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An-32
An-32 of AirMark at Singapore Changi Airport (2011).
Role Transport/Bomber
Design group Antonov
Built by Aviant
First flight 9 July 1976[1]
Status Operational
Primary users Indian Air Force,

Bangladesh Air Force
Ukrainian Air Force

Produced 1976–present
Number built 361[2]
Unit cost
US$ 6–9 mil (2000)[1]
Developed from Antonov An-26

The Antonov An-32 (NATO reporting name: Cline) is a twin-engined turboprop military transport aircraft.

Design and development

The An-32 is basically a re-engined An-26. The launch customer was the Indian Air Force, which ordered this aircraft partly due to good relations between then USSR leader Leonid Brezhnev and then India leader Indira Gandhi. The An-32 is designed to withstand adverse weather conditions better than the standard An-26. The high placement of the engine nacelles above the wing allowed for larger diameter propeller, which are driven by 5,100 hp rated AI-20 turboprop engines, almost twice the power of the An-26's AI-24 powerplants. The price for a newly built An-32 was quoted as being 6–9 million dollars in 2000.[1]

Operational history

The AN-32 has excellent takeoff characteristics under tropical and mountainous (high-altitude) conditions, including hot climates (up to + 55 °C) and from the mountain airfields (up to 4,500 m height) where hot or thin air hampers the powerplant's capability. With this capability, the aircraft is suited to be a multipurpose aircraft with medium tactical military transport roles as well as being used in civil commercial flying. Operating as a cargo transport over the short and medium range air routes, the An-32 is able to air-drop cargo platforms on pallets. The aircraft has also been used as a passenger-only aircraft, ambulance variant, firefighter and for sky-diving or paratroop roles.

Variants

  • An-32 : Twin-engined transport aircraft
  • An-32A : The first civil variant, the majority of the 36 aircraft built were delivered to various MAP and MOM enterprises, for use in transporting assemblies between plants.
  • An-32B : Improved version
  • An-32B-100 : Modernised version of the An32B. MTOW increased to 28.5 tons, payload increased to 7.5 tons.[3]
  • An-32B-110 : New avionics allowing aircraft to be operated by two crew members. Metric (Russian) avionics variant.[4]
  • An-32B-120 : Imperial (non-Russian) avionics variant of An32B-110.[4]
  • An-32B-300 : Version fitted with Allison AE2100D turboprop engines, providing 4,600 hp each.[5]
  • An-32LL (Letyushchaya Laborotoriya flying laboratory): The first prototype, CCCp-46961, converted to a propfan technology testbed with a large eight-bladed propeller in place of the standard AV-68DM on the port engine.
  • An-32MP : Marine Patrol version.[6]
  • An-32P Firekiller : Aerial firefighting version. Special category type certificate granted on 10 March 1995. A total of eight tons of liquid can be discharged from the two external tanks simultaneously or one after the other. Drops are conducted at 40–50 m above ground level and 240 to 260 km/h. Can be used as a cargo aircraft when not fighting fires.[6]
  • An-32V-200 : A tactical transport/cargo aircraft outgrowth from the An-32B-100, with more modern avionics allowing two crew operation. Intended for export, despite reasonable interest few have been sold.
  • An-32 RE : Modernised version of the An32B. MTOW increased to 28.5 tons, payload increased to 7.5 tons.[3] New avionics.

Operators

An-32 operators (countries with only airline operators are in green)

Antonov An-32B of the Indian Air Force at Leh Airbase

SLAF Antonov An-32B

Sun Air Charter An-32 at Lokichogio Airport

Antonov An-32B of the Croatian Air Force

Military operators

At present more than 240 An-32 aircraft are being operated in the countries around the world.

 Angola
 Bangladesh
 Ivory Coast
 Colombia
 Croatia
 Cuba
 Equatorial Guinea
 India
  • Indian Air Force: Bought 125 aircraft, 105 are still in service, entire fleet undergoing modernization. 20 upgraded An-32s has been delivered by Ukrspetsexport. The upgrades of these aircraft have around 25 modern equipment including collision avoidance and enchanced ground proximity warning systems, new satellite navigation, distance measuring equipment, upgraded radio altimeters, new radars with multi functional indicators, plus new oxygen systems and improved crew seats. The rest are being upgraded in India.
 Iraq
 Mexico
 Peru
 Sri Lanka
 Sudan
 Ukraine
  • Ministry of Emergencies (Ukraine): Four An-32P

Former Military operators

An Antonov An-32 cargo aircraft of the Afghan Air Force

 Afghanistan
  • At least six were delivered to the Afghan Air Force from 1987. All remaining aircraft were retired in June 2011.[7]
 Armenia
 Ethiopia
 Jordan
 Libya
 Mexico
  • Mexican Air Force: Four An-32Bs delivered in 1991. Three lost in accidents; the only AN-32B is no longer operational and was to be was replaced by five CASA C-295s.
 Mongolia
 Rwanda
 Tanzania

Civil operators

In August 2006, a total of 56 Antonov An-32 aircraft remain in airline service. Major operators include:

  • Air Pass (four),
  • Alada (three),
  • Libyan Arab Air Cargo (four),
  • Million Air Charter (three),
  • AERCARIBE LTDA (two),
  • Trans-Charter (three) and
  • Selva (four).

