, except the German soldiers had brought pigs with them to eat the mess and to butcher and eat the pigs when supplies failed to arrive.[147]

The southern-most attack and the last one on the night of 11/12 June, was launched by 42 COMMANDO (under Lieutenant-Colonel Nick Vaux) against Mount Harriet. 'Kilo' Company (under Captain Peter Babbington) sought and achieved surprise by attacking from an unexpected direction using a night approach and capitalizing on fog and mist. British fire support, notably 1,000 artillery shells and mortar bombs, and MILAN anti-tank missiles combined well as did the naval gunfire.

Nevertheless, Lima Company (under Captain David Wheen) still had much night-fighting to do, with the Argentinian machine-gunners and protecting riflemen "fighting determinedly as usual"[148], and the task was made more difficult by the 600 metres of ground littered with boulders the Royal Marines had to cross under heavy Argentinian artillery fire before reaching the summit. Harriet was secured after bitter fighting, and Juliet Company (under Major Mike Norman) then reinforced them.

By dawn, the British were in control of Mount Harriet and Goat Ridge for the loss of 2 Marines killed and 30 wounded. Regrettably, losses to the 4th Regiment had been high. Twenty-three had been killed. Another 122, had been wounded. Three Marine engineers and two Argentinian sergeants in the Special Forces had been killed while supporting the regiment on Two Sisters. During the battle for Harriet and Two Sisters the Royal Marines Commandos lost ten killed and 50 wounded

A blocking force in the form of the 10th Armoured Cavalry Squadron had been left to keep the British Paratroopers busy, while the survivors of B/RI Mec 7 made good their escape from Longdon, and the 3rd Regiment's A Company facing the sea moved in a column of trucks north to link up with the 5th Marine Battalion. With the 3rd Regiment's Operation Officer, Major Guillermo Rubén Berazay, in the forward jeep, A/RI Mec 3 moved into the western outskirts of Stanley and for the first time met with British artillery fire which killed Private Julio Cesar Segura. In the predawn darkness, Sergeant-Major José Ramón de Jesus Pizarro from 10th Brigade Headquarters, in his jeep is also able to move forward to the Argentinian blocking position and rescue a number of soldiers from C/RI 4 that had joined Esc C Bl 10 and were now suffering from hypothermia.

By 13 June, the British forces had reinforced, resupplied and regrouped. They began a second brigade-sized attack by saturating Wireless Ridge with 6,000 artillery shells. Nevertheless A Company/7th Regiment sheltering on the reverse slopes, thanks to Private Roberto Arturo Sañisky who was instrumental in rousing the exhausted conscripts, rose up and gave 2 PARA a hard time very early in the battle, peppering with machine-gun fire the attackers and forcing A and B Companies to withdraw back to their start-lines near Furze Bush Pass.[149][150]

On the night of 13/14 June the companies from 2 PARA with tank support moved into position to attack the remainder of the 7th Regiment on Wireless Ridge. In this action, 2 PARA fighting over difficult terrain, rolled-up two rifle companies, driving them out of deeply entrenched positions, and withstood the subsequent determined counterattacks. Its losses were 3 KIA and 15 wounded and injured with 4 mortarmen suffering fractured ankles in repelling A Company/3rd Regiment.

The Scots Guards put in two major attacks in the Bronze Sector, on the night of 13/14 June, simultaneous with heavy aasaults on the 7th Regiment on the left flank. Assisted by Scorpion light tanks from the Blues & Royals, Pony Pass was taken but lost by midnight. Resistance had been stubborn on Sector Bronze, and O/BIM 5 had been assisted by a platoon of Amphibious Engineers, which mounted a pursuit through the minefields. The fighting in the Pony Pass sector was all over by 02.00 am. Clearing patrols from the Amphibious Combat Engineers discovered 2 British bodies and evidence the attackers had dragged many wounded soldiers. After Pony Pass, O Company 5th Marines withdrew to Moody Brook in the role of 10th Brigade reserve. Between then and the regrouping of the Tumbledown defenders on Sapper Hill in the late morning of 14 June, the 5th Marine Battalion was involved in repelling the last operation of the Special Air Service Regiment, the raid on Cortley Ridge.

The attack on N/BIM 5 on Tumbledown were accompanied by heavy artillery and naval gunfire concentrations. The Guardsmen of 15 Platoon (under Lieutenant Alasdair Mitchell) penetrated the 4th Platoon and on one occasion in their first assault were only stopped when Argentinian mortar fire was called down on top of the Argentinians' own position. By this stage, Brigadier Tony Wilson's battle plan was bogged down and the impetus of the British advance on Tumbledown was waning. Signs of frustration emerged. As the Scots Guards Operations Officer, Captain Tim Spicer recalled:

"Roger Gwyn was keen to avoid him (Lieutenant-Colonel Scott) being killed like 'H' Jones. The Commanding Officer asked my opinion and I advised him not to go up to be seen. He would only be pinned down too. I also told him that we still had confidence in the Company Commander's ability to do the job, and that we should let him get on with it."[151]

Slowly Left Flank Company began to get the upper hand. Command and control of Lieutenant Héctor Miño's 5th P1atoon broke down. At about 2.00 am the unauthorized decision was taken to withdraw the platoon.

At that time HMS Yarmouth and HMS Active were blasting N/BIM 5 apart. By the time Port Stanley was captured on 14 June the Royal Navy had reportedly fired a total of 8,000 rounds with considerable effect.

In Left Flank Company five were killed and 18 wounded with another 15 or so, according to Lance-Sergeant Thomas McGuinness from 13 Platoon, concussed or suffering from bad bruising from the flying rock fragments[152], but they killed twelve Argentinian defenders.

By 4.30 am, the local situation was regarded as critical, and B/RI Mec 6 were ordered to assist. At about 5.00 am Major Oscar Jaimet gave the 3rd Rifle Platoon commander the task of clearing Left Flank Company out with a counterattack. With his accustomed enthusiasm and efficiency La Madrid quickly assembled his men, lined them up and went in. It was hardly a Hollywood style counterattack, but there was no lack of confidence in the rifle platoon (La Madrid would win the equivalent of a Military Cross).

