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Alexander Sergeyevich Menschikov

Prince Aleksandr Sergeyevich Menschikov (Russian: Александр Серге́евич Меншиков; August 26, 1787 – May 1, 1869, all n.s.) was a Finnish-Russian nobleman, military commander and statesman. He was made adjutant general in 1817 and admiral in 1833.

A great-grandson of Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov, Duke of Ingria, and a cognatic descendant of the Princely House of Galitzine (another of his great-grandfathers was Prince Michael Golitsyn, the military governor of Åbo during the Russian occupation in the Great Northern War). Aleksandr entered the Russian service as attaché to the embassy at Vienna in 1809. He became close with Tsar Alexander I and accompanied him throughout his campaigns against Napoleon. In 1817, Menshikov was appointed acting Quartermaster general of the General Staff. In 1823, he was transferred to the ministry of foreign affairs. Menshikov retired from army service in 1824.

He was appointed head of the Naval Headquarters and cabinet minister by Tsar Nicholas I. He distinguished himself at the Siege of Varna and in 1830 became a member of the State Council. In 1831, Menshikov held the post of Governor-General of Finland. He mainly devoted himself to naval matters. His bad influence on the development of the Russian Navy stalled its technical progress and combat training.

In 1853, Menshikov was sent on a special mission to Constantinople,[1] and when the Crimean War broke out he was appointed commander-in-chief on land and sea. He commanded the Russian army at Alma and Inkerman and showed incompetence and lack of military talent. On February 15, 1855, Menshikov was removed from command, and replaced by Prince Mikhail Dmitrievich Gorchakov. Between December 1855 and April 1856, he held the post of Governor General of Kronstadt and then retired. He died in St. Petersburg.

He was created Prince (Fuerst) in the Finnish nobility, being the only person of the rank of prince to be registered in the Finnish House of Nobility.

The first Finnish steamship Furst Menschikoff was named after him.

See also


  1. Badem, Candan (2010) The Ottoman Crimean War (1853–1856), ISBN 90-04-18205-5, pp. 72–79
  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Encyclopædia Britannica Cambridge University Press 
Political offices
Preceded by
Arseniy Zakrevskiy
Governor-General of Finland
Succeeded by
Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert von Berg
Government offices
Preceded by
Anton Moller
Minister of the Navy
Succeeded by
Ferdinand von Wrangel

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