Some 29 other airlines operate smaller numbers of the type.[8]

Accidents and Incidents

  • On 25 March 1986, an Indian Air Force An-32 disappeared over the Indian Ocean on a delivery flight from the Soviet Union (via Muscat, Oman.) No trace was ever found of the aircraft or its three crew and four passengers.[9]
  • On 8 January 1996, an An-32 freighter crashed into a crowded marketplace in Kinshasa, Zaire, resulting in the deaths of approximately 237 people on the ground. The crew attempted to abort the takeoff at Kinshasa-N'Dolo Airport after the aircraft failed to gain height. All six crew members survived. Overloading was cited as a possible cause.[10]
  • On March 28, 1998, a Peruvian Air Force Antonov 32 carrying the dual civil/military registration OB-1389/FAP-388 and inbound from Tumbes evacuating 50 people stranded by El Niño-driven floods had an engine failure while approaching Piura. As the aircraft was overloaded, the pilot couldn't keep height and the AN-32 struck three houses of a nearby shantytown and crashed into a canal. While the crew of five survived, 21 passengers died plus one person on the ground.[11]
  • On 10 June 2009, an Indian Air Force, An-32 transport aircraft carrying 13 people crashed shortly after it took off from Mechukha in Arunachal Pradesh, a state bordering China.[12] All the 13 people on board were reported to have been killed. Soon after the crash, India inked a $400 million deal with Ukraine for an An-32 fleet upgrade. This upgrade as reported will extend the life of these transport aircraft by nearly 15 years.[13]

Specifications (An-32)

Orthographic projection of the Antonov An-32.

Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1988–89[14]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 4
  • Capacity: 42 paratroopers/50 passengers/24 Casualties on stretcher with three medical personnel
  • Length: 23.78 m (78 ft 0¾ in)
  • Wingspan: 29.20 m (95 ft 9½ in)
  • Height: 8.75m (28 ft 8½ in)
  • Wing area: 75 m² (807 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 16,800 kg (37,038 lb)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 27,000 kg (59,400 lb)
  • Powerplant: 2 × ZMKB Progress AI-20DM turboprop, 3,812 kW (5,112 ehp) each

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 530 km/h (286 knots, 329 mph)
  • Cruise speed: 470 km/h (254 knots, 292 mph) (econ cruise)
  • Range: 2,500 km (1,350 nmi, 1,553 mi)
  • Service ceiling: 9,500 m (31,165 ft)

See also

References

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Karnozov, Vovick. "Renewed AN-32 in Flight Tests." AeroWorldNet, 16 October 2000.
  2. "Kiev Aviation Plant: 'Aviant', About." aviant.ua. Retrieved: 12 November 2011.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "An32." Antonov.com. Retrieved: 12 November 2011.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Kiev Aviation Plant: 'Aviant' Аn-32B–110/120." aviant.ua. Retrieved: 12 November 2011.
  5. "Kiev Aviation Plant: 'Aviant' – An-32B-300." aviant.ua. Retrieved: 12 November 2011.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "An32P." Antonov.com. Retrieved: 12 November 2011.
  7. "Aerospace Source Book 2007," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 15 January 2007.
  8. Flight International, 3–9 October 2006.
  9. Ranter, Harro and Fabian I. Lujan. "ASN Aircraft accident: Antonov 32 K2729 Jamnagar, India." Aviation Safety Network, 2004. Retrieved: 27 June 2011.
  10. "ASN Aircraft accident: Antonov 32B." Aviation Safety Network, 2004. Retrieved: 27 June 2011.
  11. Glave, Fernando Braschi. "Photo of Antonov 32 OB-1389." Aviation Safety Network, 2004. Retrieved: 17 November 2012.
  12. "IAF plane crash over Arunachal Pradesh." telegraphindia.com. Retrieved: 29 June 2011.
  13. "India inks AN-32 upgrade deal with Ukraine." Times of India. Retrieved: 29 June 2011.
  14. Taylor 1988, pp. 222–225.

Bibliography

  • Taylor, John, W.R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1988–89. London: Jane's Information Group, 1988. ISBN 0-7106-0867-5.

External links

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