Second Lieutenant Augusto La Madrid: "We moved off through a gap in the rocks; I spread my men out behind the men who were still fighting. My orders were not to let anyone pass, no even Argentine soldiers. I went forward to make a reconnaissance and could see that the British had two machineguns and a missile launcher in action. I went through another gap in the rocks and was surprised by three men speaking in English behind and above me and firing over the top of me. I could see them with my night binoculars; there were about twelve of them in all. I was anxious to get back to my platoon. I took a rifle grenade and fired at where I had seen the first three men. I heard it explode and some shouts and cries of pain, and the sound of someone falling down the rocks. I ran back to my position and ordered my men to open fire. We stopped them, but they thinned out and came round our flanks; their deployment was good. They also engaged us with light mortars and missile launchers. This went on for a long time, and we suffered heavy casualties; we had eight dead and ten wounded. We started to run short of ammunition, particularly for the machineguns. Also, I could see that we were outflanked, with the British behind us, so we were cut off from my company. Some of my men had been taken prisoner. I reorganized and found that I was down to sixteen men. I started to retire. The British above me were firing machineguns, but we passed close to the rocks, actually under the machinegun fire. I left six men in a line with one machinegun to cover our retreat, but really we were fighting all the time; we could not break contact. They came on us fast, and we fell back; it was starting to get light. The whole hill had fallen by then, and we were on lower ground, just south of Moody Brook. We eventually got through to Stanley, through what I would like to say was a perfect barrage fired by the Royal Artillery. We had to wait for breaks in the firing, but I still lost a man killed there." [153]

The counterattack on the Scots Guards failed to make any real headway. It was exectued too late to tip the scales in favour of the Argentinians. Commander Carlos Robacio, however, did not intend to surrender Tumbledown to the Scots Guards. But as he telephoned Villarraza to check with him on the progress of M Company, which had been planning a counterattack, the unwelcome news arrived that the 7th Regiment on Wireless Ridge was retreating. At this moment Brigadier-General Oscar Jofre decided it was time to make a withdrawal. Jofre reasoned that British air assault units would go for Sapper Hill and trap N and O Companies from the 5th Marine Battalion, and B Company 6th Regiment. Accordingly, N and O Companies were ordered to make for Sapper Hill. Major Jaimet was contacted and he agreed to act as the rearguard with the remainder of his company.

Captain Villarraza refused to give in, however. At 0800 on 14 June, a counterattack using First Sergeant Jorge Lucero's 3rd Platoon was mounted towards the centre of Tumbledown, and, despite initial problems, some progress was made.[154] But as the 1st Battalion 7th Duke of Edinburgh's Own Gurkha Rifles appeared in the eastern end of Tumbledown, Lucero's platoon was forced to pull back[155]

On account of the strong defences on Tumbledown, the Gurkha battalion commander, Lieutenant-Colonel David Morgan, decided to make a night attack, but slow approach marches meant that at dawn on 14 June the Gurkhas were short of their objective, in full view of Villarraza's forward artillery observation officer, Second Lieutenant Marcelo De Marco, and he duly got on the radio and called down rounds of airburst, right on top of the Gurkhas. The Gurkhas suffered eight wounded by this fire.

On orders from Stanley, the 5th Marines and B/RI Mec 6 left Sapper Hill for Stanley. The thankless task of covering the Argentinian retreat was Marine Captain Rodolfo Cionchi's. To help him, he had just part of M Company and some soldiers from the 4th Army Regiment who had recently fought well on Two Sisters. Just south of Cionchi's position was a minefield. It was here that a 40 COMMANDO platoon landed by 2 Sea King helicopters. On Sapper Hill Marine Second Lieutenants Marcelo Davis and Alejandro Koch, and their platoons were soon in a firefight. Second Lieutenant Marcelo Llambías-Pravaz of the 4th Regiment joined them and opened fire with a FAL rifle. "I was so mad; I wanted to shoot both helicopters out of the sky", says Llambias-Pravaz.

The Sea Kings were raked with rifle fire and limped out to seek cover. Both helicopters had to be taken out of service temporarily while repairs were completed. The last shots of the battle had been fired. Beating a prudent retreat, Cionchi's force made their way back to Port Stanley.

The attack against Sapper Hill came in at 1.05 pm and Second Lieutenant Carl Bushby's 9 Troop managed to get very close to Second Lieutenant Guillermo Koch's 3rd Platoon, but the British attack was beaten off by rifle and machinegun fire - indeed the British platoon commander in 7 Troop, Lieutenant Paul Allen and Marine Wayne McGregor, ended up triggering anti-personnel mines.

More than 30 Argentinian dead were counted in the Tumbledown sector (Sector Bronze), and Brigadier Tony Wilson later wrote: "The enemy was not inept and frightened. Nor was he badly equipped and starving ... His defensive positions were well sighted and well constructed. He fought with skill and bravery."[156]

On the night of 13/14 June, the 7th Regimental Commander called on Major Guillermo Rubén Berazay (the Operations Officer of the 3rd Regiment ) to repell 2 PARA that had captured a large part of Wireless Ridge. Captain Rubén Oscar Zunino's A Company 3rd Regiment took up the task but this attack failed despite "quite a sporting effort"[157] on the part of his 1st Rifle Platoon (First Lieutenant Victor Rodriguez-Perez) and 3rd Rifle Platoon (Second Lieutenant Carlos Javier Aristegui) and 81mm Mortar Platoon (Lieutenant José Luis Dobroevic). Captain Zunino's company withdrew under covering fire provided by the 2nd Rifle Platoon (Lieutenant Horacio Alejandro Mones-Ruiz) and B Battery (under Second Lieutenant Juan Gabino-Suárez) from the 4th Airborne Artillery Group while Sergeant Ugo René Dominguez from Aristegui's platoon[158]gathered some 30 soldiers and NCOs[159]to recover their dead and wounded in the Argentinian counterattack for which he was decorated. In all, A Company 3rd Regiment suffered 4 killed and 23 wounded in the counterattack before Berazay redeployed them to an area near Felton Stream where they were to shield Gabino-Suárez's gunners from 2 PARA.

The inevitable daylight counterattack on the part of the 7th Regiment followed, in which Privates Vicente Bruno and Tomás Szumilo took part and the 50 or so Argentinians involved that the second-in-command of the regiment, Major Carlos Eduardo Carrizo-Salvadores had gathered with the help of military chaplain José Fernández assigned to RI Mec 7, were beaten back that morning and forced back into the town.

The 10th Brigade's Operation Officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Alfredo Eugenio Dalton, drove his Land Rover jeep into Moody Brook Valley to the west of Stanley and took command of what now looked to become a major urban engagement while Major Carrizo-Salvadores, assumed command of the defence of Government House after Captain José Ramón Negretti's 3rd Assault Section 601st Commando Company had been sent along with the 181st Military Police Company to block all entry into the capital and shoot on sight the spanish-speaking SAS personnel reported to be mixed with Argentinian troops and giving out incorrect orders.[160] Private Horacio Javier Benitez from A/RI Mec 3, who had been shot in the head and left for dead after the counterattack to regain Wireless Ridge, was literally plucked from a pile of corpses outside Government House and revived by Sergeant Ugo Dominguez. [161]

Brigadier-General Mario Menéndez, the Military Governor and overall commander of the Argentinan forces had earlier on visited the local hospital and in an interview aired on Argentinian television station C5N said that the sight of the many wounded and the military surgeons busy at work on them, left an indelible mark on him.[162]Private Gustavo Luzardo wounded during the final counterattack on Mount Longdon caught the attention of Brigadier-General Menéndez who upon obtaining more details from Luzardo, saluted the soldier and promised him that the fighting would continue, much to the great satisfaction of the wounded but still defiant soldier.[163]

Despite defeat, the 7th Regiment had distinguished itself during the fighting for Mount Longdon and Wireless Ridge, which would earn the unit a battle honour on the regimental colours. The sacrifice for this defence had been high: 36 killed and 152 wounded.[164]

On 14 June, Brigadier-General Mario Menéndez surrendered in spite of orders from Leopoldo Galtieri to continue fighting. The British had won their race against 'General Winter' by the narrowest of margins. At the end of the day, a heavy snow was falling and the wind was gusting at speeds up to one hundred miles per hour.[165]

The British units took over the buildings commandeered by the Argentinians, some of which had been booby-trapped. Local fireman Lewis Clifton describes how the infrastructures of Port Stanley broke under the extra strain of accommodating the British troops and processing thousands of Argentine prisoners of war awaiting repatriation: "The place just couldn't take it. There was only sporadic electricity and water and the sanitation system collapsed. The streets were ankle-deep in human waste. The stench was awful, really awful, and we were all suffering from what we called Galtieri's revenge. He lost the war but left us ill."[166]

Water was scarce, since the town's main pumping station had been hit by naval gunfire in the mountain battles[167], forcing soldiers suffering from diarrhea to relieve themselves in bathtubs, chest of drawers and the back streets of Stanley in the face of sudden bowel movements and with toilets no longer working.[168]

Lieutenant-Colonel Nick Vaux along with a company commander and sergeant-major from 42 COMMANDO were determined to seize the battle flags of the 5th Marine Battalion marching to their assembly point prior to evacuation. To their chagrin , the Argentinian Marines poured petrol on their flags and burned them to ashes before the eyes of all present.[169]

It was a bitter RI 25 that marched into captivity on 17 June with Lieutenant-Colonel Mohamed Alí Seineldín at first planning to cut off all communications with 10th Brigade HQ and fighting till the bitter end in around Stanley Airbase.[170] Determined to keep their honour intact, RI 25's A Company (under 33-year-old First Lieutenant Carlos Federico Dominguez-Lacreu) marched in parade formation into Port Stanley, followed by the rest of the regiment, all the while being filmed by British cameramen[171], with the regiment repatriated on the ocean liner 'Canberra'.[172]

From 19 to 26 June, 9,896 Argentinian prisoners of war were released and transported on British and Argentinian ships directly to the Argentinian ports of Puerto Madryn, Ushuaia and Bahia Blanca. Second Lieutenant Aldo Franco who had covered with his platoon the retreat of B/RI Mec 6 from Two Sisters and Tumbledown, returned to the mainland aboard the Argentinian hospital ship 'Almirante Irizar' and was able to use the ship's communications in order to call home and tell his Italian-born grandmother who picked up the phone for his family not to worry that he had survived the war.[173] British war correspondent accompanied them on their repatriation. The Argentinian Army Green Berets aboard the 'Canberra' disembarked at Puerto Madryn on 19 June, and marched down the gangplank to polite claps on the part of the military reception committee.[174]During the campaign, Major Rico's 602nd Commando Company had taken part in twelve operations, losing 5 killed and 10 wounded or injured.

The Falklands campaign had proven costly for both sides. Of the total of 237 Argentinian Army soldiers, Marines, Air Force anti-aircraft gunners and National Gendarmerie Commandos killed and almost 1,500 who had been wounded in the ground fighting, 66 in the 10th Brigade had been killed with 370 wounded.[175]

The welcome the 10th Brigade received when they arrived in Puerto Madryn was tremendous, and it was extra great for Second Lieutenant Franco as he soon met his future wife in the city of Mercedes that had written to him on the islands as a pen pal.[176] Not all were fortunate in their homecoming, with Private Marcelo Di Sciullo, the radio operator in Augusto La Madrid's 3rd Rifle Platoon B Company 6th Regiment, losing his father overwhelmed with emotions to a sudden heart attack right in the middle of a family get together to celebrate his return.[177]In 2019, former sergeant Rolando Spizuoco wrote an open letter in the El Chubut newspaper thanking the people of Puerto Madryn in which he recalled the women receiving them with open arms and bread buns and caressing their hands with the returning soldiers in turn giving them their worn out mittens, scarves, balaclavas, etcetera as a memento.[178]

Many veterans of the 10th Brigade, then junior and field-grade officers, later played an important part in the bloody recapture of the 3rd Regiment Barracks in the suburb of La Tablada in January 1989 from left-wing guerrillas from the All For The Fatherland Movement and the ensuing national stand-to alert: Aldo Eugenio Franco (wounded in the action[179]), Augusto Esteban La Madrid[180], Jorge Halperín, Omar Giménez among others.

"If I were to explain the list of tasks we carried out during the campaign", wrote Lieutenant-Colonel Eugenio Dalton who became Director of the Argentinian National Security Agency in 1989 in the wake of the attack, " it would be a very extensive list indeed, but I can attest that the commander of the Port Stanley/Puerto Argentino Battle Group worked extremely hard, with very little rest or relaxation, and, in my case, from the operations tactical centre, mindful of anything that could happen in the area of operations".[181]

The young Argentinian platoon commanders and company commanders who fought in the 'Malvinas' were to lead regiments in the 1990s, and many of them rose to the most senior positions in the Argentinian Army.

In 2019, Diego Carlos Arreseigor a former platoon commander in the 10th Mechanized Engineer Company, in a reconciliation move returned the helmet he had found of Private Alexander Shaw, who was killed on Mount Longdon, to his sister Susan Shaw, with both meeting in person and exchanging their life experiences.[182]

References

  1. Argentine Fight for the Falklands, Martin Middlebrook, p. 51, Pen & Sword, 2003
  2. https://www.malvinense.com.ar/smalvi/0109/1075.html Testimonio de un Veterano, sus vivencias en la Guerra de Malvinas
  3. MANUEL VILLEGAS en Junín (Los valores de Malvinas, available on YouTube)
  4. Malvinas | Los valientes de Baldini (available on YouTube)
  5. Two Sides of Hell, Vincent Bramley, p. ?, Bloomsbury Publishing, 1995
  6. Malvinas en Primera Persona - Mis Entrevistas - SC 62 Vicente "Tito" Bruno (available on YouTube
  7. With regards to well-known Italo-Argentinian fallen conscripts, we have Private Ricardo Mario Gurrieri (KIA on 25 May, Argentinian National Day) from the 601st Air Defence Artillery Regiment (GADA 601). His father José Gurrieri who fought in the Italian Army even wrote a book Del Africa a Las Malvinas.
  8. Two Sides of Hell, Vincent Bramley, p. 9, Bloomsbury Publishing, 1995
  9. Malvinas | Los valientes de Baldini (available on YouTube)
  10. Así lucharon, Carlos M. Turolo, p 280, Editorial Sudamericana, 1982
  11. Two Sides of Hell, Vincent Bramley, p. ?, Bloomsbury Publishing, 1995
  12. Two Sides of Hell, Vincent Bramley, p. ?, Bloomsbury Publishing, 1995
  13. Malvinas | Los valientes de Baldini (available on YouTube)
  14. Szumilo: "A la guerra la pongo a la par de otros golpes"
  15. Two Sides of Hell, Vincent Bramley, p. ?, Bloomsbury Publishing, 1995
  16. "Los soldados tenían la posibilidad de bañarse, por cuanto en Puerto Argentino los ingenieros habían construído una ducha que operaba con agua salada extraída directamente de la bahía. Toda unidad podía tener acceso a ese baño." Malvinas a sangre y fuego, Nicolás Kasanzew, p. 35, Editorial Abril, 1982
  17. "As regards the number of night vision sights and goggles that Carrizo's men had that night, our navy managed to find someone in the United States who sold 100 sights and 100 pairs of goggles and they were sent to the Falkland Islands at the end of May or the beginning of June or the beginning of June, when the fighting on land had already begun. Rear-Admiral Edgardo Otero, who commanded the navy component on the islands, ordered that the Marines were to keep half of them and the other half would be distributed among the army units." Falklands Hero: Ian McKay–The last VC of the 20th Century, Jon Cooksey, Casemate Publishers, 2012
  18. "Llegamos a Malvinas aproximadamente a las 10 de la mañana, luego se llevó a cabo una exposición en el ex cuartel de los marines (Moody Brook) donde el General Daher (Comandante de la X Brigada) tenía su comando. En la misma estuvo presente el General Menéndez quien hizo la introducción." No Vencidos: Relato de Las Operaciones Navales en el Conflicto Del Atlántico Sur, Horacio Mayorga, p. 119, Planeta, 1998
  19. "Esa noche, en el "casino" improvisado en Moody Brook, antiguo cuartel de los "marines" ingleses, junto a oficiales, suboficiales y soldados argentinos festejamos Pascua de Resurrección. Sencillas palabras de un Teniente Coronel, un trozo de un gigantesco huevo de pascua llegado desde el continente y un brindis con vino francés proveniente de las bodegas de los "marines" sellaron este festejo que coincidía con el inicio del bloque naval." Alerta Roja, Eduardo Rotondo, p. 3, Baipress, 1982
  20. "3rd Infantry Regiment was allocated two warehouses in Stanley to rest the men at 200 per day; there was, of course, a huge difference between living in the bunkers compared to the relative safety and comfort of the town." 9 Battles To Stanley, Nick Van Der Bijl, p. 81, Pen & Sword, 2014
  21. Speaking Out: Untold Stories from the Falklands War, Michael Bilton & Peter Kosminsky, p. 185, Andre Deutsch, 1989
  22. MANUEL VILLEGAS en Junín (Los valores de Malvinas, available on YouTube)
  23. "¡De pie soldados, están tocando el Himno!": el héroe y pianista de Malvinas que, prisionero de los ingleses, ejecutó la canción patria para sus compañeros
  24. Speaking Out: Untold Stories from the Falklands War, Michael Bilton & Peter Kosminsky, p. 192, Andre Deutsch, 1989
  25. Malvinas Contrahistoria, Héctor Rubén Simeoni, p. ?, Editorial Inédita, 1984
  26. 5° CAMPAMENTO MALVINERO MOV. JOVENES POR MALVINAS: CHARLA VGM WALTER PINTOS RI 4 (available on YouTube)
  27. GUERRA RUSIA UCRANIA | Marcelo Llambías Veterano de Malvinas(available on You Tube)
  28. Guerra de Malvinas-Ex soldado Marcelo Llambías (available on You Tube)
  29. "Esta es mi historia" - VGM Marcelo Llambías (available on YouTube)
  30. Marcelo Llambias Pravaz Malvinas, Corazón De Mi Patria, Malvinas en la Radio (available online)
  31. The Fight for the Malvinas: The Argentine Forces in the Falklands War, Martin Middlebrook, p. 225, Penguin, 1990
  32. [https://en.mercopress.com/2007/06/12/argentine-conscripts-re-live-falklands-nightmare Argentine conscripts re-live Falklands' nightmare]
  33. Capitán Jorge R. Farinella: Con el Tte 1ro D' Aloia nos encontrábamos con un misil SAM 7 cada uno que la noche anterior, yo había traído y a la luz de una vela habíamos aprendido teóricamente a usar debajo de una lona. Nuevamente entraban en picada dos aviones disparando sus ametralladoras y lanzando sus bombas; desde nuestras improvisadas posiciones abrimos fuego con todo lo que teníamos. Los misiles que son un arma tremendamente eficaz, y normalmente por cada uno que se dispara se derriba un avión, siempre que el apuntador tenga un mínimo de experiencia para usarlos. Y eso nos faltaba. Hay que disparar de pie y desde un costado de la dirección de ataque del enemigo. Ambos estábamos parados en la dirección del fuego, y entre el esfuerzo por mantenernos en el lugar -que era descubierto- la falta de experiencia y la mala ubicación, nuestra acción fue ineficaz, no así la de las 12,7 y los fusileros que dieron en uno de los aviones que incendiado comenzó a perder altura mientras trataba de sobrevolar por la costa y se retiraron. Volveremos!, Jorge R. Farinella, p.96, Editorial Rosario, 1984
  34. "From 1 June, 4th Infantry Regiment, on Two Sisters and Mount Harriet, was given permission by their commanding officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Diego Soria, to use their US C ration packs, which helped to raise morale and keep the soldiers fit." 9 Battles to Stanley, Nick Van Der Bijl, p. 155, Pen & Sword, 2014
  35. Dos hermanos fueron a la guerra, pero solo uno regresó
  36. Así lucharon, Carlos M. Turolo, p 48, Editorial Sudamericana, 1982
  37. Así lucharon, Carlos M. Turolo, p 48, Editorial Sudamericana, 1982
  38. "Durante el bombardeo del 2 de junio, particularmente intenso sobre el radar RASIT, el cual al recibir un impacto cercano terminó por destruir el cable y su conector ,pieza fundamental e irremplazable para el funcionamiento del radar. Desde entonces, el Cabo 1º Gacitua, su operador, y el Tte 1º D´Aloia ,que también pasaba horas frente a la consola, intentaron hacer todo lo posible para ponerlo a funcionar de nuevo, pero no lo consiguieron." Malvinas en Primera Línea, Lautaro Giménez-Corbalán, pp. 256-257 Editorial Edivern, 2017
  39. VGM Carlos Cortez. Programa "Unidos Como En Malvinas" (available on YouTube)
  40. Historias de Malvinas a 40 años de la guerra conducido por Horacio Embón (available on YouTube)
  41. Entrevista Veterano Malvinas parte 01, Grupo Feedback (available on YouTube)
  42. Entrevista a veterano de Malvinas, Marcelo Tomisaki (available on YouTube)
  43. "El combate del puente Murrell" (available on YouTube)
  44. "Malvinas en Primera Persona" - Mis Entrevistas - Cabo Juan Antonio Barroso (available in Youtube)
  45. Malvinas: Contrahistoria, Héctor Rubén Simeoni, p. 84, Editorial Inédita, 1984
  46. The Fight for the Malvinas: The Argentine Forces in the Falklands War, Martin Middlebrook, p. 225, Penguin, 1990
  47. "¡Victoria o Muerte! - Tu Padre Te Bendicira" CARTA DEL PADRE DEL SUBTENIENTE AUGUSTO LA MADRID (available in Youtube)
  48. The Fight for the Malvinas: The Argentine Forces in the Falklands War, Martin Middlebrook, p. 238, Penguin, 1990
  49. Aldo Franco, el veterano de Malvinas que se reinventó y hoy tiene un proyecto solidario
  50. La batalla por las Malvinas relatada por uno de los héroes tucumanos
  51. "Malvinas en Primera Persona" - Mis Entrevistas - Cabo Juan Antonio Barroso (available in Youtube)
  52. "While we in 45 Commando were all heavily engaged on our mountain, the battle for Two Sisters continued out at sea. The knock-on effect of all the delays meant that HMS Glamorgan was still being asked for fire missions when she should have been sailing away from the coast before daylight and safety from air attack. Captain Mike Barrow, knowing that 45 Commando were fighting for their lives on Two Sisters, decided that he should stay as long as he possibly could to support us." The Yompers: With 45 Commando in the Falklands War, Ian Gardiner, p. ?, Pen & Sword, 2012
  53. "Just prior to Yankee Company moving forward, a .50 Browning machine gun at the western end continued to fire. Major Davis told one of his Carl Gustav 84mm anti-tank teams to move out to his right to improve their angle of fire and engage the .50, which they did, silencing the gun successfully ... Andy Shaw and 5 Troop were now the foremost troop ... A machine gun opened up close by from the left flank and they dived for cover. Corporal Bell shouted to Marine Jock Shaw to deal with it. Shaw carefully put his fag down on a rock, extended his 66mm launcher and fired. The gun fell silent and they moved on. It now began to snow; they also started to come under mortar fire ... the rounds very quickly started to arrive closer and closer until 5 Troop were engulfed in a barrage of hell." The Yompers, Ian R. Gardiner, p. 182, Pen & Sword, 2012
  54. "They had been held for a time by a determined sniper. In the dark, locating him was difficult, and the man constantly moved anyway. But some Marines knew he was close. In cover, one Bootneck shouted to the sniper, 'You couldn't hit a cow's arse with a shovel.' It was not true, but caused an eerie ripple of laughter across the position." Don't Cry For Me Sergeant-Major, Robert McGowan, Jeremy Hands, p. 242, Futura, 1983
  55. A Coy Account – Major David Collett, OC A Coy
  56. MIS HERMANOS DE LA GUERRA, segunda parte, Por el Coronel VGM Vilgre La Madrid (available online)
  57. Argentine Fight for the Falklands, Martin Middlebrook, p. 255, Pen & Sword, 2003
  58. Malvinas | Los valientes de Baldini (available on YouTube)
  59. ‘You never get over it, but I have a double problem. I was fighting against Brits, people who were as good as family' The Scotsman (available online)
  60. Una interminable película de terror
  61. Malvinas | Los valientes de Baldini (available on YouTube)
  62. Los Chicos de la Guerra: Hablan los soldados que estuvieron en Malvinas, Daniel Kon, p. 24, Galerna, 1982
  63. Malvinas | Los valientes de Baldini (available on YouTube)
  64. Malvinas | Fuego contra fuego en Monte Longdon (available on You Tube)
  65. According to Private Jorge Abud from 10th Brigade HQ: "There were thousands of rumours. I was even told that some English Commandos had infiltrated Argentine troops, that they spoke perfect Spanish, and that some had even made a company retreat, saying that they had orders from the commander. I don't know if it was true, but a lot of people in the town were afraid there were English mixed in among us. Until then, when someone approached we said, 'halt', and asked for identification. But there was so much fear that the system was no good anymore." Los Chicos de la Guerra, Daniel Kon, pp. 102-103, New English Library, 1983
  66. "The Flight-Sergeant told me that some civilians and soldiers, apparently 3 Para, drinking in the Globe Hotel had decided to sort out Argentinians waiting to be screened, but the prisoners they chose were mainly from the 7th Infantry Regiment, which was largely recruited from tough working class neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires ... A tense situation escalted when several smoke grenades were thrown and the handbrake of a Panhard armoured car was released and directed at the prisoners." My Friends, The Enemy, Nick Van Der Bijl, Amberley Publishing Limited, 2020
  67. José Luis Salina/ Relatos de Malvinas (available on YouTube)
  68. “Relatos de Malvinas” Capítulo 2, Triple Media Info (available on You Tube)
  69. “Relatos de Malvinas” Capítulo 2, Triple Media Info (available on You Tube)
  70. Alejandro Marcelo Corso / Relatos de Malvinas (available on YouTube)
  71. Alejandro Marcelo Corso / Relatos de Malvinas (available on YouTube)
  72. "Al comenzar la batalla, el “ Turco " puso a un corneta a tocar el clarín desde una elevación del terreno." Malvinas: A Sangre y Fuego, Nicolás Kasanzew, p. 22, Editorial Abril, 1982
  73. ENTREVISTAMOS AL CR VGM (R) GUILLERMO LAFFERRIERE del RI 25 (available on YouTube)
  74. "The helicopters assisting the ships in correction of fire were taken on by the Argentine defences with a Lynx hit by machine-gun fire and a Wessex scared off by a Tigercat missile fire from Port Stanley." Air Defence Artillery in Combat, 1972 to the Present, p. 87, Present, Mandeep Singh, Air World, 2020
  75. José Luis Salina/ Relatos de Malvinas (available on YouTube)
  76. José Adrián Luna / Relatos de Malvinas / Relatos de Malvinas (available on YouTube)
  77. “Relatos de Malvinas” Capítulo 2, Triple Media Info (available on You Tube)
  78. Víctor Antonio Ventura / Relatos de Malvinas (available on YouTube)
  79. Nolberto Eduardo Filippi / Relatos de Malvinas (available on You Tube)
  80. Jorge Antonio Urteaga / Relatos de Malvinas (available on YouTube)
  81. José Adrián Luna / Relatos de Malvinas / Relatos de Malvinas (available on YouTube)
  82. “Relatos de Malvinas” Capítulo 2, Triple Media Info (available on You Tube)
  83. “Relatos de Malvinas” Capítulo 2, Triple Media Info (available on You Tube)
  84. Malvinas: Un Sentimiento, Mohamed Alí Seineldín, p. ?, Editorial Sudamericana, 1999
  85. Nolberto Eduardo Filippi / Relatos de Malvinas (available on You Tube)
  86. "Incorporated into Ca PM 181 was a 40-strong dog unit complete with German Shepherd dogs. When these were captured the British wanted to keep the dogs, until it was realized they only understood Spanish!" Argentine Forces in the Falklands, Nicholas van Der Bijl & Paul Hannon, p. 37, Osprey, 1992
  87. Argentine Forces in the Falklands, Nicholas van Der Bijl & Paul Hannon, p. 24, Osprey, 1992
  88. "Malvinas en Primera Persona" - Mis Entrevistas - PARTE 1, Tte Cnl (R) Hugo Quiroga (available in Youtube)
  89. A 37 AÑOS DE LA GESTA DE MALVINAS Un héroe matancero, José Marcelino Rodríguez
  90. Malvinas: El Tronar de los Obuses, Juan José Mancini , p. ?, AMT, 2014
  91. "under covering fire, Nos. 4 and 5 Platoons withdrew, but another man was killed and others wounded in the process. At that point, Lieutenant Colonel Hew Pike and his 'R' Group arrived on the scene and Major Argue briefed him on the situation. Shortly afterwards, Company Sergeant-Major Weeks reported that both platoons had pulled back to a safe distance and that all the wounded had been recovered. The dead, however, had to be left where they had fallen. Meanwhile, on the southern slope of the objective, the wounded from No. 6 Platoon were being evacuated while the rest remained under cover of the rock." Peter Harclerode, PARA!: Fifty Years of The Parachute Regiment, p. 354, Arms & Armour Press, 1993
  92. "Malvinas en Primera Persona" - Mis Entrevistas - PARTE 1, Tte Cnl (R) Hugo Quiroga (available in Youtube)
  93. El relato de la guerra, en primera persona
  94. Gustavo Placente | Indagación a 18 militares por torturas en Malvinas (available on YouTube)
  95. The Sinking of the Belgrano, Desmond Rice & Arthur Gavshon, pp. 46-48, Secker & Warburg, 1984
  96. The Battle for Goose Green: A Battle is Fought to be Won, Mark Adkin , p. ?, Leo Cooper, 1992
  97. 5th Infantry Brigade in the Falklands, Nicholas Van Der Bijl & David Aldea , p. ?, Pen & Sword, 2003
  98. "Un certero impacto alcanzó el jeep que conducía la radio del jefe de la Compañía, destruyéndola por completo, con lo que el teniente primero Manresa quedó privado de comunicación con su base." Comandos en Acción: El Ejército en Malvinas, Isidoro Ruiz Moreno, p. 225, Emecé Editores, 1986
  99. Speaking Out: Untold Stories from the Falklands War, Michael Bilton & Peter Kosminsky, p. 148, Andre Deutsch, 1989
  100. The first attempts at clearing them had little impact. After we laid down some fire on each trench, Neil Dance's half section went forward and threw L2 grenades into it. These proved to be worse than useless and the Argentinians were soon firing back at us with machine-guns and FN rifles. With the weight of fire they threw up, who knows how none of us got killed ... Having no luck with the L2 grenades, some of the lads began throwing Willie Petes (white phosphorus grenades) into the Argie trenches. In a blinding flash, the chemicals burned and we heard the screams. CQB: Close Quarter Battle, Mike Curtis, p. 118, Random House, 1998
  101. La muerte de un coronel británico en Malvinas
  102. "But the heroic sacrifice of these brave men proved not to have been in vain. At 9.30 am the British A Company broke off the attack and began to withdraw. "H" Jones, fuming, went up to examine the situation and ordered Major Farrar-Hockly to try outflanking to the left of the defenders. It was a fatal gesture. While he was leading from the front, an Argentine sniper found his mark, dropping Colonel Jones into the Goose Green mud at about 10.30 am local time." Blood and Mud at Goose Green, David Aldea & Don Darnell, Military History, April 2002
  103. "The Argentine corporal in that trench, Osvaldo Olmos, remembers seeing Jones charge past him alone, leaving his followers in the gully below. Olmos said he was astonished at Jones's reckless bravery: his shots, fired from behind, may have been the ones that brought Jones down." 20th Century Battlefields, Dan Snow, Peter Snow, p. 282, Random House, 2012
  104. Victory in the Falklands, Nick Van Der Bijl, p. 114, Pen & Sword, 2007
  105. South A tlantic Conflict of 1982, Nora Kinzer Stewart , p. 101, U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, 1988
  106. Falklands The Islanders War (available on YouTube)
  107. Juan Roberto Ledesma, uno de los valientes guerreros charatenses que dejó su vida en las Islas Malvinas
  108. The Primary Forward Air Controller, commando-trained Flight Lieutenant Dennis Marshal-Hasdell attached to 42 Commando, remembers: "We were separated from our heavy bergens with the radios and all our gear. The patrol was spread over quite a large area, with lots of shouting, noise and firing going on. The Marines abandoned all their equipment, and although no one told us, it became clear that we were to withdraw. With no information and the likelihood of having to fight our way out, Dave Greedus and I decided to abandon our equipment, destroying as much as we could. The two radio sets (HF and UHF) were tough enough, but the HAZE unit of the laser target marker was designed to withstand the weight of a tank!" The Scars of War, Hugh McManners, p. 238, HarperCollins, 1993
  109. “Encontrar un objeto en el suelo y saber que perteneció a un soldado Argentino que peleó por su patria te hace sentir diferentes sensaciones”
  110. " The Landrover was eventually found by 2 Troop and the code books and radios were recovered and duly returned to their owners. The rations and the booze that they also found were not. The Landrover was peppered with shrapnel and there were around 10 shell holes in the surrounding area, and it was clearly still under observation because the patrol came under accurate artillery fire as they withdrew." The Yompers: With 45 Commando in the Falklands War, Ian Gardiner, Pen & Sword, 2012
  111. "La noche del 8 al 9, nuevamente el Sargento Nista (operador del radar) me informó sobre la presencia del enemigo, quien estaba ubicado en el mismo lugar que la vez anterior, pero ahora, separados en grupos: a 1.500 m el primero, 2.000 m el segundo, 3.000 m el tercero y 4.000 m el cuarto, tomadas estas distancias desde la posición del radar". Martín Antonio Balza, Malvinas: Relatos de Soldados, p. 80, Círculo Militar, 1986
  112. "On the evening of 8 June 3 PARA dispatched three large fighting patrols to Mount Longdon. Each comprised a half-platoon; one was accompanied by a guide from D (Patrols) Company and the other two by Falklands islanders Terry Peck and Vernon Steen. The patrols' mission was to locate suitable approaches to the objective and to test enemy reactions to probing. Unfortunately, however, the combination of a fine night and bright moonlight prevented them from penetrating enemy positions." Task Force: The Illustrated History of the Falklands War, David Reynolds, p. 179, Sutton, 2002
  113. "It was unfortunate that the previous night's patrol carried out by two troops,one each from Z and Y Companies, had been forced back by a heavy artillery barrage". The Falklands War: The Day by Day Record from Invasion to Victory, p. 314, Marshall Cavendish Limited, 1983
  114. "But perhaps his greatest single asset was the RASIT radar set, with which he could scan the countryside at night to reveal any hostile troop movement within several thousand metres. It proved extremely effective in pinpointing Para patrols as they probed the defences during the nights prior to the attack." The Last Eleven: Winners of the Victoria Cross since the Second World War, Mark Adkin, p. 196, Pen & Sword, 1991
  115. "Otra acción, esta vez de la 602, al mando de su propio jefe, el mayor Rico, se produjo ... delante de la posición propia. En ella chocan con una fracción del SAS-Special Air Service- y, aunque los nuestros se encuentran en inferioridad de número que los comandos ingleses, no sólo lo baten y ponen en fuga sino que les capturan material que es traido de regreso a Puerto Argentino. Recuerdo que la televisión argentina filmó ese material capturado." La Guerra de Las Malvinas, p. 645, Editorial Oriente, 1987
  116. "El regimiento tuvo arriba de veinticinco heridos y dos muertos en este fuego de preparación". Carlos M. Túrolo, Así lucharon, p. 78, Editorial Sudamericana, 1982
  117. Malvinas | Los valientes de Baldini (available on YouTube)
  118. Entrevista a Santiago Mambrín - Malvinas Causa Central (available on You Tube)
  119. Entrevista a Santiago Mambrín - Malvinas Causa Central (available on You Tube)
  120. The Battle For Mount Longdon | A Falklands War Special | James O'Connell (available on YouTube)
  121. Entrevista a Santiago Mambrín - Malvinas Causa Central (available on You Tube)
  122. Segunda Charla Virtual en el marco de la Cátedra Libre Malvinas (available on YouTube)
  123. Entrevista a Pablo Di Meglio - Ex Combatiente de Guerra de Malvinas (available on YouTube)
  124. Operation Corporate, Martin Middlebrook, p. 333, Viking, 1985
  125. MALVINAS 20 AÑOS DESPUES: HISTORIAS DE LOS QUE PELEARON EN LA GUERRA TENIENTE CORONEL ENRIQUE NEIROTTI
  126. Malvinas | "Los doce del patíbulo" que arrollaron a los ingleses (available on YouTube)
  127. Malvinas | Fuego contra fuego en Monte Longdon (available on YouTube)
  128. De los 46 hombres de mi sección, tuvimos seis fallecidos en combate y 21 heridos; ninguno de ellos, que eran soldados del Servicio Militar Obligatorio, se retiró del campo de batalla y todos dieron lo mejor de sí “Malvinas: 40 años”, la emotiva presentación del libro que rescata las historias de 22 protagonistas de la guerra
  129. "Eran casi las siete y media cuando llegaron al pie del Longdon, recién ahí pudieron reunirse todos. La sección de Castañeda fue la última en dejar el monte; aunque el día 12 siguieron bajando soldados argentinos aislados, que se habían escondido. Rápidamente el teniente se trasladó al puesto comando del jefe de Regimiento. Y en el lugar se topó, no sin asombro, con el mayor Carrizo. –¿Novedades, teniente Castañeda? –¡Tres muertos, tres desaparecidos y veintiún heridos, mi mayor!" Del capítulo "El contraataque de Castañeda", Malvinas a Sangre y Fuego, Nicolás Kasanzew, Editorial Argentinidad, 2016
  130. Radio Demos/Raúl Eugenio Daneri Tte.Cnel. VGM del Regimiento de Infantería n 7 (available on YouTube)
  131. Falleció por coronavirus un excombatiente de Malvinas condecorado
  132. Private Southall, 3 Para - Memories of the Falklands War (available on YouTube)
  133. Malvinas | Los valientes de Baldini (available on YouTube)
  134. The Red Devils, G.G. Norton, p. 236, Pen & Sword, 1984
  135. Malvinas: Delitos de Lesa Humanidad
  136. 'Cannon Fodder in a War We Couldn't Win'
  137. Julia Solanas Pacheco, Malvinas: Y Ahora Qué, Páginas 32-43,Editorial Plus Ultra, 1996
  138. Ernesto Alonso: "Volveremos a Malvinas de la mano de América Latina"
  139. "In the afternoon I went up to look at the battlefield with Colonel Whitehead. He said the strenght of the enemy positons was remarkable, great piles of rock from which they fired heavy machine-guns, bazookas and grenades, and there were stacks of projectiles for the bazookas still left. In the sangars there were thick stains of black where the marines' rockets had exploded." Eyewitness Falklands, Robert Fox, p. 256, Methuen, 1982
  140. Aldo Franco, el veterano de Malvinas que se reinventó y hoy tiene un proyecto solidario
  141. Argentine Forces in the Falklands, Nicholas van Der Bijl & Paul Hannon, p. 14, Osprey, 1992
  142. "While we in 45 Commando were all heavily engaged on our mountain, the battle for Two Sisters continued out at sea. The knock-on effect of all the delays meant that HMS Glamorgan was still being asked for fire missions when she should have been sailing away from the coast before daylight and safety from air attack. Captain Mike Barrow, knowing that 45 Commando were fighting for their lives on Two Sisters, decided that he should stay as long as he possibly could to support us." The Yompers: With 45 Commando in the Falklands War, Ian Gardiner, p. ?, Pen & Sword, 2012
  143. "La realidad de la guerra supera toda ficción"
  144. "Y de pronto, el primer impacto emocional. Fue a las 04.45 cuando se produjo el informe del mayor Jaimet que decía que los efectivos en el Dos Hermanas no resistían el ataque enemigo y que iniciarían el repliegue hacia su subunidad, comunicación que había recibido por estafeta." Malvinas: La Defensa de Puerto Argentino, Oscar Luis Jofre, Félix Roberto Aguiar, p. 223, Editorial Sudamericana, 1987
  145. The Battle for the Falklands, Max Hastings & Simon Jenkins, p. 296, Michael Joseph, 1983
  146. The Winter War: The Falklands, Patrick Joseph Bishop & John Witherow, p. 125, Quartet Books, 1982
  147. The Conquest of North Africa, 1940-1943, Alexander Clifford, p.197, Little, Brown, 1943
  148. Operation Corporate, Martin Middlebrook, p. ?, Viking, 1985
  149. Malvinas: La guerra íntima (2005 TV Documentary directed by Ricardo Kon)
  150. According to Sergeant Mac French, "They tried going over the top first, but the incoming fire was too heavy so they went back behind the peat and waited for more artillery to soften them up." The Scars of War, Hugh McManners, p. 185, HarperCollins, 1993
  151. The Scars of War, Hugh McManners, p. 244, HarperCollins, 1993
  152. War in the Falklands British Marines Fighting against Argentine Marines (available in Youtube)
  153. The Fight for the Malvinas, Martin Middlebrook, pp. 260-262, Penguin, 1990
  154. Batallón 5: El Batallón de Infantería de Marina No. 5 en la Guerra de las Malvinas, Emilio Villarino, p. 185, Aller Atucha, 1992
  155. "With the coming of day, Argentine marines holding Mount Tumbledown finally broke as the Gurkhas came around their flank to take Mount William." The Royal Navy and the Falklands War, David Brown, p. 332, Pen & Sword, 1987
  156. The Official History of the Falklands Campaign, Volume 2, Lawrence Freedman, p. 627, Routledge, 2004
  157. Operation Corporate: The Falklands War, 1982, Martin Middlebrook, p.371, Viking, 1985
  158. Malvinas y sus protagonistas, En esta ocasión, Matías entrevistó al Suboficial Principal (R) VGM Ugo Rene Domínguez (available online)
  159. El relato de un ex combatiente de Malvinas que emocionó a todos (available on YouTube)
  160. “Era un panorama desolador”, cuenta dicho oficial, “por la retirada de los soldados de los Regimientos, dentro de cuyas filas podían venir ingleses mezclados; una retirada lamentable”. Comandos en Acción: El Ejército en Malvinas, Isidoro Ruiz Moreno, p.378, Emecé Editores, 1986
  161. Fighting Fictions: War, Narrative and National Identity, Kevin Foster, Pluto Press, 1999
  162. C5N - MENENDEZ: DE LA EUFORIA A LA DERROTA (Available on YouTube
  163. Malvinas | "Los doce del patíbulo" que arrollaron a los ingleses (available on YouTube)
  164. La guerra en primera persona
  165. On 14 June, General Menéndez surrendered in spite of orders from Gen. Leopoldo Galtieri, chief of staff and a member of the junta, to continue fighting. The British had won their race against winter by the narrowest of margins. At the end of the day, a heavy snow was falling and the wind was gusting at speeds up to one hundred miles per hour." At the Water's Edge, Theodore Gatchel, p. ?, Naval Institute Press, 2013
  166. The Falklands invasion, by those who were there
  167. "British naval gunfire had destroyed the roof of Port Stanley's water pumping station, causing the valves, filters and pipes to freeze up and split." The Scars of Wars, Hugh McManners, p. 315, HarperCollins, 1993
  168. The Winter War: The Falklands, Patrick Joseph Bishop, John Witherow, p.143, Quartet Books, 1982
  169. "To the Royal Marine's chagrin , the Argentine Marines poured gasoline on their flags and burned them to ashes before the eyes of their enemies." Mates & Muchachos, Nora Kinzer Stewart, p. 105, Brassey's, 1991
  170. According to the OC A Company RI 25:"On June 14 the order came to us: everything is over. You can't fight anymore. Lieutenant-Colonel Seineldín had planned to cut off all communication with Puerto Argentino and there, at the airport, we were going to resist, we would not surrender. Our area was separated from the town by an isthmus." Malvinas Contrahistoria, Héctor Rubén Simeoni, pp. 187-192, Editorial Inédita, 1984
  171. Corte de Manga del Tte. 1º Dominguez Lacreu en Malvinas (available on YouTube)
  172. It was thus a bitter RI 25 that filed into captivity on 14 June; but determined to maintain their pride, they marched in company columns into Stanley, for the first and last time, to be repatriated on the SS Canberra." Argentine Forces in the Falklands, Nick Van Der Bijl, Paul Hannon, p. 51, Osprey, 1992
  173. Subteniente - Aldo Franco - RI 6/Malvinas Banda de Hermanos (available online)
  174. "The atmosphere was frosty. There was almost no sign of emotion until a ripple of polite clapping for the young officers of the Special Forces in their soft-green velvet berets tugged forward in a raffish way." Eyewitness Falklands, Robert Fox, p. 290, Methuen, 1982
  175. 5th Infantry Brigade in the Falklands, Nicholas Van Der Bijl, David Aldea, p.30, Leo Cooper, 2003
  176. Subteniente - Aldo Franco - RI 6/Malvinas Banda de Hermanos (available online)
  177. El HONOR Y LA GLORIA, HUELLAS DE MALVINAS (available on YouTube)
  178. Carta del ex combatiente Rolando Spizuoco recordando “El día que Madryn se quedó sin pan”
  179. Peleó en Malvinas, fue herido en La Tablada y creó una empresa a la que llamó Puerto Argentino
  180. "Los guerrilleros ni siquiera se arrepentían de haber matado a soldados"
  181. Testimonies of Irish-Argentine Veterans of the Falklands / Malvinas War
  182. Un veterano de Malvinas le devolvió un casco a la familia de un militar inglés